Skip to main content

Full text of "Encyclopaedia Dictionary Islam Muslim World, etc, Gibb, Kramer, scholars. 13 vols & 12 vols. 1960-2004.1875.2009."

See other formats

This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 
to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 
are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 
publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 

We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at http : //books . qooqle . com/| 

Digitized by 


University of Virginia 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 


Digitized by 


Digitized by 


Digitized by 


Digitized by 


Digitized by 














13, Waterloo Plack, S.W. 


Digitized by 



Digitized by 








Digitized by 


Digitized by 



The increased interest manifested in relation to all matters affecting 
the East, and the great attention now given to the study of compara- 
tive religion, seem to indicate that the time has come when an attempt 
should be made to place before the English-speaking people of the 
world a systematic exposition of the doctrines of the Muslim Faith. 
The present work is intended to supply this want, by giving, in a tabu- 
lated form, a concise account of the doctrines, rites, ceremonies, and 
customs, together with the technical and theological terms, of the 
Muhammadan religion. 

Although compiled by a clergyman who has had the privilege of 
being engaged in missionary work at Peshawar for a period of twenty 
years, this "Dictionary or Islam" is not intended to be a contro- 
versial attack on the religious system of Muhammad, but rather an 
exposition of its principles and teachings. 

Divided, as the Muslim world is, into numerous sects, it has been 
found impossible to take into consideration all the minor differences 
which exist amongst them. The Dictiouary is, for the roost part, an 
exposition of the opinions of the Sunni sect, with explanations of the 
chief points on which the Shiah and Wahhabi schools of thought differ 
from it. Very special attention has been given to the views of the 
Wahbabis, as it is the Author's conviction that they represent the 
earliest teachings of the Muslim Faith as they came from Muhammad 
and his immediate successors. When it is remembered that, according 
to Mr. Wilfrid Blunt's estimate, the Shiah sect only numbers some 
ten millions out of the one hundred and seventy-five millions of Mu. 
hammadans in the world, it will be seen that, in compiling a Dic- 
tionary of Muhammadanism, the Shiah tenets must of necessity occupy 
a secondary place in the study of the religion. Still, upon all 
important questions of theology and jurisprudence, these differences 
have been noticed. 

The present book does not profess to be a Biographical Dic- 
tionary. The great work of Ibn Khallikan, translated into English by 

Digitized by 



Slane, supplies this. But short biographical notices of persons con- 
nected with the early history of Islam have been given, inasmuch aa 
many of these persons are connected with religious dogmas and cere* 
monies ; the martyrdom of Husain, for instance, as being the foundation 
of the Muharram ceremonies; Abu Hanifah, as connected with a 
school of jurisprudence ; abd the Khalif ah 'Umar as the real founder of 
the religious and political power of Islam. In the biographical notice 
of Muhammad, the Author has expressed his deep obligations to Sir 
William Muir's great work, the Life of Mahomet. 

It is impossible for anyone to write upon the subject of Muham- 
madanism without being largely indebted, not only to Sir William 
Muir's books, but also to the works of the late Mr. Lake, the author 
of Modern Egyptians, new editions of which have been edited by Mr. 
Stanley Lanb Poolb. Numerous quotations from these volumes will 
be found in the present work. 

But whilst the Author has not hesitated in this compilation to 
avail himself of the above and similar works, he has, during a long 
residence amongst Muhammadau peoples, beon able to consult very 
numerous Arabic and Persian works in their originals, and to obtain 
the assistance of very able Muhammadan native scholars of all schools 
of thought in Islam. 

He is specially indebted to Dr. F. Steingass, of the Univer- 
sity of Munich, the author of the English-Arabic and Arabic-English 
Dictionaries, for a careful revision of the whole work The interesting 
article on writing is from the pen of this distinguished scholar, as 
well as some valuable criticisms on the composition of the qur'an, and 
a biographical sketch of the Khalifah 'Umar. 

Orientalists may, perhaps, be surprised to find that 8ikhism has 
been treated as a sect of Islam, but the Compiler has been favoured with 
a very, able and scholarly article ca the subject by Mr. F. Pincott, 
M.R.A.S., in which he shows that the "religion of Nanak was really 
intended as a compromise between Hinduism and Muhammadanism, if 
it may not even be spoken of aa the religion of a Muhammadan 
sect/' — the publication of which in the present work seemed to be 
most desirable. 

At the commencement of the publication of the work, the Author 
received very valuable assistance from the Rev. F. A. P. SHiRRsrr, 
M.A.> Principal of the Lahore Divinity College, as well as from other 
friends, which he must gratefully acknowledge. 

Amongst the numerous suggestions which the Author received for 

Digitized by 



the compilation of this Dictionary, was one from a well-known Arabic 
scholar, to the affect that the value of the work would be enhanced 
if the quotations from the Our 1 an, and from the Traditions, were given 
in their original Arabic. Thia, however, seemed incompatible with 
the general design of the book. The whole structure of the work is 
intended to be such as will make it available to English scholars unac- 
quainted with the Arabic language; and, consequently, most of the 
information given will be found under English words rather than under 
their Arabic equivalents. For example, for information regarding the 
attributes of the Divine Being, the reader must refer to the English 
Gon, and not to the Arabic all ah; for all the ritual and laws 
regarding the liturgical service, to the English feats*, and not to 
the Arabic salat; for the marriage laws and ceremonies, to the Eng- 
lish HAJMUAGi, and not to the Arabic nikah. It is hoped that, in this 
way, the information given will be available to those who are entirely 
unacquainted with Oriental languages, or, indeed, with Eastern life. 

The quotations from the Qur*an have been given chiefly from 
Palmer's and Rodwells translations; and those in the Quranic narra- 
tive of Biblical characters (icosis for example) have been taken from 
Ma. Stanley Lans Poole's edition of Lane's Selections. But, when 
needful, entirely new translations of quotations from the Qur'an have 
been given. 

The " Diction \ry or Islam" has been compiled with very con- 
siderable study and labour, in the hope that it will be useful to many ; 
—to the Government official called to administer justice to Muslim 
peoples ; to the Christian missionary engaged in controversy with Mus- 
lim scholars; to the Oriental traveller seeking hospitality amongst 
Muslim peoples ; to the student of comparative religion anxious to 
learn the true teachings of Islam; — to all, indeed, who care to know 
what are those leading principles of thought which move and guide one 
hundred and seventy-five millions of the great human family, forty 
millions of whom are under the rule of Her Most Gracious Majesty 
the Empress of India. 

Jty SSn/, IMG. 

Digitized by 


Thi Arabic Lbttbbs in this Volume havb bbbn Translitibatbd 

as follow8: — 








a, t, t*, at the beginning of a word. 




As in English. 




A soft dental, like the Italian t. 




Very nearly the sound of th in thing. 




As in English. 




A strong aspirate. 




Guttural, like the Scotch ch in loch. 




Soft dental. 




A sound between dh and •. 









> As in English. 








A strongly articulated s; in Central Asia 
as si0. 




Something like the foreign pronunciation 
of the th in that; in Central Asia and 

India s or %w. 




A strongly artioulated palatal /. 




A strongly articulated *. 


'A in 


A guttural, the pronunciation of which 
must be learnt by ear. 




A strong guttural #&. 




As in English. 




Like ck in stuck. 














VAs in English. 


















> Aa in Italian. 








Pronounced as a, t, *, preceded by a very 
slight aspiration. 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 




Digitized by 




AARON. Arabio* HdrUn (<#». 
The account gi?en of Aaron In the Qur'an will 
be found in the article on Mosos. In Sarah 
xix. 29, the Virgin Mary it addressed at M tht 
Sitter of Aaron." [maby, mosm.] 

ABAD (*\). Eternity; without 
end, as distinguished from Azal ( J)l), 
without beginning. 

'ABASA (u~t*). " He frowned." 
The title of the Lxxxth chapter of the Qur'an. 
It it taid that a blind man, named 'Abdullah 
ibn Umm Maktnm, onoe interrupted Muham- 
mad in eonTtrtation with certain ohiefs of 
Quraish. The Prophet, howoTer, took no 
notice of him, but frowned and turned away ; 
and in the first rente of thit Sarah, he it 
represented at reproved by God for ha?ing 
done to : — " He frowned and turned hit back, 
for that the blind man came unto him." 

•ABBAS (ly-W*). ThesonofAbdu 
1-Mufcfcalib, and concoquently the paternal 
uncle of Muhammad. T&e mott oelebrated 
of the " Companions," and the founder of the 
Abbaside dynasty, which held the Khalifate 
for a period of 609 years, namely, from a.d. 
749 to a.d. 1268. He died in a.h. 82. His 
son Ibn-* Abbas was also a celebrated autho- 
rity on Islamic traditions and law. [ran 


ABBASIDES. Arabic aVAbbdtlyah 
(a*-1*aJ\). The name of a dynast y of 
KJbalifaht descended from al-' Abbas, the son 
of 'Abdu 1-Muttalib, and a paternal uncle of 
Muhammad On account of their descent 
from so near a relation of the Prophet, the 
\bbasides had, erer since the introduction of 
Islam, been Tery high in esteem amongst the 
Arabs, and had at an early period begun to 
excite the jealousy of the Umaiyade ghalifahs, 
who sfter the defeat of *Ali occupied the 
throne of the Arabian Empire. The Abbas- 

ides had for some time asserted their claims 
to the Khalifato, and In a.d. 746 they com- 
menced open hostilities. In 749 the Abbaside 
Shaliifah Aba VAbbts, surnamed as-Safflfc, 
"the blood-shedder," was reoognied as Kb*" 
lifah at al-Kflfah, and Marwin II., the last of 
the Umaiyade K&elifahs, was defeated and 

Thirty -seren Khailfahi of the Abbaside dy- 
nasty reigned otoi* the Mu^ammadan empire, 
extending orcr the period from ul 182 (jld. . 
749-60) to a.h. 666 (a.d. 1268). 

The names of tho Abbaside Khallfahs are:— 
AbQ VAbbis as-Saffah (a.d.749), al-Mansfir 
(a.d. 764), al-Mahd! (jlo. 775), al-Hadf (a.d. 
786), Haxttn ar-Rashid (ajx 786), al-Amin 
(a.d. 809% al-Ma'mun (a.d. 8181 al-Mu*taehn 
(a.d. 888), el-Waaiq (a.d. 842), al-Mutawakkil 
(a.d, 847), al-Muntasir (a.d. 861), al-Musta<In 
(A.D. 862), al-Mu'tass (a.d. 866), al-Miihtadl 
(a.d. 869), al-Mu«tamid (a.d. 870), al-Mu«tasid 
(A.D. 892)) al-Muktafi (A.D. 902), al.Muqtadir 
(a.d. 908), al-Qihir (a.d. 982), ar-Rasi (a.d. 
984), al-Muttaql (a.d 940), al-MusUqfl (a.d. 
944), al-Mutf (a.d. 946), afc-TaP (a.d. 974), 
aUQadir (a.d. 994), al-Qiim (a.d. 1081), at 
Muqtadi (a.d. 1076), al-Musteibir (a.d. 1094), 
al-Mustarshid (a.d. 1118), ar-Rashjd (a.d. 
1186), al-Muqtafi (a.d. 1186), al-Mustanjid 
(a.d. 1160), ai-Mustasi (a.d. 1170), an-Nisir 
(A.D. 1180), aa-^ahir (a.b, 1226), al-Mustansir 
(a.d. 1226), al-Musta'sim (a.d. 1242 to a.d. 

In the reign of al-Musta'tim Hulakffc, grand- 
son of Jingis Khan, entered Persia and 
becamo Sultan a.d. 1266. In 1268 he took 
Baghdad and put the E&allfah al-Musta'sim to 
death, [khaufajl] 

ABDAL (JM). "Substitutes," 
pi of BadaL Certain persons by whom, it is 
said, God oontinues ths world in existence. 
Their number is terenty, of whom forty 
reside in Syria, and thirty elsewhere* When 
one dies another takes his place, being so 


Digitized by 


2 ABDU ? rjLAH 

appointed by God. It it one of the *igns of 
the tot day that the Abdal will oome from 
Syria. (Mishkat, xxUi. c 8.) No one pre- 
tends to be able to identify these eminent 
persons in the world. God alone knows who 
they are, and where they are. 

'ABDU 'LLAH (Am***). The father 
of Mohammad. He wss the youngest son of 
•Abdu 'l-Muttalib. During the pregnane? of 
bis wife Aminsh, be set XJut on a mercantile 
expedition to Qaza in the south of Pslostine, 
and on bis way baok he siokoned and died at 
al-Madinah, before the birth of his son Mu- 
hammad. (KdtiSu 7- Waqidi, p. 18 ; Muir*s 
Life of Mahomet, vol i. p. 11.) 

•»** &). One of. Muliammad's secre- 
taries. It is related that, when Muhammad 
instructed 'Abdu 'lliUi to writo down the 
words (Surah xxiii. 12-14), " We (God) have 
created man from an extraot of olay . . . 
then wb, produoed it another creation," *Abdu 
*llah exclaimed, " And blessed be God, 
the best of creators"; and Muhammad told 
him to write that down slso. Whereupon 
'Abdu 'llih coasted that he had been inspired 
with a sentence which the Prophet had ac- 
knowledged to be part of the Qur'uu. It is of 
him that it is written in the Qur'an, Surah vi. 
98, u Who is more unjust than he who devises 
against God a lie, or says, « I am inspired,' 
when be is not inspired at all.? 

Muhammad's grandfather and hit gusrdian 
for two years. He died, aged 82, a.d. 678. 
His sons were 'Abdu *llah (Muhammad's 
father), al-Haris, az-Zuhair, Aba faith. Abu 
Lsheb, al-< Abbas, and Hamza. 

dJ***R %M\***). The celebrated 
foundor of toe QMJriyah order of darweshes, 
sumamed Pir-Dastagir. He died and was 
buried at Baghdad, A.H. 561. 

(wiyfi & {f*>}\±+*)> One of toe Com- 
panions who embraced Islam at a very early 
period, and was one of those who Hod to 
Ethiopia. He also accompanied Muhammad 
in all his battles, and received twenty wounds 
at tJfead. He died a.h. 82, aged 72 or 75, 
and was buried at Baqi'u U-Ghamad, the 
graveyard of al-Madinah. 

ABEL, Arabic UdM ( Jet^), Heb. 
ban Hebel. In the QuVan " the two 
son/ of Adam" are called HAbU wa Qibil, 
end the following is the acoount given of 
them in that book (Surah v. 80-36). together 
with the remarks of the commentators in 
italics (as rendered in Mr. Lane's Selections, 
2nd ed., p. 63). •• Recite unto them the history 
of the two sons of Adam, namely, Abel 
and Cain, with truth When they offered 
[their] offering to Ood (AbeCs betng a ram, and 
Cain's being produoe of the earth), and it was 
eocepted from one of them (that it* from Abet; 


for fire descended from heaven, and devoured 
his offering), snd it was not accepted from the 
other, Cam was enraged t but he concealed his 
envy until Adam performed a pilgrimage, when 
he said imfo At* brother, I will assuredly slav 
thee. Abel said, Wherefore* Cain answered, 
Because of the acceptance of thine offering to 
the exclusion of mine. Abel replied, God only 
»"<*epteth from th<* pious. If 'thou stretch 
forth to me thy hand to slay me, I will not 
stretch forth to thee my hand to slay thee , 
tor I fear God, the Lord of the worlds. 1 
desire tbst thou sbouldst bear the sin [which 
tnou intendest to commit] against me, by 
slaving me, and thy sin which thou hast com- 
mitted before, and thou wilt be of the compa- 
nions of the Are.— And that is the recompense 
of the offenders.— But his soul suffered him to 
slay his brother: so ho slew him; and ho 
became of [the number of] those who sutler 
loss. And he knew not what to do with him ; 
for he was the first dead person upon the face of 
the earth of the sons of Adam. So he carried 
him upon his back. And God sent * raven, 
which scratched up the esrtb with it- bill 
and its talons and raised it over a dead raw: 
that was with it until it hid it, to show him 
how he. should hide the corpse of his brother. 
He said, my disgrace 1 Am I unable to be 
like this rsven, and to hide the corpse of my 
brother?— And he becsmo of (the number 
of J the repentant. And he digged [a grave] 
for him and hid Aim.— On account of this 
which Cain did vVe commanded the children 
of Israel that he who should slay a soul (not 
for the latler's having slain a soul or committed 
wiokedness in the earth, such as infidelity, or 
adultery, or intercepting the way, and the like) 
[should 4 be regarded] as though he had slain 
all mankind ; and he who saveth it alive, by 
abstaining from slaying it, as though he hud 
saved alive all mankind.** 

"Tito occasion of their mnkiug this offer- 
ing is thus related, according to tho common 
tradition in the East. Kacb oi them being 
boru with a twin-sister, when they wer* 
grown up, Adam, by God's direction, ordered 
Cain to marry Abel's twin-sistor, and Abel to 
marry Cain • ; (for it being the common 
opinion that marriages ought not to be had 
iu the nearost degrees of consanguinity, since 
thoy must uecessarily marry their sisters, it 
seemed reanonable te suppose they ought to 
take those of tho remoter degree ;) but tint 
Cain refusing to agroe to, because his own 
sister was the handsomest, Adam ordered 
them to moke their offerings to God. thereby 
referring the dispute to His determination. 
The commentators say Cain's offering was a 
sheaf of the very worst of his corn, but 
Abel's a fat lamb of the best of his flock.**— 
Ksle's Koran, I., p. 122. 

•ABID (•*>>). "A worshipper [of 
God]." A term generally used for a devout 
person. The word frequently occurs In the 
Qur'an: e.g. Surah ii. 182? "The baptism 
f sibghah) of God ! And who is better than 
God at baptising? We are the worshippers 
(•eWan) of God.' Tho word sibghah is trans- 

Digitized by 



leted by Professor Palmer " dye "and «• dyeing," 
bat Sale, following the Muslim commentators, 
al -BaixiwI, Jalalu 'd-din, and Husaini, who 
say it refers to the Ghriatian rite, translates it 
*• baptism." Others say that it means ,/i(rah 
or din, the religion Of God, with an ad apt a - 
tation to which mankind are created. See 
Lane's Lexicon, [baptism.] 

ABIQ («jkl). A runaway slave. 


ABJAD (*r\). The name of an 
arithmetical arrangement of the alphabet, the 
letters of which have different powers from 
one to one thousand. It is in the order of 
the alphabet as used by the Jews as far as 
400, the six remaining letters being added 
by the Arabians, The letters spell the 
words — 

abjad hawwat ^ufti kalaman 
M*fa$ qarmkat iak&az ta^igh 

The anthor of the Arabic Lexicon, ol-QamSt, 
says that the first six words are the names 
of celebrated kings of Madyan (Midian), and 
that the last two words were added by the 
Arabians, Some say they are the names of 
the eight sons of the inventor of the Arabic 
character, Murtmir ibn Murra. 

The following is a list of the letters with 
their English equivalents, and the power of 
each m numbers : — 

la(i,u)\ 60 t <j- 

2 b v 70 * I 

3 j 8 80 / sj 

4 J * 90 t u» 

5 h > 100 9 J 

6 w > 200 r ) 

7 t ) 800 $h v> 

8 k t 400 t sm> 

9 K W 600 j ^ 
10 y <3 600 kA t 
20 * *> 700 f J 
80 I J 800 f v/ 
40 w * 900 | i 
50 n q) 1000 gh t 


ABLUTION. Arabic, wh?u\ vm& 
(•**•), Persian, abdtut (vs— Ml). Ablu- 
tion is described by Muhammad as M the half of 
faith and the key of prayer " (Mi$hkat> iii. 8c), 
and is founded on the authority of the Qor'an, 
surah v. 8, " O Believers I when ye prepare 
Yourselves for prayer, wash your faces and 
hands up to the elbows, and wipe your heada 
and your feet to the ankles.** 

These ablutions are absolutely necessary as 
a oreparation for the recital of the liturgical 
fdnn of prayer, and are performed aa follows : 
The worshipper, having tucked up bis sleeves 
a little higher than his elbows, washes his 
hands three times ; then he rinses his mouth 
three times, throwing the water into it with 
his right hand. After this, he, with his right 
band, throws water np his nostrils, sntiOlng 
it op at the same time, and Ihsn blows it out. 


compressing his nostrils with the thumb and 
finger of the left hand — this being also per- 
formed three times. He then washes his 
face three times, throwing up the water with 
both hands. lie next washes his right hand 
and arm, as high as the elbow, as many timea, 
causing the water to run along his arm from 
the palm of the hand to the elbow, end in 
the same manner he washes the left. Then 
he drawa his wetted right baud over the 
upper part of his head, rsising his turban 
or oap with his left. If he haa a beard, he 
then 'combs it with tho wetted fingers of his 
right hand, holding his hand with the palm 
forwards, and passing th* fingers through his 
beard from the throat upwards. He then 
puts the tip* of his foro-fingers into his ears 
and twists thorn round, passing his thnmbs at 
the sams tlmo round the back of the ears 
from the bottom upwards. Next, he wipe*, 
his neck with the back of the fingers of both 
hands, making the ends of hia fingers meet 
behind hia neok. and then drawing them for- 
ward. Lastly, be washes his feet, as high aa 
the ankles, and passes bis fingers between the 
toes. During this ceremony, which is gene- 
rally performod in loss than threo minutes, 
the Intending worshipper usually recites some 
pious ejaculations or prayers. For example : — 

Before commencing the mm**': — "1 am 
going to purify myself from all bodily un- 
cleanness, preparatory to commencing prayer, 
that holy act of duty, which will draw my 
soul near to the throne of the Most High. 
In the name of Ood, the Great and Mighty. 
Praise be to God who haa given us graoe to 
be Muslims. Islam is a truth and infidelity 
a falsehood." 

When washing the nostrils :— •• O my God, it 
I am pleasing in Thy sight, perfume me with 
the odours of Paradise." 

When washing the right hand :—" O my 
God, on the day of Judgment, place the book 
ef my actions in my right hand, and examine 
my account with favour." 

When washing the left-hand :— " O my God, 
place not at the resurrection the book of my 
actions in my left hand." 

The- Shiya'ls, acting more in accordance 
with the text of the Qur'in quoted above, 
only wipe, or rub (swtoAi the feet, instead of 
washing them, aa do the Bunnis. 

The ablution need not be performed before 
eaoh of the five stated periods of prayer, 
when the person is conscious of naving 
avoided every kind of impurity since the last 
performance of the ablution. The private 
parts of the body most also be purified when 
necessary. When water cannot be procured, 
or would be injurious to health, the ablution 
may be performed with dust or sand. This 
ceremony is called Tayammum (o/.e.). The 
washing of the whole body is necessary after 
certain periods of impurity, [ohusl.] The 
brushing of the teeth is abo a religious duty. 
[miswax.] The benefits of ablution are 
highly extolled in the sayings ef Muhammad, 
s.o., " He who performs the smss? thoroughly 
will extract all sin from hia body, even though 
it may be lurking under his Anger nails," " In 

Digitized by 



4 AfcORTtOtt 

the day of reaur/ection people shall come 
with bright face*, hands and feet, and there 
will be jewels in every place where the waters 
of the warf have reached." (Mishkat, iii. 1.) 



In all the principal mosques there are 
tanks, or wells, which aopply water for tho 
purposes of legal purification, [pumnricanoif .] 

ABORTION. Arabic Ieqdt. There 
is no mention of the sabjoot in the Qur'&n, 
bat acoording to the Fatdwi •Alamgiri (vol. 
It. p. 288), it is forbidden after the child ia 
formed in the womb. Muhammad is related 
to have ordered, prayers to be said over an 
abortion, when supplication should be made 
for the father and mother, for forgiveness 
and mercy. (Mishkat, v. c. 2.) 

ABRAHAM. Arabic Ibrahim 
(f**tjt\). One of tbe six great pro- 
phets to whom God delivered special laws. 
The "Friend of God," Kfaalilu 'llah, to whom 
were revealed twenty portions (sabifah) of 

Abraham is very frequently mentioned in 
the Qur'an, together witn Ishmael and Isaac. 


The following are Mr. Laue's selections (giving 
in italics the remarka of Muslim commenta- 

"Remember when Abraham said to his 
father Azar (this woe the surname of Tetah), 
Dost thou iase images aa deities ? Verily I 
see thee and thy people to be in a manifest 
error. — (And thus, as We showed him the error 
of hie father and hit people, did We sbow 
Abraham tbe kingdom of tne heavens and the 
earth, and [We did ao] that he might be of [tho 
number of J thoso who firmly believe.) And 
when the night overshadowed him, he saw a 
star (it is said that it was Venus), [and] he said 
unto his people, who were astrologers, This is 
my Lord, according to your assertion. — But 
when it sot, he saicl, I like not those that set, 
to take them as Lords, since it is not meet for a 
Lord to experience alteration and change of 
place, as they are of the nature of accidents. 
Yet this had no effect upon them. And when 
he saw the moon rising, he said unfo them, 
This is my Lord. — But when it set, he said, 
Verily if my Lord direct me not (if He con- 
firm me not in tie right wag), I shall assuredly 
be of tho erring people. — This was a hint to 
his people that they were in error ; hut it had no 
effect upon them. And when he aaw the sun 
rising, he said, This is my Lord. This is 
greater than the star and the moon. — But when 
it sot, and the proof had been rendered more 
strong to them, get they desisted not, he said, 
my people, verily I am clear of the [things] 
whioh ye associate with God; nantfily, the 
images and the heavenly bodies. So they said 
unto him, What dost thou worship t He 
answered, Verily I direct my face unto Him 
who hath created the heavens and the earth, 
following the right religion, and I am not of 
the polythoists. — And his people argued with 
him; [but] be aaid, Do ye argue with me 
respecting God, when He hath directed me, 
and I foer not what ye associate with Dim 
utiloss my Lord will that aught displeasing 
should befall* met My Lord compronendeth 
everything by His knowledge. Will ye not 
therefore consider? And wherefore should 
I fear what ye have associated with God, 
when ye fear not for your having associated 
with God that of which He hath not sent 
down unto you a proof? Then whioh of the 
two parties is the more worthy of safety? 
Are we, or you t If ye know who is the more 
worthy of it, follow Aim. — God saith, They 
who have believed, and not mixed their belief 
with injustice (that is, polytheism), for theae 
shall be safety from punishment, and they are 
rightly directed." (Surah vi. 74-82.) 

* Relate unto, them, in tho book (that is, the 
Qur'an), the history of Abraham. Verily, he 
was a person of great veracity, a prophet. 
When he said unto his father Azar, who wor~ 
shipped idols, my father, wherefore dost 
thou worship that which heareih not, nor 
seeth, nor averteth from thee aughti whether 
of advantage or of injury t my father, 
verily [a degree] of knowledge hath eemo 
unto me, that hath not come unto . thee : 
therefore follow me : I will direct thee into a 
right way. O my father, serve not the devil, 

Digitized by 



by obeying him in serving idols ; for the devil 
is very rebellions unto the Compassionate. O 
my father, Torily I fear that a punishment will 
betide thee from the Compassionate, if thou 
repent not, and that thou wilt be unto the 
devil an aider, and a companion in hell-fire. — 
He repliod, Art- thou a rejector of my Gods, 
Abraham, and dost thou revile thin? If 
thou abstain not, I will assuredly assail thee 
with stone* or with ill words ; therefore beware 
of me, and leave me for a long time. — Abra- 
ham said, Peace from me be on thee I I will 
ask pardon for thee of my Lord; for He 
it gracious unto me: and I will separate 
myself from you and from what ye invoke 
instead of Ood; and. I will call upon my 
Lord : perhaps I shall not be unsuccessful in 
ealttup upon my Lord, as we are in calling 
upon idols,— And when he had separated him- 
self from them, and from what they wor- 
shipped instead of Ood, by'ooing to the Hot* 
Land, We gave him two tofts, that he might 
cheer himself thereby 9 namely* Isaao and Jacob ; 
and each [of them j We made a prophet ; and 
We bestowod upon them (namely, the three), 
of our. mercy, wealth and children $ and We 
caused them to receive high commendation." 
(Surah six. 42-51.) 

" We gave unto Abraham his direction for- 
merry, before he had attained to manhpodt *b& 
We knew him to be worthy of it When he 
said unto his father and his people, What are 
these images, to the worship of which ye are 
devoted f—they answered, We found our 
fathers worshipping them, and' we have fol- 
lowed their example. He said unto them, 
Verily ye and. your fathers have been in a 
manifest error. They said, Hast thou come 
unto us with' truth in saying this, or art thou 
of those who jest? He answered, Nay, your 
Lord (the being who deserveth to be worshipped) 
is the Lord of the heavens and the earth, 
who created them^ not after the similitude of 
anything pre-existing; and I am of those who 
bear witness thereof. And, by God, I will 
assuredly devise a plot against your idols 
alter ye shall have retired, turning your 
backs. — 80, after they had gone, to their place 
of assembly, on a day when the* held a festival, 
he break them hi pieces with an axe, except 
the chief of them, upon whose neck he hung the 
axe 1 that they mignt return unto it (namely, 
the chief) and see what he had done with tie 
others. They said, after they had returned 
and seen what he had done, Who hath .done 
this unto our gods? Verily he is of the 
unjust— -And some of them said, We heard a 
pounff man mention them reproachfully: ,he 
is called Abraham. They said, Then bring 
him before the eyes of the people, that they 
may bear witness against him of his having 
done it. They said unto him, when he had 
been brought, Hast thou done this onto our 
gods, O Abraham ? He answered, Nay, this 
their chief did it: and ask ye them, if they 
[oan] speak. And they returned unto them- 
selvee, upon reflection, and taid unto them' 
selves, Verily ye ars the unjust, in worship- 
ping that which speaketh not. Then they re- 
verted to their obstinacy, and said, Verily 



thou k no west that these speak not: then 
wherefore dost thou order us to ask them t He 
said, Do ye then worship, instead of God, 
that which doth not profit you at all, nor 
injure you if ye worship it nott Fie on you, 
and on that which ye worship instead of God 1 
Do ye not then understand? — They eajd, 
Burn ye him, and avenge your gods, if ye 
will do to. So they collected abundance of fire- 
wood for him, and seffire to it ; and they bound 
Abraham* and put him into an engine, and cast 
him into the fire. But, satth Gold, We said, O 
fire, be thou cold, and a security unto Abra- 
ham I So nought of him was burned save his 
bonds : the heat of the fire ceased, but its light 
remained t and by Goa*s saying, Security, — 
Abraham was saved from dying by reason of 
its cold. And they intended against him a 
plot ; but bs caused them to be the sufferers. 
And We delivered him and Lot, the son of his 
brother Haran, from El- $ £raq, [bringing 
them] unto the land which We blessed for the 
peoples, by the abundance of its rivers and 
trees, namely, Syria. Abraham took up his abode 
in Palestine, and Lot in £l-Mutefikeh, be- 
tween which is a day's journey. And when 
Abraham had asked a son, We gave unto him 
Isaac, and Jacob as an additional gift, be- 
yond what he had asked, being a son's son; and 
all of them We made righteous persons and 
prophets. And We made them models of roli- 
gion who directed men by Our, oommand imfo 
Our religion 1 and We commanded them by 
inspiration to do good works and to perform 
prayer and to give the appointed alms ; and 
they servod Us. And unto Lot We gavo 

tidgment and knowledge; and We delivered 
im from the city which committed filthy 
aotions; for they were a peoplo of evil, 
shameful doers; and We admitted him into 
our mercy ; for he was [phe] of the righteous." 
(Surah xxi. 62-76.) 

M Hast thou not considered him who disputed 
with Abraham conoerning his Lord, beoause 
God had given him the kingdom? And he 
was Nimrod. When Abraham said, (upon his 
saying unto him, Who is thy Lord, unto whom 
thou mvitest us t ), My Lord is He who ffiveth 
life and eaussth to die r -he repliod, I give 
life and cause to die. — 1 nd he summoned two 
men, and slew one of thm. and left the other. 
So when he saw that he understood not, Abra- 
ham said, And verily God bringeth the sun 
from the east : now do thou bring it from the 
west— <-And he who disbelioved was con- 
founded ; and God directeth not the offending 
people." (Sflrah ii. 2W.) 

M And Our messengers came formerly unto 
Abraham with gdod tidings of Isaac and 
Jacob, who should be after him. They said, 
Pesos. He replied, Peace be on you. And he 
tarried not, but brought a roasted calf. And 
when he saw that their hands touched it not, 
he disliked them and conoeived a fear of 
them. They said, Fear not : for we are sent 
unto the people of Lot, that we may destroy 
them. And his wife Sarah was standing 
serving them, and she laughed, rejoicing at the 
tidings of their destruction. And we gave her 
good tidings of Isaac ; and after Isaac, Jacob. 

Digitized by 





She said, Alasi shall 1 boar a child when I 
am ah old woman of nine and ninety years, 
aod when this my hatband is an old man of 
a hundred or a hundred and twenty yean f 
Verily ibis [would be] a wonderful thing.— - 
Thej said. Dost thou wonder et the com- 
mand of God? The mercy of God and His 
blessings be on you, people of the house (of 
Abraham)! for He is praiseworthy, glorious. 
— And when the terror had departed from 
Abraham, and tho good tidings had come 
onto him, he disputed with Us (that is, with 
Our messengers) respecting the people of 
Lot ; for Abraham was gontlo, compaasionste, 
repentant. And he said unto them, Will ye 
destroy a city wherein are three hundred' be- 
lievers t They answered. No. He said, And 
will ye destroy a city wherein are two 
hundred believers* i'hey answered, No. He 
said, And will ye destroy a city wherein are 
forty be/ieoers t They answered, No. lie said, 
Ana will ye destroy a city wherein are fourteen 
believers t They answered, No. He said, And 
tell me, if there be in it one believer? They 
answered, No. He said, Verily in it is Lot. 
They replied, We know best who is in it. And 
when their dispute had become tedious, they 
said, O Abraham, abstain from this disputa- 
tion i for the command of thy Lord hath come 
for their destruction, and a punishment not [to 
be] averted is coming upon them." (Surah xi. 

" And when Our decree for the destruction of 
the people of Lot came [to be executed], We 
turned them (that is, their cities) upside- 
down "• for Gabriel raised them to heaven, and 
lei them jail upside-down, to the earth ; and 
We rained upon them stones -of baked day, 
sent one after another, marked with thy Lord, 
each with the name of him upon whom it should 
be cast : and they [are] not far distant from 
the offenders ; that is, the stones are not, or the 
cities of the people of Lot were not, far distant 
from the people of Mekieh." (Surah xi. 84.) 

"And [Abraham] said [after his etcape 
from Nimrod], Verily I am going unto my 
Lord, who will direct me unto Ms place 
whither He hath commanded me to go, namely, 
Syria. And when he had arrived at the Holy' 
Land, he said, my Lord, give me a sen 
[who shall be one] of the righteous. Where- 
upon We gave him the glad tidings of a mild 
youth. And when he had attained to the 
age when he could work with him (as some 
say, seven years / and some, thirteen), he said, 

my child, verily I have seen in a dream that 

1 should sacrifice thee (and the dreams of pro- 
phets arm true ; and their actions, by the com- 
mand of God) ; therefore consider what thou 
seeat advisable for me to do. He replied, O 
my father, do what thou art commanded: 
thou shalt find me, if God please, [of the 
number] of the patient. And when they had 
resigned themselves, and he had laid him 
down on his temple, in [the valley of] Mini, 
and had drawn fA« knife across his throat (but 

"an obstacle 

i called unto 

verified the 

vision. Verily thus do We reward the well- 

ana had drawn the knife across his thr 
it produced no effect, by reason of an 
interposed by the divine power), We call 
him, O Abraham, thou hast verifl 


doers. Verily this was the manifest trial. 
And We ransomed him whom he had been com- 
manded to sacrifice (and he was Ishmael or 
Isaac / for there are two opinions) with an 
excellent victim, a ram from Paradise, the 
same that Abel had offered: Gabriel (on whom 
be peace I) brouaht it, and the lord Abraham 
sacrificed it, saying, God is most great t And 
We left this salutation [to be bestowed! on 
him by the latter generations, Peace [be] on 
Abraham 1 Thus do We reward the well- 
doors : for he was of Our believing servants.'* 
(Surah xxxvii. 07-111.) 

" Remember whan Abraham said, O my Lord, 
show me how Thou will raise to life the 
dead.— He said, Hast thou not belioved ? He 
answored, Yea : but / have asked Thee that 
mv heart may be at ease. Ho replied, Then 
take four birds and draw them towards thee, 
and cut them in nieces and mingle together their 
flesh and their feathers ; then place upon eaoh 
mountsin of thy land a portion of thorn, thon 
call them unto thee: they shall come unto 
thee quiokly; and know thou that God is 
mighty [and] wise. — And he took a peacock 
and a vulture and a raven and a cock, and did 
with them as hath been described, and kept their 
heads with him, and called them ; whereupon 
the portions flew about, one to another, until 
they became complete : Men they came to their 
heads." (Surah ii. 262.) 

" Remember, when his Lord had tried Abra- 
ham by [certain] words, commands and vrohi- 
bitioas, and he fulfilled them, God "aid unto 
him, I constitute thee a model of religion unto 
men. He replied, And ot my offspring con- 
stitute models of religion. [God] said, My 
covenant doth not apply to the offenders, the 
unbelievers among them. — And when We ap- 
pointed the house (that is, the K&baK\ to be 
a place for the resort of men, and a place of 
security (a man would meet the slayer of his 
father there and he would not nrovoke him [to 
revenge],) and [said], Take, men, the sis* 
tion of Abraham (the stone upon which he stood 
at the time of building the House) as a 
place of prayer, that ye may perform behind it 
the prayers of the two rahahs [which are or- 
dained to be performed after the ooromony] 
of the drcuitina [of the Ka'bah].— And We 
commanded Abraham and Ishmael, [saying], 
Purify my House (rid it of the idols) for 
those who shall compass [it], and those who 
shall abide there, end those who shall bow down 
and prostrate themselves. — And wfcen Abra- 
ham said, U my Lord, make this place a 
secure territory (and God hath answered his 
prayer, and made it a sacred place, wherein the 
blood of man is not shed, nor is any one op- 
pressed in it, nor is its game hunted [or shot], 
nor are its plants cut or pulled up), and supply 
itt inhabitants with fruits (which hath been 
done by the transporting of at-Tay from Syria 
thither, when it [that is, the territory of 
Makkah] was desert, without sown land or 
toater, such ol them ss shall believe in God 
and the last day. — He mentioned them pecu- 
liarly in the prayer agreeably with the suytnt, 
of God, My covenant doth not apply to the 
offenders, — Cod replied. And / will supply 

Digitized by 




him who disbelieveth : I will make him to 
enjoy a supply of food in this world, a Utile 
while : then I will force him, in the world to 
come, to the punishment of the fire ; and evil 
shell be the transit/ (Surah ii. 118-120.) 

" And remember when Abraham was raising 
the foundations of the House {that /*, build 
ing it) % together with Ishmael, and they said, 
our Lord, accept of us our building; for 
Thou art the Hearer of what i$ said, the 
Knower of what it done. O our Lord, also 
make us resigned unto Thee, and make from 
among our offspring a people resigned unto 
Thee, and show us our rites (the ordinances 
ofonr warship, or our nifgrimage), and be pro- 
pitious towards us; for Thou art the Very 
Propltlons, the Merciful. (They begged Him 
to he propitious to them, notwithstanding their 
honesty, from a motive of humility % and bu way 
of instruction to their offspring.) O our Lord, 
also send unto them (that it % the people of the 
House) an apostle from among them (and God 
hath answered their prayer by sendinm Muham- 
mad), who shall recite unto them Thy signs 
(Me Qur'dH). and shall teach them the book 
(the Qur'dn), and the kiiowlege that it con- 
taineth, and shall purify them from polytheism ; 
for Thou art the Mighty, the wise— And 
who will be a Terse from the religion of 
Abraham but he who maketh his soul foolish, 
who is ignorant that it is Clod's creation ^ and 
that the' worship of Him is incumhent an if / or 
who lightly esteemeth it ' and appHeth it to wife 
purposes ; when We have chosen him in this 
world as an apostle and a friend, and he shall be 
in the world to come one of the righteous for 
mhoin are high ranks t — And remember when 
his Lord said unto him, Resign thyself: —he 
replied, I resign myself unto the Lord of the 
worlds. — And Abraham commanded his chil- 
dren to follow it (namely, the religion); and 
Jacob, his children/ saying. mv children, 
verily Qod hath chosen for yon the religion 
ofaf'Idam ; therefore die not without your 
being Muslims.«~/f was a prohibition from 
abandoning hlom and a command to persesert 
therein unto death\ n (Surah ii. 121-186.) 

'« When the Jews said. Abraham was a Jew, 
and tee arc of hi* rcligibn.—cmd the Christians 
send the like, [the following] was revealed '.••-- 
O people of the Scripture, wherefore do ye 
argue respecting Abraham; asserting that he 
was of your religion, when the Pentateuch snd 
the Gospel were not sent down hut after him 
a long time i Do ye not then understand the 
falsity of your soytng f So ye. O people, hare 
argued respecting that of which ye hare 
knowledge, concerning Moses and Jesus, and 
have asserted that ye are of their religion: 
then wherefore do ye argue respecting* that 
of which ye hero no knowledge, concerning 
Abraham?* But God knoweth Ait case, end 
ye know it not Abraham was not a Jew nor 
a Christian', but he was orthodox, a Muslim 
[or one resigned], a Unitarian, and ho was not 
of the polytheista.'' (Sarah iii. 6S-60.) 

Arabic IbAq (jW)* An absconded 
male or female slave Is oalled Abtg, but an 

infant slave who leaves his home is termed 
*«V/, a word whioh Is also used for an adult 
slave who has strayed. The spprehenslbn of 
a fugitive slave is a laodsbls act,. en*\ the 
person who seises him should bring him be- 
fore the magistrate and recnive a reward of 
forty dirhams. (Hamilton's Hid&yah, vol. ii. 
p. 278.) 

ABSTINENCE. Arabic Taawd 
(Jsj )- I* v « r J frequently- enjoined in 
the Qur'sn. The word generally applies to 
sb«tinenee from idolatry in the first instance 
but it is used to express a life of piety An 
excessive abstinence and a life of asceticism 
s re condemned in the Qur'sn, and the Chris- 
tians are charged with the invention of the 
monastic life. (Hurah lvil. 27.) % * At for the 
monastic life, they invented tt ihemeht*." 
[mowabttoism, rasriNo.] 

ABO «ABDI f LLAH .ilW yT). 
Muhammad ibn Ismallal-Bukhiri. the author 
of the wo) I -known collection of traditions re 
eeived by the Sunn!*, [bu khaki.] 

HANfiAL (J**> ^ jeej'aUU,* ^) 


(u~rt er* *N U eUU** yjt). [malik.'J 

MAD IBN AL-HASAN (*mju* y\ 
^~**N & Ju***). Known as Imam 
Muhammad. Bom at Wasit, a oity in Arabian 
<Ir*q, a.h. 182. He studied under the greet 
fmim Aba Henlfsh, and hsd start studied 
nnder Imam Malik for three .years. He is cele- 
brated as one of the disciples of the Imam 
Abu Hanlfah, from whom he occasionally 
differs, as it seen in the Hidayah. He died 
at Rai. in Khurasan, where his tomb is still 
U» be seen. a.h. 189. 

ABO BAKR (,*♦ y\). Of the 
origin of his name, there are various explana- 
tions. Some think thst it means w the father 
of the maiden," and that he received this 
title becanse he was the father of 'Aytshsh, 
whom Muhammad married when she was only 
nine years old. Hi* original name was 'Abdu 
1-Ks'bah (which the Prophet changed into 
•Abdu niah} Ibn Abi Qu^afah. He wss the 
first Khalifah, or successor of Muhammad. 
fenrAH.] Muhammadan writers praise him 
for the purity of his life, and call him a$- 
fyidtftq, the Veracious. He only roigned two 
years, and died August 22nd, a.d. 634. 

ABO DA'OD (*,\* jA). Sulaiman 
Ibn al-Ash'af al-Sijiftfcnf ; born at al-Basrah 
a.h. 202, and died A.n. 275. The compiler of 
one of the six correct books of Bnnni tradi- 
tions, called the Sunnan Abi Mud, which con- 
tains 4,008 traditions, said to have been care* 
fnlly collated from 500,000. [TMADmoHs] 

ABO HANIPAH ( u U*jJt ***** y\). 
AbO Hanlfah an-Nu'min is the great SunnI 
Imam and jurisconsult, ami the founder of 

Digitized by 



the ganifi sect Hi* father, $abit, wu a 
■ilk dealer in the city of al-Kufah, and 
it is said hie grandfather, Zufca, wet a native 
of Kabul. He was born at al-Kufah, a.n. 80 
(A.D. 700), and died at Baghdad, a.h. 160. He 
if regarded ae the great oracle of SunnI juris- 
prudence, and his doctrines, with those of his 
disciples, the Imam Abo YOsuf and the Imam 
Muhammad, are generally received through- 
out Turkey, Tartary, and Hindustan. It is 
related that Imam Malik eaid that the Im&ni 
Aba Hsnilah was such a logician that, if he 
were to assert a wooden pillar was made of 
gold, he would prove it by argument. 

ABU HUEAIRAH (*>,* ji\). Oue 
of tho most constant attendants of Muham- 
mad, who from his peculiar intimacy has 
related more traditions of tho sayings and 
doings of tho Prophet than any other indi- 
vidual His real name is doubtful, but he 
was nioknamed Abu Hurairah on aooount of 
his fondness for a kitten. He embraced Islam 
in the year of the expedition to Khaibar. a.h. 
7, and died in al-Madinah, a.h. 67 or 69, 
aged 7a 

ABU JAHL (Je* y»t). An im- 
placable adveraanr of Muhammad. His real 
name was 'Arnr ibn Hishim, but be was sur- 
named, by the Muslims, Abu Jahl, or the 
11 Father of Folly." He is supposed to be 
alluded to in the Qur'&n, Surah xxii. 8:<- 
11 There is a man who disputeth concerning 
God without either knowledge or direction." 
He was a boastful and dobauohed man, and 
was killed in the battle of Badr. 

ABU LAHAB (s-#l j\). One of 
the sons of Abu Mutftalib, and en unole to 
Muhammad. He was a most bitter enemy to 
the Prophet, and opposed the. ostablishmont 
of Islam to the utmost of his power, ills 
name was ' Abdu V Uaza, but ho was surnamed 
by Muhammad, Abu Lahab, " The Father of 
the Flame." When Muhammad received the 
command to admonish his rotations, he celled 
them all together, and told them he was a 
warner sent unto them before a grievous 
chastisement. Aba Laheb rejected his mis- 
sion, and cried out, "May est thou perish 1 
Hast thou called us together for this f " and 
took up a stone to oast at him ; whereupon the 
oxith Surah of the Qur'an was produced : — 

" Let the hande of Aba Lahab perish, and 
let himself perish I 
Hie wealth and his gains shall avail him 

Burned shall be be at a fiery flame, 
And his wife laden with fire wood, 
On her neck a rope of palm fibre." 

Abfi Lahab is said to have died of grief and 
vexation at the defeat which his friends had 
received at the battle of Badr, surviving that 
misfortune only ssven days. His body was 
left unburied for several o>ys, 

Zaid and Aba Lahab are the only relatives 
or friends of Muhammad mentioned by nsme 
in the Qur'an 


AL-HUZAIL ( JjJ^\ (* /j *W«n y\). 
Oelebrated as the Imam Zufar, and as a con- 
temporary and Intimate friend of the great 
Imam Aba Qanifah. He died at al- Basrah, 
a-H. 168. 

ABV'L-QlBIM(^.Vs1\ J |\). "The 
father of Qasim." One of the names of Mu- 
hammad) assumed on the birth of his son 
Qusim, who died in Inf anoy. [muuammad.] 

bidden by the Muslim law, and the offender 
must be punished aocording to the discretion 
of the Qisi. Aba £anif ah says : M If a person 
abuse a Musalman by calling him on oat or 
a hog, punishment is not incurred, because 
theee expressions are in no respect defama- 
tory of the person to whom they are used, 
it being evident that he is neither an ass 
nor a nog. But some allege that in our 
times chastisement is inflicted, since, in the 
modern acceptation, calling a man an ass 
or a hog is held to be abuse. Others, again, 
allege that it is esteemed only to be abuee 
when the person of whom it is eaid occupies a 
dignified position." Aocording to Aba ^anifah, 
the greatest number of stripes that can be 
inflicted for abusive language is thirty-nine. 
(Hamilton's Ilidayah, voL ii 78.) 

Muhammad is related to have eaid, 
" Abusing a Muslim is disobedience to Qod, 
and it is infidelity for anyone to loin such an 
one in religious warfare." (Afie&df, xxii. 2.) 

ABU T-SXIB (vJlt jtt>. Mufcam. 
mad*s undo and guardian ; the father of 
( Ali. He is believed to have died ae he had 
lived, an unbelievor in the Prophet's mission ; 
but for forty years he had boon his faithful 
friond and guardian. He died in the third 
year boforo tho llijrah. 

ABO 'UBAIDAH (**** %rt) IBN 
AL-JARRAQ One of the Companions, who 
was with the Prophet in all bis wars, and 
distinguished himself at the battle of Ufcud. 
He was highly esteemed by Muhammad, who 
made him one of the t A»harah at-Mubash- 
ikarah, or ten patriarchs of tho Muslim faith. 
He died a.m. 18, aged 68. 

ABU YUSUP (UUy yt). Known 
aleo as Ys'qftb ibn Ibrahim Bern at Bagh- 
dad, a.u. 118. Studied under the Imam Aba 
]?anifah, and Is oelebrated, together with the 
Imam Muhammad and the Imam Zufar, as 
disoiples of the great Imam ; from whose 
opinions, however, the three disciples not un- 
frequently differ, ae will be eeen upon refer- 
ence to the HidayaK He died am. 183. 

4 AD (jU). A tribe located to the 
south of Arabia, to which the prophet Had is 
said to have been cent. Sec Qur'an, vii 68 :— 

" And to 'Ad we cent our brother Had, 
• O my people,' eaid he, * worship Qod : ye 
have no other god than Him: Will ye not 
then fear Him t ' 

"Said the unbelieving chiefs among bis 

Digitized by 



people, * We certainly perceive that thou art 
onsound of mind ; find we surely deem ihoe 
an impostor.' 

u He Raid, « O my people t it is not unsound- 
ness of mind in mo, but 1 am en Apoatlo 
from the Lord of the Worlds. 

-" The messages of my Lord do I announce 
to you, and I am your faithful counsellor. 

"' Marvel ye that a warning hath come to 
you from your Lord through ene of yourselves 
that He may warn you f Remember bow he 
hath made yon the successors of the people 
of Neah t and increased you in tallness of 
stature. Remember then the favours of God. 
that it may haply be well with you.' 

" They said, « Art thou come to us in order 
that we may worship one God alone, and 
leave what our fathers worshipped? Then 
bring that upon us with whieh then threat- 
enest us, 11 thou be s man of truth. 1 

" He said, ' Vengeance and wrath shall sud- 
denly light on you from your Lord. Do ye 
dispute with me about names that you and 
your fathers have given your idols, and for 
which God bath sent you down no warranty ? 
Wait ye then, and I too will wait with you.' 

" And we delivered him, and those who 
were on his side, by our mercy, and we out 
off, to the last man, those who had treated 
our signs as lies, and who were not believers." 

Also, Surah lxxxix. 5 : " Hast thou not seen 
how thy Lord dealt with 'Ad at Irani, 
adorned with pillars, whose like have not 
been reared in these lands." [hud, ham.] 

ADA 1 (»M). Payment; satisfac- 
tion ; completing (pray on, Ac). 

ADAM. Arabic, Adam (f*\). The 
first man. Reckoned by Muslim writers as the 
6rst prophet, to whom ten portions of scrip- 
ture (sahffak) are said to have boon revealed. 
He is distinguished by the title of SafTyullah, 
or, the *' chosen one of God.** He is mentioned 
in the Qur*ln in the following 8<krahs, which 
are taken from Mr. Lane's Selections (new 
edition, by Mr. Stanley Lane-Poole j Trftbner, 
1879), with the commentary in Makes : — 

" Remember, Muhammad, when thy Lord 
said unto the angels, I am about to place in 
the earth a vicegerent to act fir me in the 
execution of my ordtnemces therein, namely, 
A dam,— they said, Wilt Thou place in it one 
who will corrupt in it by disobediences, and 
will shed blood (ox did the torn of ELJemn, 
who were in it t where ore, when the* acted 
corruptly, God tent to them the angels, who 
drove them away to Ike islands and the monn- 
/max), when we [on the contrary] celebrate 
the cuvine perfection, occupying ourselves with 
Thy praise, and extol Thy holiness ? There- 
fort we are more worthy of the vicegcrency, — 
God replied, Verily 1 know thst which ye 
know not, 6s to.the affair of appointing Adam 
vicegerent, and that among hit posterity will be 
the obedient and the rebellious, and the jutt wiit 
be manifest among them. And he created 
Adam from the turf ace of the earth, taking a 
1 of every colour that it comprised: which 
tadsd with various wafers # and he com- 



ptetcly formed it, and breathed into it the tout; 
to it oecame an animated sentient beino. And 
be taught Adam the names of all things, in- 
fining the knowledge of them into hit heart. 
Jhen He showed them (namely, the things) to 
the angels, and said, Declare unto mo the 
names of these things, If ye say truth in your 
assertion that I wilt not create any more know- 
ing than ye, and that y are more worthy of the 
viceperency. They replied, [We extol] Thy 
perfection I We have no knowledge excepting 
what Thou hast taught us ; for Thou art the 
Knowing, the Wise.— Qod said, Adam, tell 
them their names. And when ho had told 
them their names, God said. Did I not say 
unto you that I know the secrets of the 
heavens and the earth, and know what ye 
roveal of your word*, saying, Wilt thou viae* 
in it, etc., and what ye did coneoal of your 
vfordt, saying, tie will not create any more 
generous towards Him than we, nor any more 
knowing f" (Surah ii. 28-81.) 

M We created you ; that is, your father Adam : 
men We formed you ; we formed him, and you 
in him: then We said unto the angels, I*ro- 

strata yourselves unto Adam, by way of salu- 
tation f whereupon they prostrated them- 
selves, except Iblees, the father of the jinn, 
who was amid the angels : he was not of those 
who prostrated themselves. God said, What 
hath hindered thee from prostrating thyself, 
when I commanded theer He answered, I 
am better than he : Thou hast created me of 
fire, and Thou hast created him of earth. 
[God] said, Then descend thou from it ; that 
is, from Paradise ; or % as some say, from the 
heavens i f or ft is not fit for thee tnat thou 
behave thyself proudly therein : so go thou 
forth : verily thou shalt be of the contempt- 
ible. He replied, Grant me respite until the 
day when they (that is, mankind) shall be 
raised from the dead. He said, Thou shalt 
be of those [who are] respited : and, in another 
verse [in xv. 88, it Is said] { until the day of 
the known period; that it, unttl the period of the 
first blast [of the trumpet J. [And the devil] 
said, Now, as Thou hast fed me into error, I 
will surely lay wait for them (that is, for the 
sons of Adam) in Thy right way, Me way that 
leadstk to Thee : thon I will suroly come upon 
them, from before them, and from behind 
them, and from their right hands, and from 
their left, and hinder them from pursuing the 
way (but, saith Ibn * Abbas, he cannot come 
upon them above, lett he should intervene be- 
tween the servant (tnd God's mercy), and Thou 
shalt not And the great number of them 
gratoful, or believing, [God] said, Go forth 
from it, despised and driven away from 
mercy. Whosoever of them (that is, of man- 
kind) shall follow thee. I will surely fill 
hell with yott all ; with thee, and thy off- 
tprinp, and with men. n f8urah vll. 10-17.1 

" And we said, O Aaarn, dwell thou and 
thy wife (Howwa for Eve], whom God created 
from a rib of his teJX side) in the garden and 
eat ye therefrom plentifully, wherever ye 
will; but approaoh ye not this tree, to eat 
thereof i (ana it was wheat, or the grape-vine, 
or tome other tree j\ for if ye do so/yc will be 

Digitized by 




of the number ©/the offenders. Bat the devil, 
Iblees, caused them to slip from it, that is 
from the garden, by hie saying unto them. Shall 
I show you the way to the tree of eternity f 
And he sware to them by God that he was one 
of the faithful advisers to tUm ; eo they ate 
of it, end Ho ejected them from from that 
ttate of delight in which they were. And We 
said, Descend ye to the earth, ye two with the 
offspring that ye contprite [yet unborn], one 
of yon {that is, of your offspring) an enemy 
to anolhor ; and thoro shall bo for youi in tho 
earth, a place of abode, and a provision, of 
its vegetable produce, for a time, until the 
period of the expiration of your terms of life. 
And Adam learned, from his Lord, words, 
which were these: — Lord, we have acted 
unjustly to our own souls, and if Thou do not 
forgive us, and be merciful unto us, we shall 
surely be of those who suffer loss. And he 
prayed in these words; and He became pro- 
pitious towards him, accepting his repentance ; 
lot He is the Very Propitious, the MorcifuL 
We said, Descend ye from it (Jrom the garden) 
altogether ; and if there como unto you from 
Me a direction (a book and an apostle), thoso 
who follow my direction, there shall come no 
fear on them, nor shall they grieve in. the 
world to come ; for they shall enter paradise : 
but they who disbelieve and aocnse our signs 
of falsehood, these shall be the oompanions 
of the lire: they shall remain therein for 
ever." (Surah ii. 88-37.) 

The Muhammadans say, that when they 
were cast down from Paradise [which is in 
the seventh heaven], Adam fell on the isle of 
Ceylon, or Sarandu>, and Eve near Jiddah 
(the port of Makkah) in Arabia ; and that, 
after a separation of two hundred years, 
Adam was, on his repentance, conducted by 
the angel Gabriel to a mountain near Mak- 
kah, where he found and know his wife, the 
mountain being thon named 'Arafat ; and that 
be aftorwards retired with her to Oovlou.— 

ADAB (v»^). Discipline of the 
mind and manners ; good education snd good 
breeding; politeness; deportment; a mode 
of conduct or behaviour. A very long section 
of the Traditions is devoted to the sayings 
of Muhammad regarding rules of conduct, 
and is found in the Mishk atu 'l- Ma tabid under 
the title Bdbu V-Adab (hook xxii. Mattbow's 
Mishkat). It includes—(l) Salutations, (2) 
Asking permission to enter houses, (8) Shak- 
ing hands and embracing, (4) Rising up, (6) 
Sitting, sleeping and walking, (6) Sneering 
and yawning, (7) Laughing, (8) Names, (9) 
Poetry ana* eloquence, (10) Backbiting and 
abuse, (11) Promises, (12) Joking, (18) Boast- 
ing and party spirit, Tho traditional payings 
on these subjects will bo found under their 
respective titles, '//mm 'l-Adab is the science 
of Philology. 

•ADIYlT (^WjU). « Swift horses." 
The title of the 100th Surah of the Qur'an, the 
second verse of which is, "By the swift 
chargers and those who strike Are with their 


hoofs." Professor Palmer translates it 
" snorting chargers.** 

AD'IYATU 'L-MlgtJEAH (lt**\ 
fyt*U3\). "The prayers handed down 
by tradition." Those prayers which were 
said by Muhammad, in addition to the regular 
liturgical prayers. They ere found in diffe- 
rent sections of the traditions or Abddi*. 

*ADL (J***). Justice. Appointing 
what in just; equalising; making of the 
same weight. Ransom. Tho word occurs 
twelve times in the Qur'an, e.g., Sarah iv. 128, 
*' Ye are not able, it may be, to act equitably 
to your wives, even though ye oovet it. 
Surah ii. 44, " Pear the day wherein no soul 
shall nay any ransom for another souL* 8uran 
ii. 128, " And fear the day when no soul shall 
pay any ransom tor a soul, nor shall an equi- 
valent be received therefrom, nor ,eny inter- 
cession avail ; and they shall not be helped." 
Sarah ii. 282, « Write it down faithfully . . . 
then let his sgent dictate fuithjullyr 8ttrah v. 
105, «• Let there bo a testimony between you 
when any one of you is at the point of death — 
at the time he makes his will— two equitable 
persons from amongst you. w Surah vi. 69, 
"And though it (soul) compensate with the 
fullest compensation it would not be accepted." 
8firah v. 115, " The words of thy Lord are 
fulfilled in truth and Jus/tee." Surah xvl, 78, 
" It he to be. held equal with him who bids 
what is just, and who is on the right way?" 
Surah avi. 92, "Verily God bids you do 
justice." Surah xlix. 8, " Make peace with 
them with equity and be just." Surah Uxxil 
8, " Thy generous Lord, who created thee and 
moulded thee and disposed thee aright.* 

al-«ADL (JJ*tt). One of the 
ninety-nine special names of God. It signi- 
fies "the Just." It does not occur in the 
Qur'an as an attributo of tho Divine Being, 
but it is in the list of attributes given in the 
Traditions. (Mishkat. book x.) 

«ADN (y±*). The garden of Eden. 
Jannatu 'Adn. The garden of perpetual 
abode. The term is usod both for the garden 
of Eden, in which our first parents dwelt, 
and also for a place in celestial bliss, [jah- 


ADOPTION. Arabic Tabanni 
(oft*). An adopted son, or daughter, 
of known descent, has no right to Inherit 
from his, or her, adoptive parents and their 
relatives,— the filiation of this description 
being neither recommended nor recognised by 
M uhammadan law. Such son or daughter is, 
however, entitled to what may be given under 
a valid deed in gift or wilL In this particular 
the Mu^ammadan agrees with the English, 
and the Hindu with the Roman law. (Tagore 
Law Lectures, 18?3, p. 124.) 

ADORATION Tbe acts and 
postures by which the Muslims express 
adoration at the time of prayer are similar to 
those used by the ancient Jews (vide Smith's 
Dictionary of the Bible, in loco), and consist of 

Digitized by 





Rule*, or the inclination of the body, the 
hands being placed on the knees x end onjtfc/, 
or prostration npon the earth, the forehead 
touching the ground. [i»bayul1 The adora- 
tion of the Mack stone at Mskkah forms 
an important feature in the oeretnoniee of the 
pilgrimage, [hajj.] 

ADULTER*. Arabic tin& % (•**}). 
The term ***& includes both adultery and 
fornication, but there is a difference in the 
punishment for these offence*. [roBNiOATioif .] 

Adultery is established before a Qisi, either 
by proof or confession. To establish it upon 
proof, four witnesses are required. (Quran, 
Surah to. 1.) When witnesses come forward, it 
is necessary that they should be examined 
particularly concerning the nature of the 
offence, when the witnesses shall hare borne 
testimony completely, deolaring that "they 
hare seen the parties in the verg act of carnal 
conjunction," the Qaxi passes sentence. 

A confession of adultery must be made by 
the person who has committed the sin, at 
four different times, although, according to the 
Imam ash-Shifi'1, one confession is sufficient. 
Some of the doctors hold that if a person 
retract his confossion, his retraction must be 
credited, and he must be forthwith released. 

At the commencement of Muhammad's mis- 
sion, women found guilty of adultery and for' 
nication were punished by being literally 
immured— Stratu'n-nisa (ir.) 19, " Shut them 
np within their houses till death release 
them, or God make some way for them." 
This, howevui , was cancelled, and lapidation 
was substituted as tho punishment for adul- 
tery, and 100 stripes and one year's banish- 
ment for fornication. 

When an adulterer is to be stoned to death, 
he should be carried to some barren place, 
and the lapidation should be executed, first 
by the witnesses, then by the Qa*i, and after- 
wards by the by-standers When a woman 
is stoned, a hole or excavation should bo dug 
to receiTO her, as deep as her wsist, because 
Muhammad ordered such a hole to be dug 
for Ghandia. 

It is lawful for a husband to slay his wife 
and her paramour, if he shall find them in 
tho rery act. If a supreme ruler, such as 
a Khalifah. commit adultery, he is not subject 
to suoh punishment. 

The state of msrriago which subjects a 
whoremonger to lapidation, requires that ho 
be free (w. not a stare), a Muslim, and one 
who has consummated a lawful marriage. 

It will be seen that Muhammadan law is 
almost identical with the dirine law of the Jows 
with regard to adultery (Dent xxiii. 22, Lot. 
xht. 20); but the Mosaio penalty applied as 
well to the betrothed as to the married 

AFFINITY. Arabic Qardbah (**V). 
The prohibited degrees (hurmah) with regard 
to marriages aro as follows : — Mother, 
daughter, paternal aunt, maternal aunt, bro- 
ther's or sister's daughter, grandmother, 
granddaughter, mother-in-law, step-mother, 

daughter-in-law, granddaughter -in-law. Nor 
can any man marry any who stand in any of 
these relationships from fosterage. The mar- 
riage of two sisters at the same time is for- 
bidden, but the marriage of a deceased wife's 
sister is sllowod. Marriage with a deceased 
brother's wife is Tory common in Muslim 
oountries, such marriages being held to be a 
Tery honourable means of proriding for a 
brother's widow. The marriage of cousins is 
also considerod most desirablo, as being the 
means of keeping families and tribes together. 
The passsge of the Qur'an on the subject of 
affinity, is as follows (Surah y. 27) :— 

"Marry not women whom your fathers 
hare married : for this is a shame, and hate- 
ful, and an eril way : — though what is past 
(i.e. in times of ignorance) may be allowed. 

11 Forbiddon to you are your mothers, and 
your daughters, and your sisters, and your 
aunts, both on the father and mother's 
side, and your nieces on the brother and 
sister's side, and your' foster-mothers, and 
your foster-sisters, and the mothers of your 
wires, and your step- daughters who are your 
wards, born of tout wires to whom ye hare 
gone in: (but if ye hare not gono in unto 
them, it shall be no sin in you to marry 
them ;) and the wires of your sons who pro- 
ceed out of your loins ; and ye may not hare 
two sisters ; exoept where it. is already done. 
Verilr, God is Indulgent, Merciful 1 

•• forbiddun to you also are married women, 
exoept those who are in your hands as 
stares : This Is the law of God for you. And 
it is allowed you, beside this to seek out 
wires by means of your ealth, with * modest 
conduct, nnd without fornication. And giro 
thosq with whom yo hero cohabited their 
dowry This is tho law. But it shall be no 
crime in yon to make agreements, orer and 
abore tho la*r Verily, God is Knowing, 
Wiso I " 

AFFLICTION. Arabic bu%n {&y*)> 
gkamm (^). The benefits of affliction 
are frequently expressed in both the Qn ran 
and Traditions. For example: Sfirah ii. 160, 
" Wo will try you with somothing of fear, and 
hunger, and loss of wealth, and souls and 
fruit ; but giro good tiding* to the patient who, 
when there falls on them a calamity, aay, 
1 Verily we are God's and verily to Him we 
return?" This formula is always usod by 
Mohammedans in any danger or sudden cala- 
mity, especially in the presence of death. 

In the traditions (see Mithkatu 7-lfaso6tA), 
Muhammad is related to hare said, "A 
Muslim is like unto standing green corn, 
which somotimes stands oreot, but is some- 
timos cast down by the wind. H " No affliction 
bofals s sorrsnt of God but on account of the 
sins whioh he commits." 

AFStfN (oy-M). The Persian 
term for Da'wah or exorcism, [bjxoroism.] 

•AFC (j**). Lit, " erasing, cancel- 
ling/' Tbs word is generally used in Muham- 
madan books for pardon and forgiveness. It 

Digitized by 




occurs eight times in the Qur'an, e.g. Surah 
U. 286, u Lord, make ua not to carry what we 
have not strength lor, but forgive us and par- 
don ua and hare mercy on ua." Sarah iv. 
46, H Verily Qod pardons and forgives." 

Al J Afu ie one of the ninety-nine special 
names of Qod. It means *• one who erases or 
cancels;" " The Eraser (of sim>). M See Qur'an, 
Surah iv. 51. 

AGENT. Arabic wakil ( J*^). One 
legally appointed to act for another. For the 
Muhainmsdan law regarding the appointment 
of agent* to iran&act business, or to negotiate 
marriages, seo Hamilton's hi<i&yuh y vol. ill. 
p. 1 ; BailuVs Digest. Hanifi Code, p. 76 ; 
Imamxyah Coitc t p. 29. Tno author of the 
Hidayuft says, •• It is lawful for a person to 
appoint auotlmr his agent for tup settlement, 
In hit behalf, of every contract whiob he 
might lawfully Uuve concluded himself, suoh 
as sale, marriage, and so forth ; " aud he then 
proceeds to lay down rules for guide nee in 
such matters at great length. A woman who 
remains iu privacy and is not acoustomed to 
go into Court, ought, scoording to the saying 
of Abu Bakr, to appoint an agent aud not 
appear herself. A slave or a minor may be 
eppotntod agent for a free man. 

AtrAHAD (j^J\). "The One." A 
title given to Qod. [namks of qod.] 

ArJADlYAH (k*A). Unity, con- 
cord. Al-Afradiyah is a term usod by §ufi 
mystics to express a. condition of the mind, 
completely absorbed in a meditation on the 
Divine Unity. (See' 'Abdu Y-Rassaq's Dic- 
tionary of the Technical Term* of the Sufis. 
Sprengor's edition.) 

ArJQAF (u\*m\). The name of a 
traot of laod In Sihr in Yaman. The title of 
the XLVith Surah of the Qur'an. 

A HLU 'L-BA1T (o^M >»). « The 
people of the house,* 1 A term used in the 
Qur'an (Surah xxxiii. 83), and in the Had!*, 
(Mishkat, xxiv. 21), for Muhammad's house- 

AHLU 'L-UAWA' (Aje)\ >\). A 
visionary person ; a Hbortlne. 

AIILU 'L-KIT AB (^\^\ J*\). Lit. 
a The people of the book." A term used 
in tho Qur'an for Jews and Christians, as be- 
lievers in a revealed religion. Some sects of 
the Shi'aha includo the MajOsi (Magi) under 
this term. 

AHMAD (&**\). The name under 
which Muhammad profesies that Jesus Christ 
foretold his coming. Vide Qur'an, Surah Ixi. 
6, " And remember when Jew* the son of 
Mary said, < children of Israel ! of a truth I 
am God's Apostle to yon to confirm tho law 
which was given before mo, and to announce 
an apostlo that shall oome after mo, whose 
aame shall be Afr*aa\ tm Muhammad had. no 
doubt, heard that Our Lord had promised a 
Paracletos (wupaaAtyro? ), John xvi. 7. This 
title, understood by him, probably from the 


similarity of sound* aa equivalent to Periolytos 
(lrcpucAvros), he applied to himself with 
referenoe to his own name Muhammad, the 
praised or glorified one. Moir thinks that in 
some imperfect Arabio trsnslation of tho 
Gospel of St John, the word napaxk-qros 
ma v have been translated 4^wutd t or praised. 
(Life of Mahomet, vol. i. 17.) 

AHZAB M^). "Confederates." 
The title of the xxxiurd Surah of the Qur'fttt. 
which is said to have been 'written when 
al-Madinah was besiogad by a confederation of 
the Jewish tribes with the Arabs of Makkah. 
a.h. 6. 

AIY0B (^eit). Uob.J 

AJAL ( J*\). The appointed time 
of death, said to he ordained by Qod from 
the first. Qur'an, Surah xxxv. 44, "He 
rospites them until Urn appointed time. 
When their appointed time coraos, verily Qod 
looks upon ilisj servants." [death.] 

AJtK (f*\). A term used in Mu- 
hammadan law for a person hired for service. 

AJNABI (^). A foreigner; 
any person not of Arabia. 


(Mi jWfr f\). The last Wednesday 
of the month of §sfar. It is observed as a 
feast in commemoration of Muhammad' t 
haying experienced some mitigation of his 
last illness, and having bathed. It was the 
last time he performed the legal bathing; for 
he died on the twelfth day of the next 
month. Tn some parts of Islam it is oua- 
tomary, hi the early morning ef this day to 
write verses of the Qur'an, known as the 
Seven Satams (q.v.), and then wssb off tho ink 
and drink it as a charm against evil. It is 
not observed by the Wabhibis, nor is its ob- 
servance universal in Islam. 

AJQlhkQ (jU\). The plural of 
Khulq. Natures, dispositions, habits, manner* 
The general term for books on morality 
cy. Abbfaq-i-JalaH, AbhtdaiAfuh*i»l % the 
nanio of a dissertation on Etfrlcs by Husaiu 
Wa'ia. Kasbifi, ah. 910, which has been trans- 
lated into English by the Rev. H. Q. Keene 
(W. H. Allen & Co.) 

ABJJtfND 0»j*\). Amaulawt;a 
teacher. A title of respect given to eminent 
religious teacher*. One of the most cele- 
brated Mufyammadan teaohers of modern 
times was the " Akijund of Swat," who died 
a.i>. 1876. This great religious leader reaided 
in the village of Saidu, in the district of 
Swat, on the north- west frontiei of Indie. 

AKBtJNDZADAH (*»t>»fteM). The 

son of an Akjiund. A title of respect given 
to the sons or descendants of celebrated reli- 
gious teacher* [akhuni>/] 

AL (j\). Lit. "offspring, or pos- 
terity." Used in Muslim works for the off- 
spring of Muhammad 

Digitized by 





al-A'LA (J^«). "The Most 

High" Tho title of the ijxxxvutb Surah of 
the Qur*ftn, in the second verse of which 
the word occurs : M The name of thy liorcl M* 
Afotl Hixjk is celebrated." 

'ALAM (^). A standard or 
ensign. A term used for the flags and stan- 
dards paraded dnrmg the Muharram. [mu- 


'ALAM (,*Hn). The universe; 
world ; condition, state of being. 
*Alawm H-arwah . T*he world of spirits. 
'Alamu H-khalq . The world : this life. 
M&mu 'l-b&qi . The future state. 
M &n*y *l-&nnmdk . The highest heaven. 
Mfonn 'sh-$haMHnk The visible world. 
'Aittmu H-fhub . The Invisible world. 
'Atamu 'l-ma-qul . The* rational world. 

The four mystio stages of the Sufis are— 
{ Alai*u 'fi-nofif . The present world, 
i Atamu 7-sWoJbif . The state of angels, 
'if/asm 'l-jab&rut The state of power. 
Mfontii 'Ulnhui The state of absorption 

into tho Divinity. 

•ALAMAT (upufc). The greater 

signs of the resurrection. [ f Ai*AMATU 's- 


(%p&\ u*U*aa). " The signs of Pro- 
phecy.** A term used for the supposed mi* 
recite and other proofs of tho mission of 
Muhammad. The title of a chapter in the 
Traditions. (AfttMat, xxi. e. vi.) 

i*\~M). "The signs of ihe hour," 
ue. the signs of the time of the Resurrection 
and of the Day of Judgment The title of a 
section of the Traditions. (MukkSt, xxiii. 
c. &) [RESURArOTlOH.] 

'ALAQ (,jln). "Congealed blood." 
The title of the xevrth Surah, the first five 
verses of which are generally allowed to be 
Ihe earliest portion of the Qur'tn. 

a L- BALD A II (UJ\). "The City." 
A name sometimes used In the tfadls for 

ALCHEMY. Arabic Kimiyd 
>V**e£). According to ihe Kashfu 
V-ftma*, in loco, learned Muslims are not 
agreed as to the existence of this occult 
science,- nor jure they of one opinion as to its 
lawfulness, even if H should exist. 


Mentioned in the Qur'&n as £* 'l~QjuLn\ain, i.e. 
M He of the two boms," with whioh he is 
represented on his coins. (Surah xviii. $2.) 
He seems to have been regarded by Muham- 
mad as one invested with a divine commis- 
sion: — "Verily we established his power 
upon earth *; but eommentators are not agreed 
whether to assign to him the position of a 

IVopbet. J«U LQAXHA1N.J 


al-HAMD (Wt). "Praise." A 
title given to the first SQrah, so called because 
its first word is Al-bntnd. This chapter is 
also oalled Fatifuih, which term is used by 
modern Muslims for the Surah when it is said 
for the benefit of the dead, Al-hamH being 
its more usual title. [fatihah.J 

Ai^HAMDU-LrLLAH (*U *+m)X). 

u Praise belongs to-Qod." An ejaculation which 
is called 7oAmicf, and which occurs at the com- 
mencement of the first chapter of the Quran, 
it is used as an ejaculation of thanksgiving— 
" Thank God I » It is very often recited with 
the addition of Rabbi % i 6Jamlh t •* Lord of the 
Universe.** [tjjimid.] 

ai.-'ALI (-JUtt). Ono of the 
ninety -nine special names of God. U means 
n The Exalted One." 

'ALl G>). The son of Abu- 
Tilib, snd a eonsin-german to Muhammad, 
who adopted him aa his son. He married 
Pa|imah, the daughter of Muhammad, and 
had by her three sons. rjasaa. rjnsaln, and 
Mu^assiu. He was the fourth RjQalifah, and 
reigned from A.M. 85 to a.h. 40. Ho was 
•truck with a poisoned sword by Ibn Maljam, 
at sl-Kufah, and died after threo days, 
aged fifty nine years. The Shi'ahs hold that, 
en the death of Muhammad, •AH was entitled 
to tho Khalifats, and the respective claims ef 
Abu Bakr, 'Umar, and *Usmln on the one hand, 
and ef 'Ali on the other, gave rise to tho 
Sht'ah sohism. 'All is sumalned by the Arabs 
Atadu VfaA, and by the Persians Sker-i- 
Shnda, i.e. " The Lion of God." [sht*AH.J 

ALIP. The letter Alif 0) is a 
monogram frequently placed at the head of 
letters, prescriptions, Ac. It is the initial 
letter of the word AMk (dltt), " God." 

ALIF LAM MlM. The Arabic 
letters (&\ 9 corresponding to A L M , 
which oocur at the commencement of six 
Sfirahs, namely SQratu *1-Baqarah (n.), Suratu 
Ali 'Imran (lit.), 80ratu *J-«Ankabut (xxixA 
Suratu *r- Rum (xxx.),S0r*tu Lnqmftn(xxxf.) t 
and Suratu 's-Slldah (xixu.). Muhammad 
neter explained tho meaning of these myste- 
rious letters, and consequently they are a 
fruitful source of perplexity to learned com- 
mentators* Jalftlu d-din gives an exhaustive 
summary of the different views In bis Itqon 
(p. 470). Some suppose they stand for the 
werds AUih, 4l Qoi u - 9 Lat\f, ♦•gracious'*; 
Afqjid, " glorious.** Others say they stand for 
A n* 'tlahutflam* " I un the God who knoweth/ 
Others maintain that they were not meant to 
be understood, and that thoy were inserted 
by the Divine command without explanation, 
in order to remind the reader that there were 
mysteries which his intellect would never 

ALU'IMRAN foW JT). "The 
family of •Tmrin." The title of the third 
chapter of the Qur'tn. 

'ALTM (fJVt), pi. 'tdam&\ A loarned 

Digitized by 




man. The term usually includes all religions 
teachers, such as Imams, Muftis, Qasis, and 
Mania vriss ; and in Turkey it denotes the poli- 
tical party led by the religious teachers. 

al-'ALIM (f*M\). One of the 
ninety-nine special names of God. It fre- 
quently occurs in the Qur'an, and moans " The 
Wise One." 

ALLAH (aW). [qod.] 

ALLAHU AKBAR (j<f\ ' *1U). 

"God is great," or " God is most great." An 
ejaculation which is called the Takbtr. It 
oeours frequently in the liturgical forms, 
and is used when slaying an animal for food. 

ALMSGIVING. The word gene- 
rally used for alms is fkidaQah, or that which 
manifests righteousness; the word takdt, or 

{purification, being specially restricted to the 
egal alms, [sakat.] §adaqdtu 7-/Y|r arc 
the offerings gW* n on th* Lesser Festival. 
The duty of almsgiving is very frequoutly on- 
joined in the Qur'an, e.g. Surah ii. 274-5, 
" What ye expend of good (i.e. of well- 
gotten wealth), it shall be paid to you 
again, and ye shall, not be wronged. (Give 
your alms) unto the poor who are straitened 
in God's way and cannot traverse the earth. 
. . . Those who expend their wealth by night 
and by day, secretly and openly, they shall 
have their hire with their Lord." 

The following are some of the sayings of 
Muhammad on the subject of almsgiving, as 
they occur in the Traditions: — "The upper 
band is better than the lower one. The 
upper band is the giver of alms, aud the 
lower hand is the poor beggar." ** Tfco best 
of alms are those gfven by a man of small 
means, who gives of that which he has earned 
by labour, and gives as much as he is able." 
11 Begin by giving alms to your own relati? es." 
" Doing justice between two people is alms ; 
assisting a msn on bis beast is alms ; good 
words are alms." "A camel lent out for 
milk is alms ; a cup of milk every morning and 
evening is alms." ''Your smiling in your 
brother's face is alms ; assisting the blind is 
alms." " God says, Be thou liberal, thou child 
of Adam, that I may be liberal to tboe." (See 
Miikkat, Matthew's edition, voL i. p. 42U.) 

ALWAH (cVl), pi. of hauls. '• The 
tables" (of the Law). Mentioned in the 
Qur'an, Surah vii. 142, "We wrote for him 
(Moses) Upon the Tables (al-Alwdh) a monition 
concerning every matter." 

Muslim divines are not agreed as to the 
number oither of the tables, or of the Com- 
mandments. The commentators Jalilain say 
they were eithor seven or ten. [mm com- 


'AMAL-NAMAH (a** Jk*). The 

Persian word tor $ahifutu '/-.AW/, or record 
of actions kept by the recording angels. 
[baiuvatu Wmal, kiramo *L-KaHBIN.] 

AMAN (o^). Protection giTen 


by a Muslim conqueror to those who pay 
Jizyah, or poll tax. [jihad.] 

AMB1YA (»Wt), pi. of Nalfi. 
'•Prophets." The title of the xxist Surah. 


AMlN (&v\)t Hebrew lptf. An 

oppression of assent used at the conclusion of 
prayors, very much as in our Christian wor- 
ship. ' It is always usod at the conclusion of 
the Suratu '1-Fatiljah, or first chapter of the 

Amin t « Faithful." Al-Amin is the title which 
it is said was given to Mohammad when 
a youth, on account of bis fair and honour- 
able bearing, which won the confidence of the 

Amlnu U'Bait, one who wishes to perform 
the pilgrimage to Makkah. 

AMINAH (*j~\). Muhammad's 
mother. She was the wife of 'Abdu ll&h, and 
the daughter of Wahb ibn 'Abdi Manif. 
She died aud was buriod at al-Abwft, a place 
midway between Makkah and al-Madinah, 
bofore nor son claimed the position of a Pro- 

AMIR (j**\), Anglice, Emir. "A 
ruler; a commander; a chief; a nobleman." 
It includes tho various high oiUces in a Muslim 
state, tho Imam, or KhwlHah. being styled 
Am'tru *l-i T mard > $ the ruler of rulers; and 
Air.iru 7-J/t/WnJn, the commander of the 

AMIRU 'L-HAJJ (c^V*\). The 
chief of the pilgrimage." The officer in charge 
of the pilgrims to Makkah. [iiajj.] 

r**A*j«J\). "The Commander of tho 
Believers." A title which was first given to 
Abdu 'Hah ibn Jahsh after his expedition to 
Kafehlab, and which was afterwards assumed 
by the ghalifnbs (first by 'Umar) and the 
Sultans of Turkey, [khaufab.] 

•AMR IBN AL-'A^I (<j*W\ & #4*). 
One of the Companions, celebrated for his 
conquest of Syria, Palestine and Egypt, in the 
reigns of "Abu Bakr and 'Umar. He died 
(according to nn-Nawawi) a*b. 4& 

AMULETS. Arabic (famd'U 
MJW), •« an/thing suspended " ; 
ZVwii, " a refuge"; ffydb, *• a cover." 

Amulets, although of heathen origin, are 
very common in Mnhammadan countries. The 
following are used as amulets: (1) a small 
Qur'un, encased in silk or leatbei, and sus- 
pended from the shoulder; (2) a chapter or 
verso of the Qur'an, written on paper and 
folded in loathor or folvet; (3) some of the 
names of Ood, or tho numerical power (see 
abjad) of these names ; (4) tho names of pro- 
phets, celebrated saints, or the numerical power 
of the same ; (6) the Mubammadau creed, 
engraven on stone or silver. The chapters 
of the Qur'an generally selected for Amulets 
are: Surahs i., vi., zviiL, xxxvi.. xliv., lv., 

Digitized by 





Ixvii., lxxviiL Five verses known a* the 
Aydtu 7-jP(/», or " verses of protection," are 
also frequently inscribed on Amulets. They 
are Surah* ii. 266; xii. 64 ; xiil 12 ; xvt 17 : 
XXXVtl. 7. [ayatu 'l-hifz.] 

Theso charms are fastened on the ami or 
leg, or suspended round the neck, as a pro- 
tection against evil They are also put on 
houses and animals, and, in fact, upon any- 
thing from which evil is to be averted. 
Strictly, according to the principles of Islam, 
only the names of God, or verses from the 
QuPan, should be used for amulets. Informa- 
tion regarding the formation of magio squares 
and amulets will be found in the article on 
Exorcism, [exorcism, da' war.] 



















al-AN'AM (fU>«). "The Cattle." 
The title of thoTith Surnh, in verse 187 of 
which some superstitious customs of the 
Meceans, as to certain aattle, sre incidentally 

ANlNlYAH (**M). Prom ana, 
M L" "Egotism." Al-ananiyah is a term used 
by tfee $ftfis to express the existence of mnn. 

ANAS IBN MALIK (&\ cr»t 
«*UU). The last of the Companions 
of Muhammad, and the founder of the seel of 
the Malikls. He died at al-Basrah, ah. 98, 
aged 108. 

al-ANFAL (JV«N). "The Spoils." 
The title of the vmth Surah which was 
occasioned by a dispute regarding the spoils 
taken at the battle of Badr, between the young 
men who hsd fought and the old men who 
had stayed with the ensigns. 

ANGEL. Arabic maVak or malak 
(*) U, «aU.) . • Persian FirUUah (*****) . 
«• It is believed," says Ibn Majah, « that the 
angels are of a simple substanoe (created of 
light), endowed with life, and speech, and 
reason ; and that the difference between them, 
the Jinn, , and Shaifc&ns is a difference of 
species, Know,** he adds,' 1 that the angels 
are sanctified from carnal. desire and the dis- 
turbance of anger : they disobey not Ood in 
what He hath commanded them, but do what 
they are commanded. Their food is the cele- 
brating of His glory; their drink, the pro- 
claiming of His holiness ; their conversation, 
the commemoration of Ood, Whoso name be 
exalted; their pleasure, His worship; and 
thoy are created: in different forms and with 
different powers." (Arabian Nipht*, Lane's 
edition, Notes to the Introduction, p. 27.) 

Four of them are archangels, or, as they 
are called in Arabic, Karuklynn (Oherubim), 
namely, Jabra*U, or Jibril, (Gabriel), the 
angel of revelations; J/tta'i/, or AtVcal, 
(Michael), the patron of the Israelites; 
Itrdjil, tne anffel who will sound the trumpet 
at the last day; and •Izrffil, or * A trill, 
tho angol of doath. Angels aro said to be 
inferior in dignity to hmnen prophets, be- 
cause all the angels were commanded to 
prostrate themselves bofore Adam (Surah il. 
82). Every believer is attended by two record- 
ing angels, called the Kiramu 7-£afi'6in, one of 
whom records his good actions, and the other 
his evil actions. There are also two angels, 
called Munkar and Naldr, who examine all 
the dead in their graves. The chief anget who 
has charge of hell is called Malik, and his 
subordinates are nsmed Zabaniyah t or guards. 
A more extendod account of these angols will 
bo found under their particular titles. 

The angels intercede for man : " The 
angels celebrate the praise of their Lord, and 
ask forgiveness for the dwellers on earth.** 
(Surah xlii. 8.) They also act as guardian 
angels: "Each hath a succession of angels 
before him and behind him, who watch over 
him by Ood's behest," fSurah xiii. 12.) "Is 
it not onough for you that your Lord aideth 
you with throe thousand angols sent down 
(from on high)?" (Surah Til. 120.) "He 
is tho supremo ovor His s or rants, and' sondoth 
forth guardians who watch over von, until, 
whon death overtakoth any ono of you, our 
messengers receive him and fail not." (Surah 
vi. 61.) 

There are eight angels who support the 
throne of Ood, " And the angels shall be on 
its sides, and over thorn on that day eight 
shall bear up the throne of thy Lord." (SQrah 
lxix. 17.) Nineteen have charge of hell. 
" Over it are nineteen. Nono but angels havo 
we made guardians of the fire." (Surah lxxiv. 
80, 81.) 

Tho names of the guardian angels given In 
the book on Exorcism (da f wah\ entitled the 
JawahiruV-lChanuah, are Isrnfil, Jim-all, Kal- 
kall, Dardall, Durb&'il, Raftmall, Sharkall, 
TankafTI, Ismail, Saraklkifl, Kharurfill. 
T/afcall, Ruya11, Hftlall, Hamwakfl, • I trail, 

Digitized by 




ArawftkU, 'Amra'il, •Axre'il, MikaTl, Mahkell, 
Harta'il, «Ata'il, Nvrtfil, NukheU [axoa- 

ANIMALS. Arabic Hayatoan 
(ofip**). According to the Qur'an, 
Surah xxiv. 44, "God hath created every 
animal of water." " An idea," aaya Rodwell, 
" perhaps derived from Gen. i 20, 21." 

It is belioved (hat at the Resdrreciion the 
irrational animals will be restored to life, that 
thoy may bo brought to Judgwout, and thou be 
annihilated. Bee Qur'au, Surah vi. 8b\ u No 
kind of beast is there on the earth, nor fowl 
that fliefh with Hs wings, but is a community 
like you ; nothing have We passed over in the 
book (of the Eternal decrees) : then unto their 
Lord shall they be gathered.** 

*L-«ANKAPt)T (ia»ao&sit). "The 
Spider," The title of the xxixth Surah, 
in which there is a passing roference to 
this insect in the 40th verse:— "The like- 
ness for those who take to themselves guar- 
dians besides God is tho likenets of tho tpider 
who buildoth her a house; but truly the 
frailest of all houses surely is the house of 
the spider." 

al.AN?AR0 u ^)- "The Helpers," 
a term used for the early converts of al- 
Madtoah; but when all the citisons of al- 
Hadlnah were ostensibly oonvorted to Islam, 
they were all named Anjur, while those 
Muslims who accompanied the Prophet from 
Makkah to al-Madinah were called MuhSjirim, 
or exiles. (Moor's Life of Mahomet, vol iii 

p. 26.) [MOHAMXAD.J 

ANT1CHBIST. [masihtj 'd-daj- 


Arabic irtiddd («*W/). According to 
Muslim law, a male apostate, or Murtada', is 
liable to be put to death if he continue obsti- 
nate in his error; a female apostate is not 
Mubjeot to capital punishment, but she may 
be kept in confinement until she recant. 
(Hamilton's Hidayah, vol. ii p. 227.) If 
either the husband or wife apostatize from 
the faith of Islam, a divorce takes place ipoo 
facto i the wife is entitled to her whole dower, 
but no sentence of divorce ii necessary. If 
the husband and wife both apostatizo together, 
their marriage is generally allowed to con- 
tinue, although the Imam Zufar aaya it Is 
annulled. But if, after their joint apostasy, 
either husband or wife were singly to return 
to Islam, then the marriage would ho dis- 
solved. (Hamilton's Hiddyah, vol. ii p. 183.) 

According to Aba Hanifah, a male apoetate 
ie disabled from selling or otherwise dispos- 
ing of his property. But Abu Yusuf and 
Imam Muhammad diffsr from their master 
upon this point, and consider a male apostate 
to be as oompetent to exercise every right as 
if he were still in the faith. (Hiddyah, voL 

If a 

boy under age apostatise, hs is not 
to bo put to death, but to be imprisoned until 
he come to full age, when, if he eontinue In 


the state of unbelief, he must be put to death. 
Neither lunatics nor drunkards are held to 
be responsible for their apostasy from Islam. 
(Hiddyah, vol ii 246.) If a person ewe* com- 
pulsion become an apostate, his wife is not 
divorced, nor are his lands forfeited. If a 
person become a Musalmiu upon compul- 
sion, and afterwards, apostatise, he is not to 
be put to death. (Hiddyah, vol. iii 467.Y 

The will of a male apostate is not valid, but 
that of a female apostate is valid. ' (Hiddyah , 
vol Iv. 537.) 

'Ikrimsk relates that some apostates were 
brought to the Khalifah 'All, and he burnt them 
alive ; but Ibn 'Abbas heard of it, and said 
that the gfealifah had not acted rightly, for 
the Prophet had said, " Punish not with God's 
punishment (t.«. fire), but whosoever changes 
big religion, kill him with the sword." (£e*iai# 

APOSTLE. Arabic ratul (J^), 
hawdri (o^>**)- The term rasul 
(apostle or messenger) is applied to Muham- 
mad, that of bawari being ueed in the Qur'an 
(SQrah iii 4; 5; Borah iv. Ill, 112; SQrah lxi. 
14) for the Apostles of Jesus. The word 
hawdri seems to he derived from the JGthiopio 
bora, " to go " ; bawdry d, " apostle" ; although, 
according to al-Baisawf , the commentator, it is 
dorive£ from bawira, "to be white," in Syrieo, 
bewar, and was given to the disciplos of Jesus, 
ho says, on account of their purity of life and 
sincerity, or because they were respectable 
men and wore white garments. In the Tra- 
ditions (MUhkdt, book i c vi part 2) bawdri 
is used for the followers of all the prophets, 

al?'AQABAH (*>d\). A sheltered 
glen near Mine, celebrated as the scene of the 
two pledges, the first and second pledgo of 
al-* Aqabah. The first pledge was made by ten 
men of the tribe of KfiaaraJ and ten of Aus, 
when they plighted their faith to Muhammad 
thus: — " We will not worship any but one 
God; we will not steal; nor commit adul- 
tery; nor kill our children; nor will we 
slander our neighbour ; and we will obey the 
Prophet of God." The date assigned to this 
pledge by Sir W. Muir is April 21, a.* 621. 
The second pledge was a feu months after- 
wards, when sovetity-three men and two 
women earns forward, one by one, and took 
an oath of fealty to the Prophet. Muhammad 
named twelve of the chief of those men, and 
said :*-*• Moses chose from amongst his people 
twelve leaders. Ye shall be sureties for the 
rest, sven as were the Apostles of Jesus ; snd 
I am surety for my people. And tho people 
answered, Jstta, bo be it." (Muir's Life of 
Mahomet, vol ii. pp. 216, 282.) 

'AQIB (vttn). u A successor or 
deputy." " One who comes last." Al- S dqib is 
a title given to Muhammad as being styled 
" the last of the prophets." 

•AQILAH (*UU>). The relatives 
who pay the expiatory mulet for man- 
slaughter, or any other legal fine. They must 

Digitized by 



be relatives descended from one eommen 
father. (Hamilton's Hidavah, rol. iv. pages 
449, 462; Baillie'a Law of Sale, p. 214.) 

•AQIQAH (*****). A custom 
observed by tho Arabs on the birth of a 
child ; namely, leaving the hair on the 
infant's head until the seventh day, when it Is 
shared, and animals are sacrificed, namely, 
two sheep for a bor and one for a girl. (Mith- 
kat % xviil o. 8 ) It is enjoined by Muhammadan 
law, and observed in all parts of Islam. 

ARABIA. Bihldu 'L'Arab (afc 
vydt), JaMratu 'VArab (vytf •>>*)> 
'ArabutGn (^Uh^). The* peninsula 
bearing, amongst the Arubs, these names is 
the country situated on the east of the Red 
Sea, and extending as far as the Persian Gulf. 

The word probably signifies a " barren 

place,* M desert " (Heb. Jm$|)- 

Ptolemy divides Arabia Into thro© parts, 
Arabia Petraa, Arabia Felix, and Arabia 
Doserta ; but Arabian geographers divide it 
into Tihamah, al-Hijax, tm-Najd, al-*Arvs, 
and at- Yaman. 

The races which have peopled Arabia are 
divided into throe sections. af-'Arabu 7-/?o7- 
dah, al-'Aradu 'i-'Arihah, snd al-'Arahu 7- 

I. Al-'Arabu 'l-Bfidak, are the old "lost 
Arabs," of whom tradition has preserved the 
names of several tribes, as well as some me- 
morable particulars regarding their extinction. 
This may woll be called the fabulous period of 
Arabian history ; but, as It has the sanction of 
the Qur'an, it would be sacrilege in a Muslim 
to doubt its authenticity. According to 
this account, the most famous of the extinct 
tribes were those of 'Ad, ftamud, Jadis, and 
fasm, all descended in the third or fourth 
generation from Shem. «Ad, the father of his 
tribe, settled, according to tradition, in the 
Great Desert of al-Ahqaf soon after the con- 
fusion of tongues. Shaddld his son succeeded 
him in the government, and greatly extended 
his dominions. He performed many fabulous 
exploits ; among others, he erected a magnifi- 
cent city in the desert of 'Aden, which hsd 
been begun by his father, and adorned it with 
a sumptuous palace and delightful gardens, 
in imitation of the celestial paradise, in order 
to inspire his subjects with a superstitious 
veneration for him as a god. This superb 
structure was built with bricks of gold snd 
silver alternately disposed. Tho roof was of 
gold, inlaid with precious stones snd pearls. 
The trees and shrubs were of the same pre- 
cious materials. The fruits and flowers were 
rubies, and on the branches were perched 
birds of similar metals, the hollow psrts of 
which were losded with every species of the 
richest perfumes, so thst every breeze ihst 
blew csme charged with frsgrance from the 
bills of these golden imsges. To this para- 
dise he gave tho name of Iram (see Quran. 
Sursh Ixxxix. 6). On the completion of all 
this grandeur, Shaddid set out with a splendid 
retinue to admire its beauties. But heavon 



would not suffer his pride and impiety to go 
unpunished ; for, when within a day's journey 
of the place, they were all destroyed by a 
terrible noise from the olouds. As a monument 
of Divine justice, the city, we are assured, 
still stsndii in the desert, though invisible. 
Southey, in his Thahtba, has viowed this snd 
many of the other fables and superstitions of 
the Arabs with the eye of a poet,' a philo- 
sopher, and an antiquary. According to afc- 
Jaberi, this legendary palace was discovered 
in the time of Mu'awiyan, the first Khalffah of ' 
Damascus, by a person in search of a stray 
cameL A fanciful tradition adds, that the 
Angel of death, on being asked whether, in 
the discharge of his duties, an instance bad 
ever occurred in which he had felt some com- 
passion towsrds his wretched victims, ad- 
mitted that only twico had his sympathies 
been awakened — onco towards a shipwrecked 
infant, which had been exposed on a solitsry 
plank to struggle for existence with the winds 
and ws res, and which he spared ; and the 
second time in cutting off the unhappv Shad- 
did at the moment when almost within view 
of the glorious fabric which he had erected 
at so mnch expense. No sooner had the 
angel spoken, thsn a voice from heaven 
was heard to declare that the helpless 
innocent on the plank was no other than 
Shaddid himself; and that his punishment 
wss a just retribution for his ingratitude 
to a merciful and kind Providence, which 
had not only saved his life, but raised him 
to unrivalled wealth and splendour. The 
whole table seems to be a confused tradition 
of Belus and the ancient Babylon ; or, rather, 
as the nsme wonld import, of Benhadad, men- 
tioned In Scripture as one of the most fsmous 
of the Syrian kings, who, we are told, wss 
worshipped by his subjects. 

Of the 'Adites and their succeeding princes, 
nothing certain is known, except that thoy 
were dispersed or destroyed in the course of a 
few centuries by the sovereigns of al- Yaman. 
The tribe of gamud first settled in Arabia 
Felix, and on their expulsion they repaired 
to al-Hijr, on the confines of Syria. Like the 
'Adites, they are reported to nave been of a 
most gigantic stature, the tallest being a hun- 
dred cnbifs high snd tho least sixty ; and such 
wss their muscular power, that, with a tump 
of the foot in the driest soil, they could ptant 
themselves knee-deep in the earth. They 
dwelt, the Qur'an informs us, •• in the cavos of 
the rockn, snd cut the mountains into houses, 
which rcmsin to this day." In this tribe It is 
easy to discover the Thsmudeni of Diodoms, 
Plinr, snd Ptolemy. 

Tho tribes of jntim and Jadis settled be- 
tween Makksh snd al-Msdinah, and occupied 
the whole level country of al-Ysman, living 
promiscuously under the same government. 
Their history is buried in darkness ; snd when 
the Arabs wish to denote anything of dubious 
authority, they osll it a fsble of T*sm. 

Tho extinction of these tribes, accord- 
ing to the Qur'an, wss miraculous, and a 
signal example of Divine vengeance.' The 
porterity of 'Ad and gsmOd hsd abandoned 


Digitized by 





the worship or tho triio <lod, and lapsed into 
incorrigible idolutry. Th«,v had been ohaatiaod 
with a three yeara* drought, hut their heart* 
remained hardened. To tho former wae eent 
the Prophet Had, to reclaim them and preaeh 
tho unity of the Godhoud. •• O my people ! ** 
exclaimed the prophet, •• aak pardon of your 
Lord; theu turn unto Him with peniienoe, 
(*nA) He will send* down tho heavens upon 
you with eopiouN rain*, and with atrongth iu 
addition to your strength will He increase 
you. M Kew believed, end the overthrow of 
the idolaters we* effected by a hot end suf- 
focating wind, that blew sovon nighta and 
eight day* without intermission, accompanied 
with a terrible earthquake, by which thoir 
idolf were broken to pieoea. and their houses 
thrown to the ground. (See Qurtn, Surah vii. 
63, xi. 63.) Luqman, who. according to some, 
was a famous king of the *Adites, and. who 
lived to the age of seven eagles, oacaped, with 
about aixty others, the common calamity. 
Theao few eurvivora gavo rise to a tribe 
called tho Latter *Ad ; but on ucconnt of thoir 
criineN thoy were traiuifnnnod, an the Qur*an 
states, iolo asses or monkeys. . Hud returned 
to llasretnaut. and was buried in the neigh- 
bourhood, where a small town, Qabr Hud, 
still bourn bis name. Among the Arabs. Ad 
oxpreaaea tho sumo remote age that Saturn or 
Qgygoa did among iho drocks; anything of 
eKtroin* antiquity i* suid to l»o "as old aa 
King 'Ad." 

The idolatrous tribe of Rarndd had the 
pronhot l>alih sent to them, whom D*Herbelot 
makes the aon of Arphaxad, while Boohart 
and Sale suppose him to be Peleg. the 
brother of Joktan. His preaching had little 
effect. The fate of the * Adites, instead of 
being a warning, only set them to dig caverns 
in the rooks, where they hoped to escape tho 
vengeance of winds and tempests. Others 
demanded a sign from the prophet in token of 
his miaaion. Aa a condition of their belief, 
they challenged him to a trial of power, 
similar to what took place between JClijah 
and tbe prieata of Baal, and promised to 
follow the deity that should gain the triumph. 
From a certain roek a oamel big with young 
was to come forth in their presence Tho 
idolaters were foiled ; for on §alih s pointing 
to the spot, a she-camel was produced, with a 
young one ready weaned. This miracle 
wrought oonviction in a few ; hut the rest, fsr 
from believing, hamstrung the mother, killed 
her miraculous progeny, and divided the 
flesh among them. This set of impiety sealed 
their doom. " And a violent tempest overtook 
the wicked, and they were found prostrate on 
their breasts in their abodes* (Qur*an. 
Surah vii. 71, xi. 04.) 

The tribes of Jadis and Team owe their 
extinction to a different cause. A cert sin 
despot, a Tasiuite, but sovereign of both 1 ribes, 
had rendered himself detested by a voluptuous 
law olaiming for himeelf a priority of right 
over all the brides of the Jadisitea. Tbia 
inanlt was not to be tolerated. A conspiracy 
waa formed. The king aud his ehiefa were 
invited to an entertainment The avengers 

hsd privately hidden their swords in the 
sand, and in the moment of mirth and fes- 
tivity they fell upon the tyrutit and his 
retinue, and Anally extirpated the greater 
part of his subjects. 

U. — The j*irt. Arabs are those who claim 
to be descended from Joktan or Qah|aii, whom 
tho prouont Arabs regsvd sa thoir principal 
founder. Tho members of this genuine 
stock are styled el-*Arabu VArihah, the 
gemtiuo Arabs. According to thoir genealogy 
of this ]>atriartdi. his descendants formed two 
distinct branchos. Ya'rub, one of his sons, 
founded the kingdom of al-Yaraan, and Jurhum 
that of al-Hijaa, These two are the only sons 
spoken of by tho Arabs. Their namea do not 
occur in Scripture ; but it has been conjec- 
tured that thoy were the Jerah and Hadoram 
mentioned bv Mosee as among the thirteen 
planters of Arabia (Gen. x. 2b*). 

In the di via ion of their nation into tribes 
the Arabs resomble the Jew*. Prom an early 
era thty have rotnined tho distinction of aepa- 
rato and independent familiea. Thia partition 
was adverse to the consolidation of power or 
political influence, but it furnishes our chief 
guide into the dark sbyss of their antiquities. 
The posterity of Ye'rub spread and multi- 
plied into innumerable clans. New accessions 
rendered new subdi visions necessary. In tho 
gonoslogionl tables of Kale, (Jsgnier, and 
Saiyid Ahmad Kheu. are 'enumerated nearly 
three-eoore tribes of genuino Arsba. manv of 
wbom becume celebrated long before the tune 
of Muhammad, and some of them retain their 
names even at the present day. 

IH.— The 'Arabn 't-MuMWrtixih, the mixed 
Arabs, claim to be descended from Ishmael 
and the daughter of al-Musax. King of 
al-Hijaa, whom he took to wife, snd was of the 
ninth generation from- Jurhum, the founder of 
that kingdom. Of the Jurhum i tea, till the 
time of Ishmsel, little is recorded, exoopt the 
names of their prinoea or chiefs, snd that 
they had possession of the territory of al-Hijas. 
Bnt a* Muhammad trace* his desceut to this 
alliance, the Arabs have been more than 
usually oarefnl to preserve and adorn his 
genealogy. The want of a pure eneeatry ia, 
in their estimation, more than oompenaated 
by the dignity of so sacred a connexion; for 
•hey boast aa much as the Jews of being 
reokoned the children of Abraham. Thia 
circumstance will account for the preference 
with whioh Utey uniformly regard this branch 
of their pedigree, and for the many romantic 
legends they have grafted upon it. It is not 
improbable that the old giants and idolaters 
suffered an imaginary extinction to make way 
for a more favoured race, and that Divine 
chastisements always overtook those who 
dared to invade their consecrated terri- 

The Scripture aooeunt of the expulsion and 
deatiny of this venerated progenitor of the 
Arab* is brief, but simple and affecting. 
Ishmsel was the son of Abrsham by Hagar. 
An Egyptian slave. When fourteen years of 
age, he was supplanted in the hopes and 
affections of his father by the birth of Isaac, 

Digitized by 





through whom the promises w«»re to descend. 
This event made it necessary to remove the 
unhappy female and her onild, who were 
accordingly aent forth to seek their fortune 
In some of the surrounding unoccupied dis- 
t riots, A amall supply of provisions, and a 
bottle of wator on ner shoulder, was all she 
carried from the tent of her master. Direct- 
ing her atepa towards her native country, sho 
wandered with the lad in the wilderness of 
Boer-sheba, which was destitute of springs. 
flare her stock failed, and it seemed impos- 
sible to avoid perishing by hunger or thirst. 
She resigned herself to her melancholy pro- 
spects, but the feelings of the mother were 
more scute than the agonies of want and 
despair. Unable to witness her son's death, 
she laid him under one of the shrubs, 
took an affecting leave of hini, and retired 
to a distance* •• And she went, and aat 
her down over against him, a.good way off*, 
as it were a bow-shot ; for she ssid. Let 
me not see the death of the child. And she 
sat over against him, and lifted up her voice 
and wept." (Hon. xxi. 16.) At this moment 
an angel directed hor .to a well of water 
close at hand, — a discovery to which thoy 
owed the preservation of their lives. A pro- 
mise formerly given wss renewed, that 
sh mael was to heoome a great nation — that 
he was to be a wild msn — his hand against 
every man, and every man's hsnd against him. 
The travellers continued their jonrney to the 
wilderness of Psran, and there took up their 
residence. In due time the lad grew to man- 
hood, and greatly distinguished himself aa an 
archer, and his mother took him a wife out of 
her own land. Hero tho- sacred narrative 
broaks off abruptly, the main object of Moaes 
being to follow the history of Abraham's 
descendants through the line of Isaao. The 
Arabs, in their version of Iahmaers history, 
have mixed a groat deal of romance with the 
narrative of Scripture. They assert that 
al-Hija* waa the district whore he settled, and 
that Makkah, then an arid wilderness, waa the 
identical spot where his life was providentially 
saved, and where llsgar died and was buried. 
Tho well pointod out by tho angel, they be- 
lieve to be the famous Zamzam, of which all 
pious Muslims drink to this dsy. They 
make no allusion to hia allisnce with the 
Egyptian woman, by whom he had twelve 
aons (Qon. xxv. 12-18), the chiefs of as many 
nations, and the possessors of separate towns; 
but aa polygamy was common in his age and 
country, it is not improbable he may have 
had more wiyea than one. 

It waa, say they, to commemorate tho 
miraculous preservation of Ishmsel that Ood 
commanded Abraham to build the Ka'hah, 
and his son to furnish the necessary 

Mul?sinniadau writers giro the following 
account of lshmael and hia descendants : — 
Ishmsel was constituted the prince and first 
high-priest of Makkah. and. during half a 
contury he preached to the incredulous Arsbs. 
At his death, which happened forty-eight 
years after that nf Abraham, and in the 187th 

of his age, he was buried in the tomb of his 
mother linger. Between the erection of the 
Ka'bsh and the birth of their Prophet, the 
Arabs reckon about 2,740 years, lshmael 
waa succeeded in the regal and sacerdotal 
office by his eldest son Nebat, although the 
pedigree of Muhammad is traced from Kedsr. 
a youngor brother. But his family did not 
long enjoy this doublo authority ; for, in pro* 
gress of time, the Jurhumites seised the go 
vernment and tho guardianship of the temple, 
which thoy maintained altout 300 years. 
These lsst, again, having oorrupted the true 
worship, were assailed', as a punishment of 
their crimes, first by the scimitars of th#j 
Ishmaelites, who drove them from Makkah, 
and then by divers maladies, by whieh 
the . whole race finally perished. Before 
quitting Makkah, however, they committed 
every kind of saorilbge and indignity. They 
filled up the Zamzam well, after bavin? 
thrown into it the treasures and sacred 
utensils of the temple, the block stone, the 
swords and ouirssses of Qala'ah, the 'two 
golden gazelles presented by one of the 
kings of Arabia, the sacred imago of the ram 
substituted for Isaac, and all the precious 
movables, forming at otioe the object and 
tho workmanship of a superstitious devo- 
tion. For Severn 1 centuries the posterity 
of lshmael kept possession of the supreme 

The following is the list of chiefs who 
are said to have ruled the Hijaz, and to have 
been the lineal ancestors of Muhammad, as far 
as 'Adnsn : — 

A.t>. 538 *Abdn *ltfili,the father of Muhammad 

605 'Abdn I.Mulialib. 

472 Jlaahim. 

4$) 'Abd Manof. 

406 Qnsaiy. 

873 Kil&b. 

840 Morrah. 

807 Ka'ab. 

274 Luwaiy. 

241 Oh&lib. 

208 Fihr or Quraish. 

176 Malik. 

142 an-Na*r. 

100 Kinftnah. 

76 Khuzaimah. 

43 Mudrlkah. 

10 al-Ya'e. 

n.c. 28 Musar. 

66 Nisar. 

89 Ma-add. 

122 •Adnin.' 

The period bet worn lshmael and 'Adnftn is 
variously estimated, some reckoning forty, 
oehers only seven, generations. The authority 
of Abu '1- Kids, who makes it ten. is that gene- 
rally followed by the Arabs, being founded ou 
a tradition of ono of Muhammad's wives. 
Making every allowance, howover, for patri- 
srchsl longevity, even forty generations sre 
insufficient to extend over a space of nearly 
2,500 years. From 'Ad nan to Muhsmmsd 
the genealogy is cousidered certuin, compre- 
hending twenty -one generations, and nearly 

Digitized by 





160 different tribes, ail branching off from, 
the same parent stem. 

(See AbuH-Fida; Gagnier'a Vie de Maho- 
nut; Pooook, Specif*. Arab. Ri*t.; Saiyid 
Ahmad Khan's Es*ay$; Sale's Koran, Prelim. 
Dis ; Grichton's Hi$t. Arabia.) 

ARABIC. Lu&nu-'VArab ; Lu- 
ghatu *l-*Arab. The classical language of 
Arabia is held to he the language of the 
Qur'an, and of tho Traditions of Mufyammad, 
aud by reason of its incomparablo exoellenoe 
is called Sj&\ al-lughah, or •• tho language." 
(See Qur'an, Surah xvi. 105, " They say, Surely 
a person teaohoth him [i.e. Muhammad], But 
tho tongue of him at whom they mat is 
forolgn, whilo this [i.e. tho Qur'an] is plain 
Arabio. H ) 

This olassioal language is often termed, by 
the Arabians themselves, tho lauguago of 
Ma'add, and the lauguago of Musar, and Is 
a compound of many sister dialects, very 
often differing among themselves, which 
were spoken throughout the whole of the 
Peninsula before the religion of Muhammad 
incited the nation to spread its conquering 
armies oyer foreign oountries. Before that 
period, feuds among the tribes, throughout 
the whole extent of their territory, had pre- 
vented the blending of their dialects into ono 
uniform language ; but this effect of disunion 
was counteracted in a great measure by tho 
institution of the aaorod months, in whioh all 
acts of hostility were most strictly interdicted, 
and by the annual pilgrimage, and the yearly 
fair held at 'Ukis, at which tho poets of the 
various tribes contended for the meed of 
general admiration. 

Qatedah says that the Quraish tribe used to 
cull what was most excellent in the dialects 
of Arabia, so that their dialect became the 
best of all. This assertion, however, is not 
altogether correct, for many of the children 
of the tribe of Quraish, in the timo of Muham- 
mad, were sent into the desert to be there 
nursed, in order to acquire the. utmost 
ohasteness of speech, Muhammad himself 
was sent to be brought up among the tribe of 
Sa'd ibn Bakr ibn Hawaxin, descendants of 
Musar, but not in the line of Quraish ; and he 
is said to have urged the facts of his being a 
Quraish, and having also grown up among 
the tribe of Sa»o% as the grounds of his 
claim to bo the most chaste in speech of the 
Arabs. Certain it is that the language of 
Ma<add was characterised by the highest degree 
of perfection, oopiousness, and uniformity, in 
the time of Muhammad, although it after- 
wards declined. 

The language of the Qur'an is universally 
acknowledged to be the most perfect form of 
Arabic speech. At the same time we must 
not forget that the acknowledged claims of the 
Qur'an to be the direct utterauce of the 
Divinity have made it impossible for any 
Muslim to criticise the work, and it has be- 
come the standard by which other literary 
compositions have to be judged. (See Lane's 
introduction to his Arabic Dictionary, and 
Palmer*! Qur'an.) 


Arabic lexicon is that whioh is generally 

asoribed to al-ghalil, and entitled KitdbuH 

*Ain. The following are the most celebrated 

Arabic dictionaries composed after the 'Ain. 

The Jamkarah, by Ibn Duraid, died A.H. 321. 

The TaAiib, by al-Aahari, died A.R. 870. 

The JAM, by tho §ahib Ibn «Abbad, died 

A.H. 386. 

The Mujmal, by Ibn Paris, died A.H. 805. 
The &bdh, by al-Jauhari, diod a.h. 808. 
The JeW\ by al-Qassas, diod A.H. 412. 
The Mu*ab t by Abu Ghalih, died a.h. 436. 
The Mubkam, by Ibn SXdah, died A.H. 458. 
The Asa*, by as-Zamakhaharl. died A.H. 

The Maghrib, by al-Muftarrisi, died A.H. 
The *Ubob t by as-Saghaui, died a.h. GOO. 
Tho /ywa«w7-' Arab, by Ibn Mukarrain, died 
a.r. 711. 

The Tahiibu 't-Tahtib, by Mahmud at- 
Tanukhi, died a.h. 723. 

The Mi$bab % by Ahmad ibn Muhammad 
al-Faiyumi, compiled a.h. 734. 

The Mughii 'l-Labib, by Ibn His ham, died 
A.H. 761. 

The Qasiiij, by al-Fairusibadi, died a.h. 

The $ibab (says Mr. Lano in his Preface 
to his Dictionary), is among the books of 
loxicology like the £ri£iA of * Al-Bul&uri 
amongst the books of traditions ; for the point 
on whioh turns tho title* to reliance is not tho 
oopiousness of the collection, but the condi- 
tion of genuineness and correctness. 

Two well-known dictionaries, oompUed in 
modern times in Hindustan, are the Ghiyatu 7- 
Lug&at, by Maulawi Qfcivasu 'd-din of Rim- 
par, and the Muntaha H-'Arab, by «Abdu V 
Ra^im ibn *Abdu 1-Karim of $afipur. These 
are both Arable and Persian lexicons. 

The Arabic-Latin dictionary of Jaoob 
Qolius, was printed at Leyden, a.d. 1668; 
that of Froytag at Halle, a.d. 1830-86. 

The Arabic-English and English-Arabie 
dictionaries extant are — 

Richardson's Porsian-Arabio-English, a.d. 

Richardson's English-Porsian-Arabio, a.d. 

Francis Johnson's Poreian- Arabic- English, 
A.D. 1862. 

Catafago's Arabio-English and English- 
Arabic, new edition, 1873. 

Lane's Arabio-English, a.d. 1868 to 1882, 
Dr. Badger's English-Arabic, a.d. 1881. 
Dr. Steingass's English- Arabic, a.d. 1882. 

al-A'RAF MjftSt). (1) The 
partition between heaven and hell, described 
in the Qur'an, Surah vii. 44, " Betwixt tho two 
(heaven and hell) thero is a partition ; and ou 
al-A'raf are men who know all by their marks *, 
and they shall cry out to the inhabitants of 
Paradise, • Peace be upon you!' (hut) they 
have not (yet) entered it, although they so 
desire. And when their sight is turned towards 
tho dwellers In the Fire, they say, * O our Lord, 

Digitized by 





plaoe us not with the unjust people.* " Accord- 
ing to Sale, al'A*raf\B derived from the Terb 
'oratis, which signifies " to distinguish between 
things, or to part them " ; though some com- 
mentators giro another reason (or the imposi- 
tion of this name, because, say they, those who 
stand on this partition will know and diitinguish 
the blessed from the damned by their respec- 
tive marks or characteristics : and others say 
the word properly intends anything that is 
eUvaUd, as suoh a wall of separation must 
be supposed to be. Some imagine it to 
be a sort of Umbo for tho patriarchs and pro- 
phets, or for the martyrs and those who hare 
been most eminent for sanctity. Others 
place here those whose good and evil works 
are so equal that they exactly counterpoise 
each other, and thereforo deservo neither 
reward nor punishment ; and those, say they, 
will on the last day -be admitted into Paradise, 
after they shall hare performed an act of 
adoration, which will be imputed to them as 
a merit, and will make the scale of their good 
works to preponderate. Others suppose this 
intermediate space will be a receptacle for 
those who havo gone to war, without their 
parents* leave, and theroin suffered mar- 
tyrdom; being excluded from Paradise for 
their disobedience, and. escaping hell becauso 
they are martyrs. (2) Tho title of Surah vii. 
(8) A term used by $Qfi mystics to express 
a condition of the mind and soul wlien medi- 
tating on the existence of God in all things. 

'ARAFAH (*Jys). The vigil of the 
•Idu l-Asl^a, or Feast of Sacrifice, when the 

?ilgrims prooeed to Mount 'Arafat. ['u>u 

•ARAFAT O-Aftjft), or 'Arafah. 
The " Mount of Recognition/* situated twelvo 
miles from Makkah; the place where the 
pilgrims stay on the ninth day of the pil- 
grimage, and recite the mid-day and after- 
noon prayers, and hear the Khutbah or 
sermon. Hence it is a name given to the 
ninth day of the month ?u 1-£iijah. Upon 
the origin of the name given to this mountain, 
Burton save, " The Holy Hill owes its namo 
to the following legend: — When our first 
parents forfeited heaven for eating wheat, 
which deprived them of their primeval purity, 
they were cast down upon earth. The ser- 
pent descended upon Ispahan, the peacock at 
Cabal ; Satan at Bilbays (others say Semnan 
or Seist&n), Eve upon 'Arafat, and Adam at 
Oeylon (Sarandib\ The latter, determining 
to seek his wife, began a journey, to which 
the earth owes its present mottled appear- 
ance. Wherever our first father placed his 
foot, which was large, a town afterwards 
arose; and between the stridos will always 
be country. Wandering for many years, he 
came to the Mountain of Mercy, where our 
common mother was continually calling upon 
bis name, and their recognition of each other 
gave the place the name of * Arafah" 

ARA?I (o*W- LUt "**»*■"; the 
sale of lands. Tombs are not included in the 
•ale of lands. A place or station for casting 

the harvest is 'not considered to bo amongst 
tho rights and advantages of land, and there- 
fore does not entor into the sale of it. 
(Baillie's Law of Sale, pages 64, 65.) 

ARCHITECTURE. The term Sara- 
cenic is usually applied by English writers to 
Mu*oammadan architecture. But though the 
style may be traced to the Arabians, they 
cannot themselves be considered the inventor* 
of it. They had, in fact, no distinctive stylo 
of their own when they made their rapid con- 
quests, but adapted existing styles of archi- 
tecture to meet the religious and national 
feelings of the Muslims. 

Muhammad built a mosque at al-Madtnah, 
but it was an exceedingly simple structure, 
and he left no directions in the Qur'en or in 
the Traditions on the subject. 

The typical varieties of the earlior Moham- 
medan architecture are those which appeared 
in Spain and in Egypt; its later form 
appeared in Constantinople. The oldest 
specimen of Saracenic architecture in Spain is 
the mosque of Cordova, which now serves as 
the cathedral of tho city. It was oommencod 
by tho Shalifah «Abdu *r-Rahman, 780 A.D., 


with tho avowed intention that it should bo 
the finest mosque in the world, and Bysantino 
architects are said to have been specially 
invited to superintend its construction. 

The earliest of the Mohammedan buildings 
in Egypt, of which any portions still remain, is 
the Mosque of 'Amr at old Cairo, begun 
about a.d. 642, but greatly altered or rebuilt 
about sixty years later. 

On the capture of Constantinople, St Sophia 
was converted by the Muslim conquerors into 
their chief Mosque, and made their architec- 
tural model. The older Saracenic style, as 
seen at Cordova and old Cairo, oontinued to 
be tho basis of the new, but it was modified 
throughout by Bysantine influence ' In Porsia . 

Digitized by 





we may clearly trace in Muhamniadan build- 
ings the older Persian type, and in India 


almost to apparent insecurity ; but owing to 
the style of the embellishment , this lightness 


the Saracenic architect* showed the asms 
pliancy in adopting the atylcs of the vurions 
nooplcs aniougst whom they settled it thus 
happeue (says Fergusson, in bis Ifislor* of 
Indian Architecture), that ito have at (east 
twelve or fifteen different styles of Muham- 
madan architecture in Central Asia and in 


A striking and distinctive feature in early 
Muhammadan architecture ia the horse-shoe 
aroh, which in tinio gives way to a cuaped or 
soalloped arch, atriotly ao termed, the outline 
being produced by intersecting seini-archex. 
Another vaiioty of Saracenic aroh is the cir- 
cular-headed and stilted form. The pillara are 
commonly of exceedingly slender proportions, 


of particular forma lends to heighten the 
general luxuriance. Some have imsgined that 
this clement of slenderness in regard to 
pillar* indicates a tent origin of the style. 
This tcnt-liko character has been further kept 
up by concave ceilings and cupolas, ombla- 
toned with painting ami gilding. Decorations 
composed of animal snd human llgurea, being 
interdicted by Muhammadan law (jmctubkb] 
are not found in Saracenic architecture ; 
but their geometrical patterns exhibit sin- 
gular beauty and complexity, iuexhaustible 
variety of combinations, and a wonderful 
degree of harmonious intricacy, arising out of 
very simple elements. Lattice or open trellis 


work is another fertile source of embellish- 
ment, snd is similar to tho tracery mot with 
iu Ootbic buildings. Another characteristic 
of Saracenic stylo is that of the dome. For 
the most nart domes occur iq mosques and 
tomb*, and sre of Byxuntino origin. Minarets 
are also a special feature in Muhauunadan 
mosques, and contribute much to tho pic- 
turesqueness of these buildings. They are 

Digitized by 



found in mosques of the later Saracenic style. 
(See Fergnssons Indian and Eastern Architec- 




fare, Mr. Owen Jones's Alhambra Palace, Her- 
Miner's Arabisthe Bmtverxitrungen.) 

'ARlYAH (V)- A. kind of sale 
permitted In Islim, namely, when a person 
computes what quantity of fruit there is on a 
tree and sells it before li is plucked. (Mi$k- 
kat, ait c. v.) 

'ARlYAH (Xi». (1) A loan for 
the use of anything of which. Qotk cannot be 
made: e.g. the loan of a horse is MnyrtA; 
the loan of money is (Jar*. (2) A gift, of 
which the following is ait example!— A person 
makes a gift to another of the dates of a 
palm-tree* in his garden; but having after- 
wards some doubt of tho propriety of thst 
person coming dally to )iis garden whero 
his family usnally are, and being at the 
same time unwilling tc depart from his 
promise, or to retract his gift, he gives 
some of the dates that have already been 
pulled in lieu of those upon the tree. 
(BailbVs Law of Safe, p. MO.) 

ARK, NOAH'S (c/ *M). It it 

mentioned in the history of the Deluge, as 
recorded in the Onr'an* in two places — $urab 
zi. 89, " Build the ark under our eye and after 
our revelation," and Surah xxiii 3?. There 
is also supposed to bo an allusion to the ark 
in Rflrah xxxri, 41, "And a sign to them is 
that we bare their offspring in the laden ship." 

Al-Baisawt says that Noah was two years 
building the ark, which was 800 cubits long, 
50 wide, and 80 broad, and which was made 
of Indian plane-tree ; that it consisted of 
three storeys, the lowest for beasts, the middle 
for men and women (who were separated 
from each other), and the highest for birds. 

Tha ark is said to have restod on the moun- 
tain al-Jftdi. [hoar.] 


Hebrew word for "Ark" is ffoft (*•«• 
a chest, a coffer), Chald. MJTQ 11 ]-)' 
Arabic «yyVi, gyVs. See Qur 3 an, Surah 
ii. 249, "The sign bf his (Saul's) kingdom is 
that rhero shall uomo unto you the ark 
(Tabut) ; in it shall be security for the Shechl- 

nah, soibfnaA, Hob. JiyiJttJ) ftrom Tonr 
Lord, and the relics of what the family 
of Mosos and the family of Aaron left ; the 
angels shall bear it/* Jalalu 'd-din says 
this ark contained the images of the prophets, 
and was sent down from heaven to Adam, 
and at length came to the Israelites, who put 
great confidence therein, and continually car- 
ried it in front of their army, till it was taken 
by the Amalekiles. But on this oocasion the 
sngels brought it back in the sight of all the 
people, and placed it at the feet of Saul 
(Jo/mc), who was thereupon unanimously 
received as king. 

ARMS, The Sale of. The sale of 
armour or warlike stores to rebels, or m their 
camp, is forbidden, because selling arms Into 
the hands of rebels is an assistance to defec- 
tion. But it is not forblddon to sell the mate- 
rials for making arms to such persons. 
(Hamilton's Hid6yah % vol ii. 226.) 

ARSH {J*}). (1.) A legal term 
for compensation. (2.) A mulct ; a fine ; . par- 
ticularly that which is paid for shedding of 
blood. (8.) A gift for conciliating the favour 
of a Judge; a bribe. (4.) Whatever a pur- 
chaser receives from a seller after discover- 
ing a fault in the article bought 

'ARSH (\>r*) The term used in 
the Quran for the throno of Ood\ Surah ix. 
181, " He is the Iiord ot tho mighty throng 
HusainI, the commontator, says the throne 
has 8,000 pillars, and the distance between 
earn pillar is 8,000,000 milo*. 

'A9ABAH (**-*). A legal term 
for malo relatives by the father's side, 

A§AF (*JU\). The wazlr or prime 
minister of Solomon. Alluded to in the 
Qur'an, Surah xxvii. 40, as " He with whom 
was knowledge of the scripture," Muham 
madan commentators say be was the son of 

A8AR (f\). Relating; handing 
down by tradition. Generally used for a 
HadTa related by one of the Companions, as 
distinguished from one of the Prophet s own. 

«JkK*H). Tho sacred relic. A 
of either the beard or mnst achios of Muham-* 
mad, or a foot- print of tha Prophet. Ono of 
thane sacred relics (a hair of his beard) Is 
exhibited in the great mosque at Delhi, 
another in a mosque in Cashmere. 

ASHAB (wit***), pi. of Sthib. 

The Companions Associates of Muhammad. 



Digitized by 




Tho term need for a tingle companion if 
fahdbi. Concerning tho title of " Companion," 
there if considerable controversy as to the 
persons to whom it can be applied. Sa ( id 
ibn- al-Musaiyab reckoned none a " Com- 
panion," but those who had been a year or 
more with Muhammad, and had gone on a 
warlike expedition with him. Some say that 
everyone who had attained puberty, had em- 
braced Islam, and -had seen the Prophet, was 
a " Companion," even though he had attended 
Muhammad but an hour. Others, however, 
affirm that none could be a '• Companion ** 
unless Muhammad chose him and he chose 
Muhammad, and he adhered to the Prophet 
at all times. The general opinion is that 
every ono who embraced Islam, saw the Pro- 
phet, and aoeompaniod him, even for a short 
time, was a " Companion." 

It is rotated that tho Prophet marched to 
Makkah with 10,000 Muslims, to Ilunain with 
12,000, and that 40,000 accompanied him on 
the farewell pilgrimage. The number of the 
" Companions " at his death is said to have 
been 144,000. 

In point of merit, the refugees (Muhdjirun) 
are more worthy than the auxiliaries (Anftar) ; 
but by way of precedence, tho auxiliaries are 
more worthy than the later refugees. 

The *' Companions " have been arranged in 
thirteen classes, which are given by Abu '1- Fids' 
as follows: — 1. Those who first embraced 
Islam, such as Khadliah. *AU, Zaid, and Abu 
Bakr, and those who did not dolay till he had 
established his mission. II. The Companions 
who believed in him after his mission had 
been fully established, amongst whom was 
*Umar. III. Those who fled to Abyssinia. 
IV. The first Companions of 'Aqabah, who 
proceeded tho Auxiliaries. V. The second 
Companions of < Aqabah. VL The third Com- 
panions of 'Aqabah, who were sevonty. VII. 
Tho rofugeoe who wont to the Pronhot aftor 
his flight, when ho was at Quba, beforo the 
erection of the temple. VIII. The soldiers of 
the great battle of Badr. IX. Those who 
joined Islam between Badr and Hudaibiyah. 
X. Those who took the oath of fealty under 
the acacia tree at Hudaibiyah. XI. Those who 
joined after the treaty of Hudaibiyah, but 
before the conquest XIL Those that embraced 
Islam on the day of conquest. XIIL Thoso 
who were children in the timo of the Pro- 
phet,' and had seen him. 

Muhammad frequently commended the 
" Companions,** and spoke of their excellences 
and virtues, a chapter in tho Traditions being 
devotod to this subject. (MiMdt, xxiv. c. 
xiii.) He is related to have said, " My com- 
panions are like stars by which roads are 
found, for which ever companion you follow 
you will find the right road.** 

al-ASHABU »L.FIL ( Jtart V W), 

M The Companions of the Elephant.*' A term 
used in the Chapter of. the Elephant, or the 
cvth Surah :— *• Hast thou not seen how thy 
Lord dealt with the companion of tk* tUphant ? 
Did He not cause their stratagem to miscarry ? 


And He sent against them birds in flocks, 
small stones did they hurl down upon them, 
and he made them like stubble eaten down ! " 
This refers to the army of Abrahah, the 
Christian king of Abyssinia and Arabia Felix, 
said to have been lost, in the yaar of Muham- 
mad's birth, in an expedition against Makkah 
for the purpose of destroying the Ka ( bah. This 
army was. out off by small-pox, and there is no 
doubt, as the Arabic word for small-pox also 
means "small stonos," in reference to the 
hard gravelly feeling of the pustules, what is 
the truo interpretation of the fourth verse of 
this Surah, which, like many other poetical 
passages in the Qur'an, has formed the start- 
ing point for the most puerile and extravagant 

A9HABU 'L-KAHF (u*Q\ ^W.\). 

" Tho Companions of tho Cavo," i.e. the Seveu 
Sleopers, mentioned in the Sfirntu *l-kohf, or 
Chapter xviii. of the Qur'uu. The story, as 
told by early Christian writers, is given by 
Gibbon (Rite <«/*</ Full, Chapter xxxi.). When 
tho Emperor Decius persecuted tho Christians, 
seven noble youths of Ephesus are said to 
have concealed themselves in a cave in the 
side of a mountain, where they were doomed 
to perish by the tyrant, who gave orders that 
the entrance should he firmly secured with a 
nilo of huge stones. Thoy immediately fell 
•into a deep slumber, which was miraculously 
prolonged, without injuring the powers of life, 
during a period of 187 years. This popular 
tale, which Mufyammad must hare heard 
when he drove his camels to the fairs of 
Syria, is introduced into the Qur'an as a 
divine revelatiou. 

A9HABU '9-9DFFAH (^le*-* 
fc-N). "The Bitters ou the bench" 
of the temple at Makkah. They are thus de- 
scribed by Abu '1-Fida: •' They were poor 
strangors, without friomle or place of abode, 
Who claimed the promises of the Apostle of 
God and implored his protection. Thus the 
porch of the temple became their mansion, 
and thence they obtained their name. When 
Muhammad went to meals, he used to call 
some of them to partake with him ; and he 
selected others to eat with his companions.*' 

(Sya*** SyAe). " The ten who received 
glad tidings.** Ten of the most distinguished of 
Muhammad's followers, whose certain entrance 
into Paradise he is said to have foretold. 
They are Abu Bakr, 'Umar. Usmin, *AU, 
Talhah, as-Zubair,'Abdu *r- Rahman, Sa*d-ibn- 
Abu-Waqqas, Sa'id ibn Zaid, 'Abu 'Ubaidah 
ibn al-Jarrah. (MiMdt, book xxIt. c. xx., part 
ii.) Muhammad declared it presumption for 
anyone to count upon an entrance into 
heavon with abaoluto certainty, but he mado 
an exception in favour of those ton distin- 
guished persons. 

▲l.ASH'ARIYAH («V*>V). A sect 
formed by Abu 1-Qasan *AII ibn Itmi'fl 
al-Ash'ari, born a.h. 260 (a.d. 878-4). 

Digitized by 



They bold thai the attributee of God are 
distinct from His essence, yet in such a 
way as to forbid any comparison being 
made between God and His creatures. They 
say they are not " l a*n nor eAaif : " not of His 
essence, nor distinct from it: i.e. they csnnot 
be compared with any other things. Thev 
also hold that Ood has one eternal will, 
from which proceed all things, the good 
and the evil, the useful and the hurtful. The 
destiny of man was written on the eternal 
table before the world was created. 60 far 
they go with the Qifltis, bnt in order to 
preserve the moral responsibility of man, they 
say that he has power to convert will into 
action. But this power cannot create any- 
thing new, for then God's sovereignty would 
be impaired ; so they say that Ood in His pro- 
vidence so orders matters that whenever " a 
man desires to do a certain thing, good or 
bad, the action corresponding to the desire in, 
there and then, created by God, and, as it 
were, fitted on to the desire." Thns it seems 
as if it eame naturally from the will of the 
man, whereas it does not This action Is 
called Katb (acquisition), becauee it is acquired 
by a special creative act of God. It U an 
act directed to the obtaining of profit or the 
removing of injury : the term is therefore in- 
applicable to the Deity. Abn Bakr al-Bakil- 
lani, a disciple of al-Ash'arf, say*! • The 
essence or substance of the action is the 
effect of the power of God, but its being an 
aotion of obedience, such as prayer, or an 
aotion of disobedience, such an fornication, 
are qualities of the action, which proceed 
from the power of man.** The Imam Al- 
rjarsmain (a.h. 419-478) held « thst the 
actions of men were effected by the power 
which God has created in man." Abu Iafyaq 
al-Isfariyinisays: "That which maketh im- 
pression, or hath influence on aotion, is a 
compound of the power of God and the power 
of man." They also believe that the word of 
God is eternal, though they acknowledge that 
the vocal sounds used in the Qur'an, which are 
the manifestation of that word, are oreated. 
They Pay, In short, that the Qur'an contains 
(1) the eternal word which existed in the 
essence of God before timo was ; and (2) the 
word which consists of sounds and combina- 
tions of letters. This last they call the created 

Thus Al-Ash'eri traversed the main posi- 
tions of the Mutazilites, denying that man can, 
by the aid of his reason alone, rise to the 
knowledge of good and evil He must exer- 
cise no judgment, but accept all that is re- 
vealed. He has no right to apply the morel 
laws which affect men to the actions sf God. 
It cannot be asserted by the human reason 
that the good will be rewarded or the bad 
punished in a future world. Man must always 
approach God as a slave, in whom there is no 
light or knowledge to judge of the actions of 
the Supreme. Whether God will accept the 
pen tent sinner or not cannot be asserted, for 
He is an absolute 8overeign, above all law. 
(Sale, from Jbn gihetdun ; Die Mxt'loxiliUn 
flder oVe FreMtnker 1* hlim, von H. Steiner. 


IM&lZurUeschichte Abu 'I- Hasan al-ath'artih, 
von W. Spitta, 187C ; 1M Strijd overhet Dogma 
in dbi Itlam tot op El-iuh'ari, door Dr. M. Th. 
Houtsma, Leiden, 1875 ; and Expo*€ r/e 7* 
Riformti d$ tlthmt$me t by M. A. F. Mehren 
Leiden, 1878.) 

•ASHtJRA (•VbU). Lit. "tho 
tenth.** A voluntary fast day, observed on the 
tenth of the month of Muharram. It is related 
that Muhammad observed it« snd ssid it wss 
a day respected by Jews and Christians. 
(Muhkat, vtf. a vii. 1.) 

It is the only day of Muharram observed 
by the Sunn! Muslims, being the day 011 which 
it is said Ood created Adam and Ere, heaven 
and hell, the tablet of decree, the pen, life, 
and death. It is kept by the Sunnls as a fast. 

ASIYAH (l*A). Tho wife of 
Pharaoh. One of the four perfeot women 
(the Virgin Mar;. Khadijah, and Fitimah, 
being the other three). See Mithkutu l-Ma- 
*«6i£, xxiv. c. 22. She is mentioned in the 
Qur'an (Sflrah lxvi. 11): "And God striketh 
out a parable for those who believe : the wife 
of Pharaoh, when she said, < My Lord, build 
for me a bouse with Thee in Paradise, and 
save me from Pharaoh and his works, and 
ears me from the unjust people." 

A?L (J-^). Cauae, first principle, 
foundation. jls /-iso/hr*, «« cauae and effect,"' 
" fundamental and derivative principle.'* 

ASMA'U 'LLAH (aM -U-T). [ood, 


'ASR (;-*). The afternoon 
prsy«»r. [may sue.] The title of the cmrd 
Surah of the Qur'an 

ASS. According to the- Imam 
Aba Hanifah, the ass is an unclean animal, and 
its fl>sh and milk are unlawful ; nor is takdt to 
be ftiven on an ass. (Hamilton's Hide with, 
vol. i. 16, iv. 74, 86.) 

ASSISTANTS, [ansae.] 

ASTROLOGY. # Arabic '/tot* *n- 
n*jkm. Qatadah says, rof erring to the Qur'an, 
that God has created stars for three uses : 
(1) as an ornament to the heavens (So rah' 
lxvii. 6); (2) to stone the Devil with (Sarah 
lxrii. C) ; and (ft) to direot travellers through 
the forests and on the sea (Surah a v. lf>), 
Muhammad condemns thoee who study the . 
stars for any other purpose (Miihkat, xxL 
c. iii. pt. Hi.), snd consequently the science of 
Astrology fa not considered lawful in Islam. 

ASWAD 0»>-!tt). An impostor 
who, in the time of Muhammad, claimed 
the prophetic office. His name was.'Aihslsh 
ibn Ka'b, and hs belonged to the tribe 
of *Aus, of which he was an influential chief. 
He was sumsmed £n 'J Hi mar, or "The 
Master of the Ass/' * because he used 

• Bet another reading Is fa 'MCMmaV, or. "Ho 
with the veil " 


Digitized by 



frequently to aey, •• The master of the ass 
it coming onto me," and pretended to receive 
hie revelation* from two angels, named Suhsik 
and Shuraik. Being a good hand at logerdo- 
main, and having a smooth touguo, he gained 
mightily on the multitude by the strange 
feats whioh he shewed them, and the elo- 
quence of his disoourse. By those means he 
greatly inoreased bis power, and having made 
himself master of Najran and the territory of 
TaHf, on tho death of Badhan. the governor 
of Yaman for Muhammad, he seixed that pro- 
vince also, killing Shahr, the son of Badhan, 
and taking to wife his widow Asad, whose 
father he had also slain. The news being 
brought to Muhammad, he sent to his friends 
and to the tribe of Hamd&n, a party of whom 
conspiring with Qai* ibn Abd Yaghuth, who 
bore As wad a grudge, and with Fir fix and 
Aswad's wife, broke by night into his house, 
where FTruz surprised him. and out Off his 
head. While dying, it is said that he roared 
like a bull, at whioh his guards came to the 
chamber door, but were sent away by his 
wife, who told them that the prophot was 
only agitated by the divine inspiration. This 
was done the very night before Muhammad 
died. The next 'morning the conspirators 
oaused the following proclamation to be 
made, vis. «• I boar witness that Muhammad 
is tho Apostb) of Qod, end that 'Aihala is a 
liar"; and letters, were immediately setit 
away to Muhammad, with an account of 
what had been done ; but a messenger from 
heaven outstripped them, and acquainted the 

Kophet with the news, whioh he imparted to 
s Companions a little beforo his death, tl>e 
letters themselves not arriving till Aba Bakr 
was chosen Khalif. It is said that Muham- 
mad on his occasion told those who attended 
him that before the Day of Judgment thirty 
more impostors, beside* Musailimah and As- 
wan, should appear. The whole time from 
the beginning of Aswad's rebellion to his 
death was four months. 

ATHEIST, [djlhbi.] 

'ATlRAH (•>**). The sacrifice 
offered by the idolatrous Arabs in the month 
of Rajab. It wa* allowed by the Prophet at 
the commencement of his mission, but was 
afterwards abolished. Mishkat , book iv. e. 60, 
" Let there be no Fara* nor • Atirah." 

AT-TAHIYAT («pWH). Lit. "the 
greetings." A part of the stated prayers, 
recited after the TaUnru H-Q*ud % after 
everr two rahakt. It is recited whilst the 
worshipper kneels upon the ground. His left 
foot bent under him, he sits upon it, and 
plaees his hands upon his kneee, and says:— 
••The adoratione (i.e. at-tak'tyatu) of the 
tongue are for God, and aleo of the body and 
of alms-giving. Peace be on thee, O Prophet, 
with the mercy of Ood and His blessing. 
Peace be upon us, and upon God's righteous 
servants.- (Mithkat, iv., o. xvi.) [fkateb.] 

AUOURY. [fa'l.] 


AULlYA (.Wty), pi. of wali. 
" Favourites of God." The expression occurs 
in the Quran in the following verse, " Are not 
the favourites of God those on whom no fear 
shall come, nor shall they be put to grief? " 
(Surah x. 63). 

AUTAD (Jto } \). bit. " props or 
pillars." A term used by the gufis for the 
four saints, by whom Ihe four corners of the 
world are said to be supported. 

A'OZU BILLAH (*m* >p\). An- 

other name for the Ta*auwug, or the prajor 
in the daily liturgy : «• I seek refuge with God 
from the cursed $*tan." [pbayeh.] 


Muhammadan law, as in the Jewish, the 
punishment for wilful murder is left to the 
next of kin ; but in the Jewish cede 
the avenger of. blood was compelled to take 
the life of the murderer, whilst in the Muslim 
oode he may accept compensation, ri7/*» 
Qur'in, Surah ii. 178, "O believers I retaliation 
(QisofWor blood- shedding is prescribed to 
you ; the free man for the free, and the slave 
for tho slave, and the woman for the woman ; 
but he to whom his brother shall make, auy 
remission is to be dealt with equitably ; and 
a payment should bo made to him with 
liberality. This is a relaxation (<.'. of tho 
stricter lex ttilionit) from your Luid, and a 
meroy." [qisas.] 

AYAH (h\). Lit "a sign, or 
miracle." The term used f«r one of the 
smaller portions of the chapters of the Qur*an, 
which we call verses. The number of verses 
is often set down after the title of the chapter, 
but the versos are not marked in tho text as 
they are in our English Bibles. The number 
of verses in the Quran is variously estimated, 
but they are generally said to be about six 
thousand two hundred, [qub'aw.] 

al-A'YANU 'S-gABITAH (<J***\ 
£*tUtt), pi. of 'ayn, in the sense of 
"th© essence* of a thing. The established 
essenoes. A term used by the $uf! mystics 
to express Agures emblematic of the names 
of Qod. ('Abdu V-lUt*4q> /dictionary of 
TtchniaU Term of tkt Sufi*. Sprengors 

AYATU 'L-FATIJ ( C **J\ V). Lit. 

"The verse of victory." The fifty-ninth 
verse of the Suratn 'l-An'ini (vL) of the 
Qur'an. The powers of this verse are said to 
be so great, that if a person constantly recite 
it he will obtain his desires. It is generally 
reoited with this objoct forty times after each 
season of prayer. It is ss follows :— " And with 
Him are the keys of the secret things ; uoue 
knoweth them but He ; and He knoweth what- 
ever is on the land and in the eea ; and no 
leaf f alleth but He knoweth it ; neither is there 
a grain in the darknesses of the earth, nor a 
green, thing nor a dry thiog, but it is notsd in 
s clear book." 

Digitized by 


ATATU'L-HIP^CfcO^^it). The 

verses of protection." Certain verses of 
the Qur*an whioh are usually inscribed on 
amulets. They ere:— SOrah H. 366, "And 
the preservation of both (heaven and earth) is 
no burden nnto Him." Surah xii. 64, " God 
is the host protector." Surah xiii. 18, « They 
guard him by the oommand of God." Surah 
xv. 17, " We guard him from every devil 
driven away by. stones." SOrah xxxvii. 7, 
** A protection against every rebellious deviL" 

AYATtTL-KURSl (o-rCt *V). 
"The verse of the throne." Verse 266 of 
the Sfkratu 1-Baqarah, or chap. ii. of the 
Qur'to, It is related (Miskkmt, book iv., 
c xix., part iii.) that 'All heard Muham- 
mad say in the pulpit, "that person who 
repeats the Ajatu V-Tlerd after every prayer, 
nothing prevents him entering into Paradise 
but Hf e ; end whoever says it when he goes to 
Ms bed-ohamber, Ood will keep him in safety, 
together with Ids house and the house of his 
neighbour. The verse Is as follows :— ** Ood ! 
There is no God but He ; the Living, the 
Abiding. Neither slumber aeiseth Him, nor 
sleep. To Him belonfeth whatsoever is In 
heaven and wheteoever is in earth. Who is 
he that can intercede with Him but by His 
own permission » He knoweth what hath 
been before them, and what shall be after 
them ; yet nought of His knowledge do they 
comprehend, save what He willeth. His 
throws reaoheth orer the heavens and the 
earth, and the upholding a! both burdeneth 
Him not ; and He is the High, the Great" 

AYATU'L-MA WARlgtaiVeR «). 

44 The verse of Inheritances." The twelfth 
verse of the Surata 'n-nies, or fourth chapUr 
of the Qar'in. 1% relates to inheritance, and 
is the foundation of the Muslim law on the 
subject It is given m the article on Inhe- 
ritance. [waaaiTAWcs,] 

"The leading names.'* The sevon prinoipal 
names or titles of God, namely : — 

Ahflaww . The Living. 

AL'Attm . The Knowing. 

Al-Murtd . . ThePurpossr. 

AlOiohr . The Powerful 

Ai'Sam? . The Hearer. 

AUBa$hr . The Seer. 

ALMutalmUim . The Speaker. 

'AYI8HAH (U|W). The daughter 
of Abu Bakr, and the favourite wife oi Mu- 
hammad, to whom she was married when 
only nine years ef age. She survived her 
husband many years, and died at al-Madtnsh, 
a.h. 68 (a.d. 676), aged sixty-seven, and 
obtained the Utle of Ummu ^MuminH. " The 
Mother of the Believers." 

AYMAN foUrf), pi. of Yamim. 

AYYAMU'L-BI^ (oO^rV). "The 
days of the bright nights," mentioned in the 
Midikwt (book vii. o. 7, part S), s* days on 



whioh Muhammad did not eat, whether halt- 
ing or marching. They are the 18th, Uth, 
and 16th nights of the month. (See Lane's 
Diet, p. 98i.) 

day of rest after the day of sacrifice at the 
Pilgrimage, [iujj.] 

The season of sacrifice at the Pilgrimage* 

AYYAMU'T - TASHRIQ ( r > — *t 
(Jt/Ajttt). The three days after the 
feast of saorifice at Mini during the Pilgrim- 
age. So celled because the flesh of the 
victims is then nVisof, or because they are not 
slain until after sun-rise, [hajj, pilobimaqb.] 

AYYIM (,**). A legal term for 
a woman having no husband, whether she be 
a virgin or a widow. 

'AZABITL-QABR (>** v^). 
"The punishment of the grave." That all 
persons, whether believers or not, undergo 
soms punishment in their graves, is a funda- 
mental article of the Muslim belief. These 
punishments are described in the following 
l£adl| on the authority of Abu Huralrah : — 

M The Prophet of God said, When a corpse 
is placed in its grave, two blaok angels come 
to it, with blue eyee. The name of the one is 
Munkar and of the other Nakir, and they inter- 
rogate the dead person concerning the Prophet 
of God. If he be a Muslim, he will bear 
witness to the Unity of God and the mission 
of Muhammad. The angels will then say, 
•We knew thou weuldst say so'; and the 
grave will then expand seventy times seventy 
yards in length, and seventy times seventy in 
breadth. A light will then be given for the 
grave, and it will be said, ' Sleep.* Then the 
dead person will say, ' Shall I return to my 
brethren and inform them of this ? ' Then 
the angels will say, 'Sleep like the bride- 
groom, till God shall raise thee up from the 
grave on the Day of Resurrection.' But if 
the corpse be that of an unbeliever, it will 
be asked, 'What sayest thou about the 
Prophet?' and he will reply, *I know 
him not.'' And then the angels will say, 
• We knew thou wouldst say so.' Then the 
ground will be ordered to close in upon him, 
and It will break hie sides, and turn his right 
side to his left, and he will suffer perpetual 
punishment till God raise him therefrom." 
In another tradition, recorded by. 'Anas, it is 
said, "The wioked will be struck with a 
rod (milraqah\ and they will rear out, and 
their cries will be heard by all animsle that 
may he near the grave exoepting ma* and the 
genii." (Mi$hkat , hook i., c. v.). 

All Muliammadan doctors of the orthodox 
schools (whether we apply the term orthodox 
to 8unnIor Bhi'ah) believe in the literal inter- 
pretation of these punishments in the grave, 
which are said to take place as soon as the 
fupersl psrty has left the grave-yard. A 

Digitized by 





perusal of the various traditions on the sub- 
foot mutt eonTinoe any unprejudiced miud 
that Muhammad intended to teach a literal 
interpretation of his sayings on this subject. 
It U related that on one occasion, when the 
Prophet waa riding through a grave- yard, hia 
mule, hearing the groans of the dead, tried to 
throw hia maater. On that occasion, Moham- 
mad said, "If I were not afraid that you 
would leave off burying I would aak Qod to 
give you the power of hearing what I hear." 
Shaifeb 'Abdu 'l-ljaqq, in his commentary on 
the Mishkat, saya, "The accounts which are 
here given of the punishment of the grave, 
are undoubtedly true, and they are not either 
imaginary or figurative." (Mithkit, book 1., 
ehap. v. ; see Persian edition with 'Abdu '1- 
Qaqq's commentary.) 

AZAL (Jj\). Eternity with re- 
spect to the past, as distinguished from ahud 
(*fc|\)i eternity without end. 

AZANfoW). LiL'l announcement." 
The call or summons to" publio prayers pro- 
claimed by the Mu'agsju (Or crier)— in small 
mosques from the side of the building or at 
the door, and in large mosques from the 

It is in Arabio as follows :— 





Allahu ukbar! Allahu debar t Allahu 
akbar I Allahu akbar I Athhaau an la ilaha 
ilia Ulahl- AMadu an la ilaha ilia % llah t A*h- 
hadu anna Mubammaaan ratilu-llah ! Ash- 
hadu anna Muhammadan ratilu-l/dh I Hayga 
•fl/ii 'waUUit Itauya *ala 't-taldtil Huvya 
•ala H- faith!' $a*ya >ala »/ falabt Allahu 
akbar / Alldku akbar! La ilaha ilia 'lldh I 

Which ia translated :— 

" Qod ia moat great 1 Qod is most great 1 
Qod is most great 1 Qod ia moat great! I 
testify that there is no god but Qod 1 I tes- 
tify that there is no god but Qod ! I testify 
that Muhammad is the Apostle of God ! I 
testify that Muhammad is the Apostle of God ! 
Come to prayer 1 Come to prayer I Cpme to 
aalvation ! Come to salvation ! Qod ia most 
great ! God is most great 1 There is no god 
but Qod ! " 

In the As&n in the early morning, after the 
worda, •• Come to aalvation I " \% sdded i±J\ 

Ai-taldtu khflimn mina 'n-navmil A*-$aidtu 
kfrairun mina Vnaumt/ "Prayer is better 
than sleep ! Prayer is better than sleep 1 " 

The Shi'ahs inako a slight alteration in the 
Ag^n, by adding the words, ^a. ( JLa ^j*. 

khairi 'L'amaTi! Jiayya 'aid k&airi 7-*«m<i/i / 
" Come to the beat -of works ! Come to the 

best of works ! H and by ropeuting the laat 
sentence of the Agan, " There is no god but 
Qod*,** twice instead of once, aa in the Sunni 

Wheu the Agin ia recited, it ia uanal for 
men of piety and religious feeling to respond 
to each call, as, for example, when the 
Mu'a«in cries : — 

"Alhlhu a^bar! Allahu akbar 1 AlUhn 
akbar! Allahu akbar K 

Those who hj>ar it repeat : — 

" Allahu akbar 1 Allahu akbar! AUihu 
akbar! Allahu akbar I " 

The Mu'a&xiii aays — 

" I testify that there is no god but Qod ; I 
testify that there ia no God but God. H 

They reply — 

♦'I testify that there ia no Qod but Qod; 
I testify that there is no god but God." 

Mu'aajin.— "I testify that Mul>ammmd is 
the Apostle of God." 

Reply.—" I testify that Muhammad lathe 
Apostle of God." 

Mu'asjtin. — " Come to prayer." 

Reply. — " I have no power nor etrength but 
from Qod the most High and Great." 

Mu'asgin. — " Come to salvation." 

Reply.— -What God willeth will be; what 
He wilfeth not willeth not be." 

The reoital of the Agan must be listened to 
with great reverence. If a person be walk- 
ing at the time, he should stand still ; if re- 
clining, sit up. Mr. Lane, in his Modtrn 
Egyptian*, says, " Most of the Mu'auina of 
Cairo have harmonious and sonorous voices, 
which they strain to the utmost pitch ; yet 
there is s simple and solemn melody in their 
chants which is very striking, particularly in 
the stillness of the night." Bat VfanWry re- 
marks that " the Turkistanees most carefully 
avoid all tune and melody. The manner in 
which tho Agin is cried hi the west is hero 
(in Bokhara) declared sinful, sud the beautiful 
melancholy notes which, in tho silent hour 
of a moonlit evening, are heard from the 
slender minarets on the Bosphorus, fascinat 
ing every hearer, would be listened to by the 
Bokhariot with feelings only of detestation." 

The summons to prayer waa at first the 
simple cry, " Come to publio prayer." After 
tho Qiblah was changed, Muhammad be- 
thought himaelf of a more formal call. Some 
suggested the Jewish trumpet, others the 
Christian bell ; but neithor waa grateful to the 
Prophet's ear. The Asin, or call to prayer 
was then established. Tradition claims for 
it a aupernatural origin* thus : — " While the 
matter was under discussion, 'Abdu 'Uih, a 
Khaarajlte, dreamed that he met a man clad 
in green raiment, carrying a belL 'Abdu *Uah 
sought to buy it, saving that it would do well 
for bringing together the assembly of the 
faithful. " I will show thee a better way," 
replied the stranger ; " let a crier ory aloud, 
* God is most great,' Ac" Waking from 
sleep, 'Abdu llah proceeded to Muhammad, and 
told him his dream. (Muir, from Kdtibu 'l- 
Wikidl) Hishimi recites the story as if 
'Abdu'lluh had actually met the man. 

Bingham, in hia Antiquities (vol. it. book 

Digitized by 



Tiii. ehtp. ?ii.), relates that, in the monastery 
of virgin* which Paula, the famous Roman 
lady, not up and governed at Jerusalem, tho 
signal for prayer vm givon by 0119 going 
about and singing "Hallelujah j " for that 
was their call to church, as St. Jorom* 
informs us. 

Tho Azan is proclaimed before the stated 
times of prayer, either by one of the congre- 
gation, or by the Mu'afjin or crier? who is paid 
for the purpose. He must stand with his face 
towards Makkah, with the points of his fore- 
fingers in his ears, and recite the formula 
which has been given aboTe. 

It must not bo recited by. an unclean 
person, a drunkard, a madman, or a woman. 

AZAR {$). Terah, the father 
of Abraham. 8flrah, vi. 74, " And when 
Abrahim said to his father Aaar, Takest thou 
images as gods ? n 

u The Eastern authors unanimously agree 
that he was a statuary, or carver of idols ; 
and he is represented as the first who made 
images of clay, pictures only having been 
in use before, and taught that they were to be 
adored as gods. However, we are told his 
employment was a very honourable one, and 
that he was a great lord, and in high favour 
with Nimrod, whose son-in-law he was, be- 
cause he made his idols for him, and was 


excellent In his art Some of the Rabbins say 
Terah was a priest and chief of the order." — 

al-AZARIQAH (fcMH). A sect of 

heretics founded by Nart* ihn al-Asraq, who 
say that *Ali was an infidel, and that his 
assassin was right in killing him. (See a$k- 
Shahrastani, ed. Careton, p. A4,Haarbr decker's 
translation, L, p. 188. 

al-'AZBA' feV*aU). The slit-eared ; 

one of Mohammad's favourite camels. 


One of the 
of God. "The 

ax-'AZIM (,****>>). 

ninety-nine special names 
great One." 

•AZIMAH (Uif). 
tion. [kxokcisx.] 

al-'AZTZ (yyefl). 
ninety-nine special names 
quently occurs in the Qurftn. 
powerful, or the mighty One." 

'AZRA'lL (vWtyO. The angel of 
Death. Mentioned In the Qur'in under the 
title of Mcdaicu 'l-Mwtt, Surah xxsJi. 11, " The 
angel of death who is charged with you shall 
cause yon to die." [malax o 'l-m aut.] 

An incanta- 
One of the 

of God. It fre- 
It means * the 


BABEL. Arabic JAi Bdbil. Men- 
tloned once in the Qurun, Surah ii 96: 
" Sorcery did .they teach to men, and what 
had been revealed to the two angels Hirut and 
Mirut at BabiL" Babel is regarded by the 
Muslims aa the fountain-head of the scienoe of 
magic. They suppose HarOt and Mirut to be 
two angels who, in consequence of their want 
of compassion for the frailties of mankind, 
were sent down to earth to be tempted. They 
both sinned, and, being permitted to choose 
whether they would be punished now or here* 
after, chose the former, and are still sus- 
pended by the feet at Babel in a rooky pit, 
and are tbe great teachers of magic. (Lane's 
Thouettnd and One Nights, ch. .iii. note 14.) 
Vide Tafslr-i^Asiil in loco. 

BABU 'Ii-ABWAB (hAsJ» *t>W). 
Lit. " The door of doors. 9 * A term used by the 
$ufis for repentance. ('Abdu 'r-Raasiq's 
Dictionary of Sufi Terms,) 

BABU 'S-SALAM (c^\ ^V»). 
" The Gste of Peace." The gateway in the 
sscred mosque at Makkah through which 
Muljsmmsd entersd when he was elected by 
the Quraish to decide the question as to 
which section of the tribe should lift the 
Black Stone into its place. It wss originally 

called the Bah Ban! Shaibah, "the Gate of 
the BanQ Shaibah," the family of Shaibah ihn 
'Usman, to whom Muhammad gars the key 
of the Ka'bah. Burkhardt says that there are 
now two gateways celled by this name. 
Burton says, " The Babu's-Salim resembles in 
its isolation a triumphal arch, and is built of 
cut stone." (Burton's Pilgrimetpo, vol. ii. 
p. 174. See Muir's Life of Mahomet, pp. 
2$, 29.) 

BABU'N.msA f (Uan v*). "The 
Women's Gate.** In later years, as Muhammad 
added to the number of his wives, he provided 
for each a room or house on the same side of 
the mosque at 'al-Madinah. From these he 
had a private entrance into the mosque, used 
only by himself, and the eastern gate still 
bears in' its name, Babu 'n^isa', the memory 
of the arrangement. (Muir's Life 0/ AfaAo- 
m«f, iii. p. 20.) 

BACKBITING. Anything secretly 
whispered of an absent person which is cal- 
culated to injure him, and which is true, is 
called Gklbah, a false accusation being ex* 
pressed by Buhtan. Abu Hurairah says, 
•• The question was put to the Prophet, ' Do 
yon know whst backbiting is ? ' and he replied, 
1 It is saying anything bad of a Muslim.' It 
was then said, But what is it if it is true ? ' 

Digitized by 




And he Mid, «H it ii true it is Qktbak, and if 
it is a falsa accusation, it ia Buhtan (i.e. 
slender).' " f MUhJcdt, xxii. c. x.) 

The following ara sayings of Muhammad on 
the subject:— "The bast of God's servants 
ara those who when you meet them speak of 
God- The worst of God's aerTanta are thoae 
who carry taiea about, to do mischief and 
separate friends, and seek out the defects of 
good people." •• lie who wears two faces in this 
world shall have two tongues of fire in the day 
of the Resurrection." " It is unworthy of a 
"believer to injure people's reputations, or to 
curse anyone, or to abuse anyone, or to talk 
▼ainly.* "The beat atonement you can mako 
• for backbiting ia to say, * O God pardon me. 
and him (whom I bar* injorod).*" Miihkit, 
xxii. c x. 

BADAWI (o^i). A name gi?en 
to the Bedouin Arabs, or the Arabs of the 
desert. Bedouin is only a corruption of the 
plural of thia word, which ia derired from 
Badw-Bmdiyah, " a doaert." 

ai~BADI< (p*ftt) is one of the 
ninety-nine speeislnamee of God. It means 
* He who originates.** It oooura in the Qur'an, 
8<Uah ii 111, «* He ia the wonderful originator 
of the heavens and the earth; when He 
decreeth a matter, He doth but aay to it, 
« Btf/ and H Is." 

BADE, The battle of. Arabic, 
GkazwUu 7-Badr. The first battle of Badr 
was fought in the month of Ramasln, a.b. 
2 (March, a.D. 624), between Muhammad 
and the Quraiah. Many of the prinoipaNnen 
of the Quraiah were slain, moluding Abu 
Jahl, whose head waa brought to the Pro- 
phet, and when it was oast at his feet, he 
exclaimed, " It is more acceptable to me than 
the choioest camel ef Arabia.* After the 
battle waa over; some of ihe prisoners were 
.cruelly murdered. i?uaain .says the losses of 
the Quraiah at Badr were seventy killed and 
seventy prisoners. • This victory at Badr con- 
solidated, the power of Mohammad, and It is 
regarded by Muslim historians as one of the 
most important events of history. An account 
of this celebrated battle will be found in the 
article on Muhammad. 

The second battle of Badr was a bloodless 
Victory, and took place in the month £u 1. 
Qa'dak, a.*. 4 (April, ▲.!>. 626). 

BAUIRA (\p^X A Neatorian 
monk whom Muhammad met when he was 
journeying hack from Syria to Makksh, and 
who is said to have perceived by various 
signs that he was a prophet. His Christian 
name la supposed to have been Sergiua (or 
G corgi us). 

Sprenger thinks that Bahira remained with 
Muhammad, and it hae been suggested that 
there la an allusion to thia monk in the 
Qur'en, 8oreh xvi 106: "We know that 
they fay, 'It is only a man who teacheth 
him.'* Huaain the commentator says on this 
passage that the Prophet waa in the habit of 

BA1 1 

going every evening to a Christian to hear 
the Taurat and Injll. Ta/iiriHusaini; 
Sale, p. 228; Mai /a Lift of Makom»t t 
p. 72.; 

BAHIRAH(i)t^). (1.) Aflhe-oamel, 
she-goat or ewe, which had given birth to a 
tenth young one. (2.) A she-camel, the 
mother of which had brought forth ten 
femalaa consooutively before her. 

In these and similar cases, the pagan 
Arabs observed certain religious ceremonies, 
such as slitting the animal's ear, Ac, all of 
wHioh are forbidden in the Qur'an : " God 
hath pot ordained any Bahirah." (Surah v. 

BAP (eel , pi. ^J^f buy*). A sale ; 
commercial dealing; barter. 2foi',or"sale,"in 
the language of the law, signifies an exchange 
of property for property with the mutual con- 
cent of parties. For the rules concerning 
sales and barter, see Hamilton's Uidmyak, 
vol. ii. 860 : Baillte'e Muhaiamadan Law of 
Salt ; TAs Falawa 'Alamgiri. 

Sale, in ite ordinary aooeptation, is a 
transfer of property in consideration of a 
price in money. The word has a more com? 

{>rehonaive meaning in the Muhammadan 
aw, and ia applied to every exchange of proi 
perty for property with mutual consent. It, 
therefore, includes barter ae well as sale, and 
also loan, when the articlee lent are intended 
to be consumed, and replaced to the lender by 
a similar quantity of the came kind. Thia 
transaction, which is truly an exchange of 

Sroperty for property, ia termed qar§ in the 
[u^ammadan law. 

Between, barter and' sale there is no essen- 
tial distinction in most system* of law, and 
the joint subject may in general be consider, 
ably simplified by being treated of solely aa a 
sale. A course has been adopted in the 
Mufrem ma dan law, which obligee the reader 
to fix his attention on both sides of the con- 
tract. This may at first appear to him to he 
an unneoeaeary complication of the subject, 
but when he becomea acquainted with the 
definition of price, and the mice for the pro- 
hibition of excess in the exchange of a large 
class of oommoditiee, whioh apply to every 
form of the contract, he will probably be of 
opinion that to treat of the subject in any 
other way would be attended with at least 
equal difficulties. 

The first point which seems to require his 
attention is the meaning of the word " pro- 
perty" as it oocura in the definition of sale. 
The original term (md/), which has been thus 
translated, is defined by Muhammadan 
lawyers to bo "that whioh can be taken 
possession of and secured." This definition 
seems to imply that it ia. tangible or corpo- 
real, and things or substancee uf accordingly 
the proper subjects of sale. Mere rights are 
not mil, and cannot therefore be lawfully eold 
apart from the corporeal things with whioh 
they may happen to be connected. Of such 
rights one of the most important is ihe right 

Digitized by 





of a creditor to oxact payment of a debt, 
which it not a proper subject of bale. In 
other words, debts cannot, by the Mubam- 
madan law, any more than by tho oommon 
lawe of England and Scotland, be lawfully 

Thinsrs are commonly divided into more- 
able and immoveable, the latter compre- 
hending land and things permanently attached 
to it But the distinction is not of much im- 
portance in the Muhammadan law, as the 
transfer of land ia in nowise distinguished 
from that of other kinds of property. 

A more important division of things is that 
into mifti ana kammL The former are things 
which, when they happen to perish, are to be 
replaced by an equal quantity of something 
similar to them; and the latter are things 
which, in the same circumstances, are to be 
replaced by their value. These two classes 
hare been aptly styled " similars " and " dis- 
similare " by Mr. Hamilton, in his translation 
of the Hidayah. Similars are things which 
are usually sold or exohanged by weight, or 
by measurement of capacity, that is, by dry 
or linuid messnre ; and dissimilar* are things 
which are not sold or exchanged in eithor of 
these ways. Artiolee whloh are nearly alike, 
and are commonly sold or exchanged by 
number or tale, are classed with the first 
division of taings, and may be termed M simi- 
lars of tale " ; while articles which diffor mate- 
rially from each other, vet are still usually 
sold or exohanged by number, belong to the 
second division, and may be called •«• dieeiml- 
lars of tale." Dirhamt and dinars, the only 
coined money known to the old Arabs, are 
included smong similars of weight. 

Similars of weight and capacity are dis- 
tinguished in the Muhammadan law from all 
other descriptions of property in a very re- 
markable way. When one article of weight 
is sold or exchanged for another article of 
weight, or one of measure is sold or ex- 
changed for another of measuro. the delivery 
of both must be Immed ate from hand to hand, 
and any delay of delivery in one of them is 
unlawful and prohibited. Where, again, the 
articles exchanged are also of the same kind, 
as when wheat Is sold for whost, or silver for 
silver, there must not only be reciprocal and 
immediate delivery of both before the separa- 
tion of the parties, but also absolute equality 
of woight or measure, according as the articles 
are weighable or measurable, and any expose 
on either side is also unlawful and prohibited. 
These two prohibitions constitute in brief the 
doctrine of redo, or " usury,** which is a marked 
characteristic of the Muhammadan law of sale. 
The word rtba proporly signlAos "excess," 
and there are no terms in the Muhammadan 
law which corresponds to tho words " interest " 
and •• usury," in the senso attached to them 
in the English language ; but it was expressly 
prohibited by Muhammad to his followers to 
derive any advantage from loans, and that 
particular xind of advantage whioh is called 
by us interest, and consists in the receiving 
back from the borrower a larger quantity 
than was actually lent to him, was effectually 

prevented by the two rules above-mentioned. 
These, like some other principles of Muham- 
madan law, are applied with a rigour and 
minuteness that may to us seem incommen- 
surate with their importance, but are easily 
aooounted for when we know that they are 
believed to be of divine origin. 

Similars of weight and oapacity have a 
common feature of resemblance, which dis- 
tinguishes them in their own nature from 
other oommodities, and marks with further 
peculiarity their treatment in the Muham 
madan law. They are aggregates of minute 
parts, whloh are either exaotly alike, or so 
nearly reeemblo eech other, that the differ- 
ence between them may be safely disregarded. 
For this reason they are usually dealt with in 
bulk, regard being had only to the whole of a 
stipulated quantity, and not to the individual 
parte of which it is composed. When sold . 
In this manner they are said to be indeter- 
minate. They may, however, be rendered 
specific in several ways. Actual delivery, or 
production with distinct reference at the time 
of contract, seems to be sufficient for that 
purpose in all oases. But something short 
of this would suffice for .all similars but 
money. Thus, flour, or any kind of grain, 
may be rendered speciflo by being enolosed 
in s sack ; or oil, or any liquid, by being put 
into casks or Jars; and though the vessels 
are not actually produced at the time of con- 
tract, their contents may be sufficiently par- 
ticularised by desorlplion of the veesels and 
their locality. Money is not susceptible of 
being thus particularised, and dirhamt and 
dinars are frequently referred to in the fol- 
lowing psges as things which cannot be ren- 
dered speciflo by description, or specification, 
as it is more literally termed. Hence, money 
is said to be always indeterminate. Other 
similars, inolndmg similars of tale, are some- 
times sneoiflo and sometimes indeterminate. 
Diisimilars, including those of tale, are always 

When similars are sold indeterminately, 
the purchsser has no right to any specific, 
portion of them until it bo separated from a 
general mass, and marked or identified, as 
the subject of the contract. From the 
moment of offer till actual delivery, he has 
nothing to rely upon but the sellers obliga- 
tion, whioh may, therefore, be considered the 
direct subject of the oontract. Similars taken 
indeterminately are accordingly termed day*, 
or " obligations," in the Muhammadan law. 
When taken specifically, they are classed 
with dissimilsrs, under the general name of 
*ayn. The literal meaning of this term is 
* substance or thing " ; but when, opposed to 
dajtn it means something determinate or spe- 
cific. The subject of traffic may thus be 
divided into two classes, specific end indeter- 
minate ; or. if we substitute for the latter the 
word " obligation,* 1 and omit the word " spe* 
oiflo" as unnecessary when not opposed to 
" indeterminate,'' these classes may, aooording 
to the view of Mubammadan lawyers, be 
described as things and obligations. 

There is some degree of presumption in using 

Digitized by 




a word in Any other than its ordinary t coapta- 
tion ; and it is not without hesitation that (Mr. 
Beillie says) I have ventured to employ the 
word " obligation " to signify indeterminate 
things. My reasons lor doing so are these : first 
it expresses the exact meaning of the Arabic 
. word dayn, and yet distinguishes this use of 
it from another sense, in which it is also 
employed in the Mu^ammadan law ; second, 
it preserves consistency in the law. Thus, it 
will be found hereafter that the offect of sale 
is said to be to induce a right in the buyer to 
the thing sold, and in the seller to the price, 
and that this effect follows the contract im- 
mediately before reciprocal possession by the 
contracting parties. Now, it is obvious that 
this is impossible with regard to things that 
are indeterminate, if the things themselves are 
considered the subject of the contract, and cases 
are mentioned where it is expressly stated that 
there is no transfer of property to the purchaser, 
when similars of weight of cspacity are sold 
without being distinctly specified, until actual . 
possession take place. The difficulty dis- 
appears if we consider not the thing itself 
but the obligation to render it to be the sub- 
ject of contract ; for a right to the obligation 
passes immediately to the purchaser, and the 
seller may be compelled to perform it. If we 
now revert to the division of things into simi- 
lars and dissimilars, money — which, it hss 
been remarked, is always indeterminate— is 
therefore an obligation ; dissimilars, which 
are always specifio, are never obligations; 
and other similars, excopt money, being some- 
times speciflo and sometimes indeterminate, 
are at one time obligations, and at another 
time things or substances. 

Before proceeding farther it is necessary to 
sdvert more particularly to the other sense in 
which the word dayn is frequently employed 
in the Mubsmmadan law. It means strictly 
"obligation," as already observed; but the 
obllgotiou may be either that of the contract- 
ing party himself, or of another. In the 
former sense deyn is not only a proper sub- 
ject 01 traffic, but forms the sole subject of 
one important kind' of sale, hereafter to be 
noticed. But when dayn is used to signify 
the obligation of another than the contracting 
party, it is not a proper subjoct of traflio, 
and, as already observed, cannot be lawfully 
sold. In the following pages dayn has been 
always translated by the word " debt " when it 
aigniflee the obligation of a third party, and 
generally by the word " obligation," when it sig- 
nifies the engagement of the contracting party 
himself, though when the things represented by 
the obligation are more prominently brought 
forward, it ha* sometimes been found neces- 
sary to substitute the expression, M indeter- 
minate things." 

Though barter and sale for a price, are con- 
founded under one general name in the Mu- 
hammadan law, it is eometbnee necessary to 
consider one of the things exchanged as more 
strictly the subject of Kale, or thing Mold, and 
the other as the prioe. In this view the fonner 
la termed mab'v, and the latter Soman. 
Santun, or •* jfrjee." is defined lo be doynfi 

BAl 4 

limmoh, or, litsrsUy, an •* obligation In respon- 
sibility." From which, unless the expression 
is a mere pleonasm, it would appear that the 
word dayn is sometimes used abstractly, and 
in a sense distinct from the idea of liability. 
That idea, bower er, is necessary to constitute 
price; for though cloth, when properly de- 
scribed, may, by reason of its divisibility and 
the similarity of its parts, be sometimes 
assumed to perform the function of price in a 
contract of sale, it is only when it is not im- 
mediately delivered, but is to remain for some 
time on the responsibility of the contracting 
party, that it can be adopted for that pur- 

It is a general principle of the Muham- 
msdan law of salo, founded on a declaration 
of the Prophet, that credit cannot be opposed 
to credit, that is, that both the things ex- 
changed cannot bo allowed to remain ou the 
responsibility of the parties. Uenco, it is 
only with regard to one of them that any 
stipulation for delay in its delivery is lawful. 
Prioe, from its definition above given, admits 
of being left on responsibility, and accord- 
ingly a stipulation for delay iu the payment 
of the price is quite lawful and valid It 
follows that a stipulation for delay in the 
delivery of the things sold cannot be lawful. 
And this is the case, with the exception 
of ono pertioular kind of sale, hereafter 
to be noticed, in whioh the thing sold is 
always indeterminate, and the price is paid 
in adyance. It may, therefore, be said of all 
specific things when the subject of esle, that 
a stipulation for delay in their delivery is 
illegal, and would invalidate a sale. The 
object of this rule may have been to prevent 
sny ohange of the thing sold before delivery, 
and the disputes which might in consequence 
arise between the parties. But if they were 
allowed to select whichever they ploased of 
the artioles exchanged to stand for the prioe. 
and the other for the thing sold, without sny 
regard to their qualities, the object of the 
last -mentioned rule, whatever it may have 
been, might be defeated. This seems to have 
led to another arraugement of things into 
different olasses, according to their capacities 
for supporting the functions of price or oi 
the thing sold in a contract of sale. The firsi 
olass comprehonds dirnamt and dinar*, which 
are always price. The second olass comprises 
the whole division of dissimilars (with the 
single exception of oloth), which are always 
the thing sold, or subject of sale, in a con- 
tract The third olass comprises, first, all 
similars of capacity : second, all similars of 
weight, except dirSam* and dinars ; and, 
third, all similars of tale. The whole of this 
class is capable of supporting both functions, 
and is sometimes the thing sold, and some- 
times the price. The fourth class comprises 
cloth, and tho oopper coin called /u/iw. 

Sale implies a reciprocal vesting of the 
price in the seller and of the thing sold in 
the purchnner. This, as already remarked, is 
called its legal effect, and sale may be divided 
Into different stages or degrees of complete- 
ness, according as this effect is immediate, 

Digitized by 



suspended, invalid, or obligatory. Thai, sale 
most ftrtt of ell bo duly constituted or con- 
tracted. Aftor that, thore may still be noma 
bar to He operation, which occasions a sus- 
pension of its effect. This generally arises 
from a defect of power in the seller, who may 
not be fully competent to aot for himself, or 
may have insufficient authority, or no autho- 
rity whatever, OTer the subject of sale. In 
this class of sales the effect is dependent on 
the assent or ratification of some other person 
than the party actually contracting. But 
whether the effect of a sale be immediate or 
suspended, there may be some taint of ille- 
gality in the mode of constituting it, or in its 
anbjeot, or there may be other circumstances 
connected with it, which render it in? slid. 
The causes of illegality are many and 
various. But even though a sale should be 
uuimpeaohahle on the previous grounds, that 
Is, though it should bo duly constituted, 
operstive or immediate in its effect, and free 
from any ground of illegality, still it may 
not be absolutely binding on the parties. 
This brings 'us to another remarkable pecu- 
liarity of the Mu^ammadan law, vis. the 
doctrine of option, or right of cancellation. 
The Prophet himself recommended one of his 
followers to reserve a focus penitential, or 
option, for three days in all nis pure. ases. 
This has led to the option by stipulation, 
which may be reserved by either of the 
parties. But besides this, the purchaser has 
an option without any stipulation, with 
regard to things which he has purchased 
without seeing, and also on aocount of defocts 
in the thing sold. The greatest of all defocts 
is a want of title or right in the seller. The 
two last options to tho purchase constitute 
a complete warranty of title and against all 
defects on the port of the seller, in whioh 
respect the Muhammadan mere nearly re- 
sembles the Scotch than the English law of 

BAI 1 


There are many different kinds of sale. 
Twenty or more hare been enumerated in the 
Nihayah, of which eight are mentioned and 
explained. Four of these, whioh have refer- 
ence to the thing sold, may require some 
notice in this place. The first, called Af«- 
ewvasaA, is described as a sale, of things for 
things, and corresponds nearly with barter ; 
but the word « thing " Qayn) is here opposed 
to obligations, and muqayaxdh is therefore 
properly an exchange of specidc for specific 
things. So that if the goods exchanged were 
on both sides or on either side indeterminate, 
the transaction would not, I think, be a 
sitiyayasoA, though still barter. The second 
sale Is called sot/, and is defined to be an 
exchange of obligations for obligations. The 
usual objects of this contract are dirhama and 
eftfiaVs, which being obligations, the defini- 
tion is generally correct But an exchange of 
money for bullion, or bullion for bullion, is also 
a far/, and every sale of an obligation for an 
obligation is not a ear/, so that the definition 
is redundant as well as defective. It is essen- 
tial to the legality of this kind of sale, that 
both the things exchanged should be delivered 

and taken possession of before the separation 
of the parties, and that when they are of the 
same kind, as silver for silver, or gold for 
gold, they should also be exactly equal by 
weight. The*e rules are necessary for the 
avoidance of reba, or " usury," as already ex- 
plained ; and tho whole of sur/, which is 
treated of at a length quite disproportionate 
to its importance, may be considered as a 
continued illustration of the doctrine of rtbet. 
The third kind of sale is salam. It has been 
already observed that there can be no lawful 
stipulation for a postponement of the delivery 
of the thing sold, except under one particular 
form of sale. The form alluded to is aalam. 
This word means, literally, " an advanoe " ; 
and in a •atom sale the price is immediately 
advanced for the goods to be delivered at a 
future fixed time. It is only things of the 
class of similars that can be sold in this way, 
and as they must necessarily he indetermi- 
nate, the proper subject of sale is an obliga- 
tion ; while, on the other hand, as the prioe 
must be actually paid or delivered at the 
time of the contract, before the separation of 
the parties, and must, therefore, even in the 
osse of its being monoy, be produced, and in 
consequence be particularised or specific, a 
$alam sale is strictly and properly the sale of 
an obligation for a thing, as defined above. 
Until actual payment or delivery of the prioe, 
however, it retains its character of an obliga- 
tion, and for this reason the price and the 
goods are both termed "debts,** and are 
adduced in the same chapter as examples of 
the principle that the sale of a debt, that is, 
of the money or goods whioh a person is 
under engagomont to pay or deliver, before 
possession, Is invalid. The last of the sales 
referred to is the ordinary exchange of goods 
for money, whioh being an obligation, the 
transaction is defined to be the sale of things 
for obligations. 

Thsre is another transaction whioh comes 
within the definition of sale, and hae been 
already noticed, but may be further adverted 
to in this place. It i» that whioh is called 
(fcrs in the Arahio, and " loan " in the English 
language. The borrower acquires an abso* 
lute right of property in the things lent, and 
comes under an engagement to return an 
equal quantity of things of the same kind. 
The transaction is therefore necessarily 
limited to similars, whether of weight, capa- 
city, or tale, and the things lent and repaid 
being of the same kind, the two rules already 
mentioned for the prevention of rs6a, or 
"usury," must be strictly observed. Henoe 
it follows that any stipulation on the part of 
the borrower for delay or forbearance by the 
lender, or any stipulation by the lender for 
lntereet to be paid by the borrower are alike 

Notwithstanding the stringency of the rulee 
for preventing usury, or the taking any inter- 
est on the loan of money, methods were found 
for evading them and still keeping within the 
letter of the law. It had always been con- 
sidered lawful to take a pledge to secure the 
repayment of a debt. Pledges were ordi- 

Digitized by 





narily of movable propart j ; when given as 
security for a debt, and the pledge happened 
to perish in the hands of tho pawnee, the debt 
was held to be released to the extent of the 
value of the pledge. Land, though scarcely 
liable to this incident, was sometimes' made 
the subject of pledge, and devices were 
adopted for enabling the lender to derive 
some advantage from its possession while in 
in the state of pledge. But the moderate 
advantage to be derived in this way does not 
seem to have contented the money-lenders, 
who in all ages and countries have been of a 
grasping disposition, and the expedient of a 
sslf with a condition for redemption was 
adopted, whioh very olosely resembles an 
English mortgage. In the latter, tho condi- 
tion is usually expressed in one of two ways, 
. vis. either that the sale shall become void, 
or that the lender shall resell to the seller, on 
payment of principal and interest at an 
assigned term. The first of these forms 
would be inconsistent with the nature of sale 
under the Muhammadan law, but a sale with 
a covenant by the lender to roopnvey to the 
seller on ropaymont of the loan seems to 
have been in use probably long before the 
form was adopted in Europe. It is probable 
that a tarm was fixed within whioh the re- 
payment should be made. If repayment 
were made at the assigned term, the lender 
was obliged to reconvey ; but if not, the pro* 
party would remain his own, and the differ- 
ence between its value and the price or sum 
lent might have been made an ainple compen- 
sation for the loss of interest. This form of 
sale, which was called Bai'u 'Lwafd, seems to 
have been striotly legal according to the most 
approved authorities, though held to be what 
the law calls abominable, as a device for 
obtaining what it prohibits. 

In constituting sale there is no material 
difference betweon the Mulrommadan and 
other systems of law. The offer and accept- 
ance, whioh are expressed or implied in all 
oases, must be so connected as to obviate any 
doabt of the one being intended to apply to 
the other. For this purpose the Muham- 
madan law requires that both shall be inter- 
changed at the same meeting of the parties, 
snd that no other business snail be suffered 
to intorvene between an offer and its accept- 
ance. A. very slight interruption is sufficient 
to break the continuity of a negotiation, and 
to terminate the meeting in a technical sense, 
though the parties should still remain in per- 
sonal communication. An acceptance after 
the interruption of an offer made before, it 
would be insufficient to constitute a sale. 
This has led to distinctions of the meeting 
which may appear unnecessarily minute to a 
reader unacquainted with the manners of 
Eastern countries, where the people are often 
vory dilatory in their bargains, interspersing 
tbem with conversation on indifferent topics. 
It it only when a meeting has reference to the 
Act of contracting that its meaning is tlius 
liable to be restricted ; for when the word 
occurs in other parts of the law, as, for 
instance, when it is said of a sot/ contract 

that the things exchanged must be tsken pos- 
session of at the meeting, the whole period 
that the parties may remain together is to be 
understood. Aa personal communication may 
be inconvenient in some cases, and impossible 
in others, tho integrity of the meeting is held 
to be sufficiently preserved when a party who 
receives an offer by message or letter declares 
his acceptance of it • on receiving the commu- 
nication and apprehending its contents. 

When a sulo is lawfully contracted, the 
property in tbo things exchanged passes im- 
mediately from and to the parties respec- 
tively. In a legal sale, delivery and possession 
are not necessary Tor this purpose. Until 
possession is taksn. however, the purchaser is 
not liable for aooioeulal loss, and the seller 
has a lien for the price on the thing sold. 
Delivery by one party is iu general tanta- 
mount to possession taken by the other. It 
is, thoreiore, sometimes of great importance 
to ascortain when there is a sufficient deli- 
very ; and many cases, real or imaginary, on 
the subject, are inserted in the Fatawq 
* A lam gin. It sometimes happens that a 
person purchases a thing of whioh he is 
already in possession, and it then becomes 
importsnt to dotennlne in what oases his 
previous possession is convertible into a pos- 
session under the purchase. Unless so con- 
verted, it would be held thst there is no 
delivery under the sale, and the seller would 
of course retain his lien and remain liable for 
accidental lose. 

Though possession is not necessary to com- 
plete the trsnsf or of property under a legal 
sale, the oase is different where the oontract 
is illegal ; for here property does not pass till 
possession is taken. The sale, however, 
though so far effectual, is still invalid, and 
liable to be set asido by a judge, at the 
instance of either of the parties, without any 
reference fo the fact of the person ooiopleln- 
ing being able to come before him with what 
In legal phraseology is termed clean heads. 
A Muhammadan judge is obliged by his law 
to interfere for the sake of the law itsoif , or, 
as it Is more solemnly termed, for the right 
of God, whioh it is the duty of the judge to 
vindicate, though by so doing he mav afford 
assistance to a party who personally may 
have no just olaim to his interference* (7*e 
Muhammadan Law of Sals, according to the 
Haneefeo Code, from the Fatawa Aiamgiri t bj 
Neil B. E. Baillie. Smith, Elder A Co., 
London.) - 

BAIL. Arabic flVtf kafdlah. Bail 
is of two descriptions : Kafiiah bi-n-nqfs, or 
M security for the person "; Kafalah bi-'l-nuU, or 
M security for property.** In the English oourts 
in India, bail for the person is termed 
//(Sfir-famsTiii f and bail for property jfamdnah, 
or •• security. 1 * Bail for the person is lawful 
except in cases of punishment (Hudud) snd 
retaliation (Qi>o». (Hiddyah, vol ii p. 676.) 

al-BA'LSJ (outfit). One of the 
ninety-nine special names of God. It means 

Digitized by 





11 He who awakes"; "The Awakener" (in 
the Day of Resurrection). 

BAITU 'L-HAMD (*++*\ «**). 
M The House of Praise." An expression which 
occurs in the Traditions (Mithkat v. 7). 
When the soul of a child is taken, God says, 
" Build a honne for my servant in Paradise 
and call it s houte ofpraite." 

BAITIT 'L-HARAM' ( r ^ ****). 
" The Sacred House." A name given to the 
Meeean mosque, [masjidu 'l-barajl] 

BAITU 'L-HIKMAH (l**+)\ ****♦). 
JUl. « The Honse of Wisdom." A term used 
by $uffs for the heart of the sincere seekers 
after (tod. (*Abdu Y-Raxraq * Dictionary of 
$u/l Tenu.) 

BAITU •L-LAH (m **-*). "The 
House of God." A name given to the Mecoan 
mosque, [kasjidu 'l-habam.] 

BAITU 'L-MAL (JUtt va^i). Lit 
«• Tlie Honse of Property. The public trea- 
sury of a Muslim state, which the ruler is not 
allowed to use for his personal expenses, but 
only for too public good. 

The sources of incomo are : (1) Zakdt, or 
tho legal tsx raised upon land, personal pro* 
perty. and merchandise, which, after deduct- 
ing tho expense of collecting, should be ex- 
pended in the support of the poor and destitute. 
(2) The fifth of all spoils and booty* taken 
In war. (8) The produce of mines and of 
treasure-trove. (4J Property for whioh there 
is no owner. (6>The Jixyak % or tax levied 
on unbelievers. (Hidayah. Arabio ed., vol. i. 
p. 452.) 

al-BAITU 'L-MA'MttR (v*W\ 
jf4f^\). Lit. "The Inhabited House/' 
A house in the seventh heaven, visited by 
Muhammad daring the Mi<rej or night- 
Journey. It is said to be immediately over 
the sacred temple at Makkah. [MfRAJ.] 

BAITU 'L-MIDRAS (o-V^ ***♦). 
" The House of Instruction." A term (used in 
a tradition given by AbQ Hurairah) for a 
Jewish school (AfisAibdr, xvii. o. xi.) In 

Heb.tih-]an rr»a 

o-auN). "The Holy House." A 
name given to the temple at Jerusalem* 
[al-mjlsjidu 'l-aqsjl] 

BAITU 'L-QUDS (^-oH *-«♦). 
Lit. " The House of Holiness." A term used 
by the Sufis for the heart of the true seeker 
after God when it is absorbed in meditation. 
('Abdu 'r-Razzaq's Dictionary of $u]fl Terms.) 

BAI'U 'L-WAFA (.uyt &). The 
word uhi/S means the performance of a pro- 
mise, and the Bai'u 'l-Wafa is a sale with a 
promise to be performed. It is, in fact, a 
pledge in tho bands of tbo pawnoe, who is 
not itn propritor, nor it be free to make use 
of it without the permission o( the owner. 

There are different opinions about the legality 
of this form of sale, but it is now tbe common 
form of mortgage in nse in India, where it i« 
usually styled Bai 1 hi-'l-toafd. (See Baillie's 
Mubanmadan Law of &i/e, p. 803.) 

al-BAIYJLNAH (l^\). Lit. " The 
Evidence." A title given to the xovuith 
Surah of tbe Quran, in whioh the word 

BA^(J*),Hob.^yan,t\e\ "Lord." 

The chief deity worshipped by the Syro- 
PhoBnioian nations. it is known to the 
Muhammadsns as an idol worshipped in tbo 
days of the Prophot Elisha. (Seo G hi yaw V- 

BALAAM. There is said to bo au 
allusion to Balaam in the Qur'tn, Sftrah vii. 
174, u Reritc to them the story of him to 
whom wo gave our signs, and he departed 
therefrom,- and Satan followed him, snd he 
was of those who were beguiled.** 

The commentary of the Jalalain say* that 
he was a learned man amongst the Israelites, 
who was requested by tho Getisanites to 
enrse Moses et (he time when ho was about to 
attack the Jabbarv* or " giants," a tribe of tbe 
Oanaanites. Dalasm st first refused to do so 
but et last yielded, when valuablo presents 
were made to him. (See Tafelru 'l> Jalalain, 
p. 142.) 

BALAD (oA|). Lit Any country, 
district, or town, regarded as an habitation. 
Al-Balud, the sacred territory of Makkah. . A 
title given to the xctb Surah, in which the 
word occurs. 

BALIGH (£V). "Of years of legal 
maturity; adult* fruBBitnr.] 

BANISHMENT. Arabic s-*/* 
Taghrlb. Expatriation for fornication is 
enjoined by Muhammadan law, according to 
the Imam ash- Shall «i, although it is not allowed 
by the other doctors of the law, and it is also 
a punishment inflicted upon highway robbers. 

BANKRUPT. There is no pro- 
vision in the Muhammadan law for declaring 
a person bankrupt, and so placing him beyond 
the reaoh of his creditors ; but the Qasi can 
declare a debtor insolvent, and free him from 
the obligation of wakat and almsgiving. 

BANtfffiRA'lL(Jc*VV). "Tn« 
Children of Israel 1 * A title of the xnrth 
SOrah or ohapter of the Qur'an, called also 
Siratu %Mi*raj. 

BANtfN (oyt). The plural of ibti 
(Heb. D^JSl)- " S 0118 5 posterity ; 
tribe.** The word is more familiar to English 
readers in its inflected form Banl The tribej 
who*e nsmes occur frequently in the early 
history of Islam, and are mentioned in the 
Traditions, are the Banu-Qurai$M t Banu V 
Najjar, Banu- Qurat>aA, Banu - Kinanak 
Banu n-Natr t Banu-K!Fz*ah< Banu-Bakr 

Digitized by 




Banu'Amir, Banu • A$ad t Banu - Fazdrah, 
BanU'Lihydtiy Banu-Tamim, Banu-Umaiyah t 
BanA'ZaArah, and Banu-IsrffU. 

BAPTISM. The only allusion to 
baptism in tho Qur'an is found in Surah ii. 
182: "(We hay©) the baptism of God, and who 
is better to baptise than God?" The word 
bore translated baptism is fibghah, lit. 
" dye," which, the commentators al-Jalalain 
and al-Baizawi say, may, by comparison, refer 
to Christian baptism, " for," says al-Baizawi, 
" the Nasara (Christians) were in the habit of 
dipping their offspring in a yellow water which 
they called al-Ala'mudiyah and said it purified 
them and confirmed them as Christians." (See 
Tafsiru 7- Ja/d/ain and Ta/tiru H-Baitawi t in 

al-BAQI (JM). One of the 
ninety -nine special names of God. It means 
" He who remains j " " The Everlasting One." 

l-BAQARAH (e>i\). "The Cow. 
title of the second Surah of 

The title of 'the second 'Surah of the Qur'an, 
occasioned by the story of the red heifor 
mentioned in Terse 63, " When Mosos said to 
his people, God oommandeth you to sacrifice 
a cow." 

BAQl'U 'L-GHARQAD (*f\ &*), 
or for tfhortnesa al-Baqi (^i). The 
burying-ground at al-Madinah,which Muty«m- 
mad used to frequent at night to'pray for f or- 
giveness for the dead. (MishLut, iv. c. 2S.) 

BARl'AH (S-V)- " Immunity, or 
Security." A title given to the ixth Chapter 
of the Qur'an, called also Suratu '*• Taubah, 
" The Chapter of Repentance." It is remark- 
able as being the only Surah without the 
introductory form, " In the name of God, the 
Merciful, the Compassionate. " Various roasous 
are assigued for this omission. Some com- 
mentators say that the prayer of mercy is not 
placed at the head of a chapter which speaks 
chietiy of God's wrath. 

BiRAH-I-WAFAT foAft, »». 
Barak (Urdu) "twelve," and Wafdt. The 
twolfth day of the month Rabi'u '1-Awwal, 
observed in oommemoration of Muhammad's 

It seems to be a day instituted by the Mu- 
bammadans of India, and is not observed 
universally amongst the Muslims of all coun- 
tries. On this day Fatibahs are recited for 
Muhammad's soul, and both in private houses 
and mosques portions of the Traditions and 
other works in praise of the Prophet's excel- 
lences are read. 

Tho Wahhabis do not observe this day, as 
it is believed to be an innovation, not having 
been kept by the early Muslims. 

al-BARA IBN <AZIB ((*» *\p>\ 
s*)**)- One of the Companions who 
accompanied Muhammad at the battle of the 
Ditch, and in most of his subsequent engage- 
ments. He assisted in conquering the distriot 


of Rai, ah. 22, and was with the Sfaalifah 
'All at the battle of the Camel, A.H. 86. 

al-BART (o&Wn). "The Maker." 
One of the ninety-nine special names of God. 
It occurs in the Qur'an, Surah lix. 24 : " Ue is 
God the Creator, the Maker, the Fashioner. 
His are the excellent names." 

BiRIQAH (*V0. l *" Refulgence, 
lightning." A term used by the §ufis for that 
enlightenment of the soul, whioh at first comes 
to the true Muslim as an earnest of greater 
enlightenment ( ( Abdu 'r-Razzaq's Dictionary 
of$uf\ Terms.) 

BARNABAS, the Gospel of. The 
Mu^ammadans assert that a gospel of Bar- 
nabas oxisted in Arabic, and it is' believed by 
some that Muhammad obtained his aooount 
of Christianity from this spurious gospel. 

14 01 this gospel the Moriscoes in Africa 
have a translation in Spanish, and there is in 
the library of Prince Eugene of Savoy a 
manuscript of some antiquity, containing an 
Italian translation of the same gospel, made, 
it is supposed, for the use of renegades. This 
book appears to be no original forgery of the 
Muhaminadana, though they have* no doubt 
interpolated and altered it sinoe, the better to 
serve their purpose; and in particular, 
instead of the Paraclete or Comforter (St. 
John xiv. 16, 26; xv. 26; xvL 7), they have 
in this apocryphal gospel inserted the word 
Periolyte, tbat is, " the famous or illustrious," 
by which they pretend their prophet wss 
foretold by name, that being the signification 
of Muhammad in Arabic ; and this they say 
to justify that passage in the Qur'an (Surah 
61) where Jesus is formally asserted to have 
forotold his coming, under his other name of 
Ahmad, which is derived from the same root 
as Muhammad, and of tho same import. 
From these or some other forgeries of the 
same stamp, it is that Mufra mm adans quote 
several passages of which there are not the 
least footsteps in the New Testament." 

After Mr. Sale had written the extract 
which we have quoted, he inspected a Spanish 
translation of the Italian cony of this anoory 
phal gospel, of which he givos the following 

" Tho book is a moderate quarto, in Spanish, 
written in' a very legible hand, but a little 
damaged towards the latter end. It contains 
two hundred and twenty-two chapters of un- 
equal length, and four hundred and twenty 
pages ; and is said, in the front, to be trans- 
lated from the Italian by an Aragonian 
Moslem named Mostaf a de Aranda. There is 
a preface prefixed to it, wherein the disooverer 
of the original MS., who was a Christian 
monk called Fra Marino, tells us that, having 
accidentally met with a writing of Irenaus 
(among others), wheroin he speaks against 
St. Paul, alleging for his authority the gospel 
of St. Barnabas, he became exceedingly desi- 
rous to find this gospel ; and that God, of his 
mercy, having made him very intimate with 
Pope Sixtus v., one day, as they were toge- 

Digitized by 



ther in that Pope's library, hit Holiness fell 
asleep, and be, to employ himself, reaching 
down a book to. read, the first he laid his 
hand on proved to be the very gospel he 
wanted; overjoyed at the discovery, he 
templed not to hide his priee in his sleeve, 
and on the Pope's awaking, took leave of him, 
carrying with him that celestial treasure, by 
reading of which he became a convert to 

M This Gospel of Barnabas oontains a com- 
plete history of Jesus Christ, from Hit birth 
to Hit ascension, and mott of the circum- 
stances of the four real gospels are to be 
found therein, but many of them turned, and 
tome artfully enough, to favour the Moham- 
medan system. From the design of the 
whole, and the frequent interpolations of 
stories and passages, whorein Muhammad it 
spoken of and foretold by name, as the mes- 
senger of Ood, and the great prophet who 
was to perfect the dispensation of Jesus, it 
appears to be a most bare-faced forgery. One 
particular I observe therein induoes me to 
believe H to have been dressed up by a rene- 
gade Christian, slightly instructed in his new 
religion, and not educated as a Mu^ammadan 
(unless the fault be imputed to the Spanish, 
or, perbaps, the Italian translator, and to the 
original compiler). I mean the airing to 
Muhammad the title of Messiah, and that not 
once or twice only, but in several places ; 
whereas, the title of Messiah, or, as the Arabs 
write H, al-Ma*ih, t.e. Christ, is appropriated 
to Jesus in the Qur'an, and is constantly 
applied by tbe Mufeammadant to him. and 
never to their own Prophet. The passages 
produced from the Italian Ma by M. de la 
Monnoye are to be toen in this Spanish ver- 
sion almost word for word." 

The Rev. Joseph White, D.D., in his Damp- 
ton Lectures of 1784, gives a translation of 
those chapters in this spurious Qospel of Bar- 
nabas, whioh relate to the supposed cruci- 
fixion of Judas in the place of our Lord, 
and which we insert : — 

•* Judas came near to the people with whom 
Jesus was ; and when He heard the noise He 
entered into the house where the disciples 
siopt. And God, seeing the fear and danger 
of His servant, ordered Gabriel and Michael 
and Rafall and Aarail to carry Him out of the 

" And they came in all haste, and bare Him 
out of the window whioh looks towards the 
south. And they placed Him in the third 
heaven, where He will remain blessing God, 
in the company of angels, till near the end of 
the world/ (Chapter 216.) 

" And Judas the traitor entered before the 
rest into the place from whioh Jesus had Just 
been taken up. And the disciples were 
sleeping. And the Wonderful God acted 
wonderfully, changing Judas into the same 
figure and speech with Jesus. 

" We believing that it was He, said to him, 
Master, whom seekest thou ? And he said to 
them, smiling, Te have forgotten yourselves, 
since ye do not know Judss Iscariot 

M At this time the soldiery entered : end 



seeing Judas so like in every respect to Jesus, 
laid hands upon him,* Ac. (Chapter 217.) 

" In which fOhap. 218) is related the passion 
of Jndas the trajlor. 

" The soldiers afterwards took Jndas and 
bound him, notwithstanding he said with 
truth to them that he was not Jesus. And 
soldiers mooked him saying, Sir, do not be 
afraid ; for we are come to make thee King 
of Israel ; and we have bound thee, beoause 
we know thou hast refused the kingdom. And 
Judas said, Te have lost your senses. 

M I came to show you Jesus, that ye might 
take Him ; and ye have bound me, who am 
tout guide. The soldiers lost their patienoe, 
hearing this, and they began to go with him, 
striking and buffeting him, till they reached 
Jerusalem,'* Ac. Ac (Chapter 218.) 

41 The v carried him to Mount Calvary, 
where they executed criminals, and oruoifled 
him, stripping him aeked for the greater 
ignominy. Then he did nothing but cry out, 

my God, why hast thou forsaken me, that 

1 should die unjustly, when the real male- 
faotor hath escaped ? I say in truth that he 
was so like in person, figure, and gesture to 
Jeans, that as many as knew Him, believed 
firmly that it was He, except Peter; for 
whioh reason many left his doctrine, believing 
that it had been fslse: as He had said that 
He should not die till the end of the world. 

" Bat those who stood firm were oppressed 
with grief, seeing him die whom they under- 
stood to be Jesus : not recollecting what He 
had told them. And in company with His 
mother, they were present at his death, weep- 
ing continually. And by means of Joseph 
Abarimatheat (*tc), they obtained from the 
'president tbo body of Judas. And they took 
dim down 'from the cross, burying him 
with muoh lamentation in the new sepulchre 
of Joseph ; having wrapped him up in linen 
and precious ointments.* (Chapter 219.) 

"They all returned, each man to his 
house : and he who writeth, with James and 
John, went with the mother of Jesus to 
Naaareth. And the disciples, who did not 
fear God with truth, went by night and stole 
the body of Judas, and hid it ; spreading a 
report that He (i.e. Jesus) had risen again, 
from whence sprung great confusion among 
the people. 

M And the High Priest commanded, under 
psin of anathema, that no one should talk of 
him ; and on this account raised a great per- 
secution, banishing some, tormenting others, 
and even stoning some to death : because it 
was not in the power of anyone to be. silent 
on this subject. And then came newt to 
Naaareth, that Jesus had risen again. And 
he that writeth desired tbe mother of Jesus 
to leave off her lamentation. And Mary 
said, Let us go to Jerusalem, to see if it is 
truth. If I see Him I shall die content. 
(Chapter 220). 

" The Virgin returned to Jerusalem with 
him that writeth, and James and John, the 
same day that the decree of the High Priest 
enme out. 

" And as she feared God, though she knew 

Digitized by 





the command wu unjust, the entreated those 
who talked with her not to speak of her Son. 
Who oan say, how we were then afitectod? 
God, who knows tho heart of man, knows 
that betweeu the grief for the death of Judas, 
whom we understood to he Jesus, and the 
pleasure of seeing him risen again, we almost 
expired. And the angels who wero the 
guardians of Mary went up to heaven the 
third day, and told Jesus what was passing. 
And He, moved with ouinpassion for His 
mother, entrouled of God that He might he 
seen by His disciples. And the Compas- 
sionate God ordered His four favourite angels 
to place Him withiu His own house, and to 
guard Him three days; that they and they 
only might soe Him, who believed in His doc- 
trine. Jesus desceuded, surrounded with 
light, Into the house of His mother, where 
wero the two sistors, Martha and Mary, aud 
Laxarus, and ho that writotb, and John and 
James, and Peter. And whon they saw Him, 
they fell with their faces on the oarth as if 
dead. And Jesus lifted them up, saying, 
Fear not, for I am your Master. Lament not 
honceforth, for X am alive. They wore asto- 
nished at seeing Jesus, because they thought 
Him dead. And Mary weeping said, Tell me, 
my Son, why, if Hod gave Thee power to raise 
up the dead, did Hu consent that Thou 
shouldest die, with so much reproach and 
shame to Thy rotations and friends, and so 
much hurt to Thy doctrine, leaving us all in 
desolation? Jesus replied, embracing His 
mother, BelioT© mo. for I tell thee the truth, 
I have not been dead ; for God has roserved 
Me for tho end of the world. In saying this 
He desired the angels to manifest themselves, 
and to toll how Ho had passed through every- 
thing. At the instant they appeared like four 
suns ; and all present prostratod themselves 
on the ground, overoomo by the presence of 
the angels. And Jesus gave to all of thorn 
something to cover themselves with, that they 
might be able to hear the angels speak. 

44 And Jesus said to His mother, These are 
the Ministers of God. Gabriel knows His 
secrets ; Michael fights with His enemies ; 
Asrafiel will cite all to judgmont; and Axrael 
reooives the souls. And the holy angels 
told how they had, by tho command of God, 
taken up Jesus, and transformed Judas, that 
he might suffer the punishment which he 
wished to bring on Jesus. And he that 
writetb said, Is it lawful for me to ask of 
Thee, in the same manner as when thou wast 
in the world? And Jesus answered, Speak, 
Barnabas, what thout wishest. 

"And he said, I wish that Thou wouldest 
tell me how God, being so compassionate, 
could afflict us so muoh, in giving us to 
understand that Thou wast he that suffered, 
for we have been very near dying? And 
Thou being a prophet, why did He suffer 
Thee to fall under disgraoe, by (apparently) 
pUciug Thee on a cross, and between two 
robbers ? Jesus answered, Believo Me, Bar- 
nabas, let the fault be evor so small God 
ohastiaeth it with much punishment. And as 
my mother and faithful disciples loved me 

with a little earthly love, God chastised that 
love by this grief ; that He might not chastise 
it in the other world. And though I was 
innocent, yet as they called Me God, and His 
Son, that the devils might not mock Me on 
the Day of Judgment, He has chosen that I 
should he mocked in this world. 

" And this mocking shall lost till the holy 
Messenger of God (i.e. Muhammad) shall 
come, who shall undeceive all believers. 
And then He said, Just art Thou, God I and 
to Thee only belongoth tho honour and glory, 
with worship, for ever." (Chapter 221) 

" And then He said, Barnabas, that Ihou 
by all means write my gospel, relating every- 
thing wbioh has happened in the world con- 
cerning Me; and let it be done exactly; in 
order that the faithful may be undeceived, 
knowing the truth. Ho that writeth said, 
Master, I will do it as Thou comtnandest me, 
God willing ; but I did not see all that hap- 
pened with Judas.* Jesus answerod. Here 
stand Peter and John, who saw it, and will 
relate it to thee. 

11 And He told James and John to csll the 
seven apostle* who wore absent, and Nioo- 
demus, and Joseph Abarimathoas (sic), and 
some of the soventy-two disciples. When they 
were come, they did eat with Him ; and on 
the third day He commanded them all to go io 
tho mount of Olives with His mother : becauso 
He was to return to heaven. All the apostles 
and disciples went, excopt twenty-five of the 
seventy -two, who bad fled to Damascus with 
fear. And exactly at middsy, while they 
were all in prayer, Jesus came with many 
angels (blessing God)* with so much bright- 
ness that they all bent their faces to the 
ground. And Jesus raised them up, laying, 
Fear uot your Master, who comoe to take 
leavo of you ; and to recommend you to God 
our Lord, by the mercies received from His 
bounty : aud bo He with you I 

•• And upon this He disappeared with 
the angels ; all of us remaining amazed at the 
great brightness in which he left us." 
(Chapter 222). 

al-BARR(^M). One of the ninety- 
nine speoial names of God. In its ordinary 
sense it means "pious," or "good." As 
applied to God, it means "The Beneficent 

BARTER, [bai 4 .] ' 

BARZAKH (ej^). (1) A thing 
that intervenes between any two things; a 
bar ; an obstruction ; or a thing that makes a 
separation between two things. In which 
sense it is used in the QuVan in two places. 
Surah xxv. 55, " He hath put an interspace 
between them (t.«. the two seas), and a barrier 
whioh it is forbiddon them to pass." Surah 
lv. 20, " Yet between them (the two teas) is a 

(2) The interval between the present life 
and that which is to. come. See Qur'an, 
Surah xxiii. 90, "And say, My Lord, I seek 
refuge with Thee from the incitings of the 
devils, and I seek refuge with Thee from their 

Digitized by 



presence. Until when doath comet to any 
one of them, he says, My Lord I send me 
back (to life), if haply I may do right in that 
which I have left. Not so 1 A mere word that 
he speaks I Bat behind them there is bartakk. 
(a bar), until the day when they shall be 
raised. And whon the trumpet shall be 
blown, there shall be no relation between 
them on that day, nor shall they beg of each 
ether then." Upon this Terse the oommentator 
Baisawi says : " Barxakk is an intervening state 
(hffily • a barrier *) between death and the Day 
of Judgment, and whoever dies enters it." The 
commentator tfusain remarks t " Bareakh is 
a partition (mini*) between the living and the 
Day of Judgment, namoly, the grave in which 
they will remain until the resurrection." The 
commentators al-Jalilain speak of it as a 
Afl/tr, or intervening stste between death 
and judgment 'Abdu'r Rassaq in his Dic- 
tionary of Technical Terms of Ms $Qfi$ 
(8prenger's Edition), giv*» a similar defini- 

The word is employed by Mulyammadan 
writers in at least two senses, some using it for 
the place of the dead, the grave, and others 
for the state of departed soult botween death 
and judgment. 

The condition of believers in the grave is held 
to be one of undisturbed rest, but thst of unbe- 
lievers one of torment ; for Muhammad is 
related to have said, "There are appointed 
for the grave of the unbeliever ninety-nine 
serpents .to bite him until the Day of Resur- 
rection." (Mi*hkat y i. c. 6, p. 12.) The word 
seems generally to be used in the soose of 
Radee, for every person who dies is said to 
enter ai-Barzakb. 

BA'S(v**«0. Lit. " Raising." (I) 
The Day of Resurrection, (2; The- office of 
a messenger or prophet. 



BASE MONEY. The sale of one 
pure dirham and two base ones in exchange for 
two pure dirhams and ono base one is lawful. 
By two base ones (ghahtain), are to be 
understood such as pass amongst merchants 
but are rejected at the public treasury. 
(Hidaynh, vol. ii. 560.) 

ftl-BAgtR 0**N). One of the 
ninety- nine special names of God. It fre- 
quently occurs in the Qur'an, and means 
« The All-seeing One." 

BA9IRAH (•>-♦). Lit. "Penetra- 
tion." The sight of the heart as distinguished 
from the sight of the eye (Baearah or Bosar). 
A term used by theologians to express that 
enlightenment of the heart M whereby the 
spiritual man can understand spiritual things 
with as much certainty as the natural man 
can see objects with the sight of the eyo." 
The word occurs twice in the Qur'in, Surah 
xii. 108, " This is my way; I cry unto God, 
resting on clear evidence;* 8Qrah lxxv. U, 
M A man shall be evidence against himself." 

al-BASIT Q-W). One of the 
ninety-nine special names of God. It means 

"He who spreads, or stretches out," and 
occurs in the Qur'an, Sarah xiii. 16. As 
applied to God, it means, * lie who dispenses 
riches," Ac. 

BASTARD (\*\tt A, waladu Wnd). 
An illegitimate child has, according to Mu- 
hammadan lsw, no legsl father, and conse- 
quently the law does not allow the father to 
interfere with his illegitimate child, even for 
the purposes of education. He cannot inherit 
the property of his father, but he is acknow. 
lodged as the rightful heir of his mother 
(BallhVs Dig**t y p. 432). The evidence of a 
bastard is valid, because he is innocent with 
respect to the immorality of his parents : but 
the tmam Mftlik maintains that his testimony 
is not to be accepted with respect to a ohsrge 
of whoredom. (Hutu yah, vol. Ii. €92.) 

BATHING. The Arabic term for 
ordinary bathing is (J~*) ghful, and 
that for the religious purification of the whole 
body gkuvl In all large mosques, and in most 
respectable dwellings in Muhammad an eoun- 
trios, there are bathing-rooms erected, both 
for the ordlnsry purposes of bathing and 
for the rellgiouft purification. An account 
of the legal puriGcation will be found in the 
article ghusl. Although purifications and 
bathing form so esaential a part of the Muslim 
religion, cloanlinoss does not distinguish 
Mubammadans, who are generally in this 
respect a striking contrast to their Hindu 
fellow subjects in India. According to the 
saying of Mohammad, decency should be 
observed in bathing, and the clot hot from* the 
wsist downwards should not be tsken off at 
suoh tiroes. 'Mithkat, ii c. iv.) 

BATIL (JU.). That which is false 

in doctrine. 

al-BATIN (i^Ut). (1) One of the 
ninety-nine special names of God. It means 
"that which is hidden or concealed," "The 
Hidden One," or "He that knows hidden 
things." (2) A term used in theology 
for that which Is hidden in its meaning, In 
contradistinction to that which Is evident 

BATOL (Jynj. Lit "A shoot or 
offset of a palm-tree out off from its mother 
tree ; " M a virgin " (as out off or withheld from 
men). The term al-Batil is applied to 
Fatimah, the daughter of Mufyamrotd, because 
she was separated from the other women of 
her age by her excellences. Heb. n^H2 
Bethulah. * 

BA«tr§f (*»j*l|). A Syriac word, 
NJTftD (*•«• "petition, prayer"), 
whloh, In the dictionary ai-QSmmt, is said to 
mean the Christian Easter ; and also prayers 
for rain, or the hlisqa of the Christians. 
(Majmu 7-£ft*>, p. 101.) 

BAZAQ or BlZIQ (ja\i). A pro- 
hibited liquor. The juioe of the grep* tolled 

Digitized by 





until a quantity less than two-thirds evapo- 

BEARD. Arabic **«J lihyah or 
<$*** iaqan. The beard in regarded 
by Muslims at the badge at the dignity of 
manhood. The Prophet is related to hare 
said, *« Do the opposite of the polyt heists and 
let your beard grow long." (Mishkat, xx. iv.) 
And the growing of a beard is said to be 
Fitroh, or one of those customs which haTo 
been observed by every Prophet, [surah.] 

BEAUTY, Female. " The maiden, 
whose loveliness inspires the most impas- 
sioned expression in Arabic poetry and prose, 
is celebrated for her slender figure; she is 
like the cane among plants, and is elegant as 
the twig of the oriental willow. Her face is 
like the full moon,* presenting the strongest 
contrast to the colour of her hair, whioh (to 
preserve the nature of the simile just em- 
ployed) is of the deepest hue of night, and 
descends to the middle of her back. A rosy 
blush overspreads the centre of each cheek ; 
and a mole is considered an additional oharm. 
The Arabs, indeed, are particularly extrava- 
gant in their admiration of this natural beauty- 
spot, whioh, aocording to its plaoe, is com- 
pared to a globule of ambergris upon a dish 
of alabaster, or upon the surface of a ruby. 
The eyes of the Arab beauty are intensely 
blaok, large, and long, of the form of an 
almond ; they are full of brillianoy ; but this 
is softened by a lid slightly depressed, and by 
long silken lashes, giving a tender and languid 
expression, whioh is full of enchantment, and 
scarcely to be improved by the adventitious 
aid of the blaok border of the kuhl; for this 
the lovely maiden adds rather for the sake of 
fashion than necessity, having what tho Arabs 
term natural kuhl The eye- brows are thin 
and arched, the forehead is wide, and fair a* 
ivory ; the nose straight, the mouth small ; 
the lips are of a brilliant red, and the teeth 
«• like pearls set in coral." The -forms of the 
bosom are oompared to two pomegranates; 
the waist is slender ; the hips are wide and 
large; the feet and hands small ; the fingers 
tapering, and their extremities dyed with the 
deep orange-red tint imparted by the leavos 
ef Auuia. 

•The following is the most complete analysis 
of Arabian beauty, . given by an unknown 
author, quoted by Al-Ishaqi ; — 

" Four things in a woman should be bktcfc : 
the hair of the head, the eye-brows, the, aye- 
lashes, and the dark part of the eyes ; four 
whit < : the complexion of the skin, the white 
of the eyes, the teeth, and the legs ; four red: 
the tongue, the line, the middle of the oheeks, 
and the gums; four round: the head, the 
neck, the fore-arms, and the ankles; four 
long : the back, the fingers, the arms, and the 
legs ; four sti'de : the forehead, the eyes, the 
bosom, and the hips ; tour Jim : the eye-brows, 
the noee, the lips, and the fingers ; four thick: 
the lower part of the back, the thighs, the 
calves of the legs, and the knees ; four small i 
the ears, the breasts, the hands, and the feet." 
(Lane's Arabian Nights, voL i p. 26.) 

i BEGGING. It is not lawful for 
any person possessing sufficient food for a 
day and night to beg (Durru V-Mul&t&r, p. 
108), and it is related that the Prophet said : 
" Acts of begging are soratohes and wounds 
with whioh a man wounds his own face." " It 
is better for a man to take a rope and bring 
in a bundle of stioks to sell than to beg." 
" A man who continues to beg will appear in 
the Day of Judgment without any flesh on 
his face." (Mishkat, Book vi. chap, v.) 

BEINGS. According to Mii^ara- 
madan belief , there are three different species 
of oreated intelligent beings: (1) Angels 
(Afatfikah), who are said to be oreated of 
light ; (2) Genii (Jinn), who are created of 
fire ; (3) Mankind (inson), oreated of earth. 
These intelligent beings are called Zqum 7- 
'Uqul, or " Rational beings," whilst unintelli- 
gent beings" are called Qhair jfawtH-'UquL 
Hayawdni-Ndfiq ia also a term used for 
rational beings . (who can speak), and 
Hayawani-'Ajam for all irrational creatures. 


BELIEVERS. The terms used 

for believera are — Afu'min, pi. Afu'minun ; and 
Muslim, pi. Afuslimun. The difference ex- 
pressed in these two words is explained in the 
Traditions, in a Hadi* given in the £a#A of 
Muilim (p. 27), where it is recorded by 'Umax, 
as having been taught by Muhammad, that a 
Afu'min is one who has iman, or u faith;" 
Faith being a sinoere belief in Qod, His 
angels, His inspired books, His prophets, the 
Day of Resurrection, snd the predestination 
of good and evil ; and that a Muslim is one 
who is resigned and obedient to the will of 
Qod, and bears witness thst there is no god 
but Qod, and that Muhammad is His Apostle, 
and is steadfast in prayer, and gives sakat, 
or "legal alms," and fasts in the month of 
Ramasan, and makea a pilgrimage to the 
Temple (Bait) at Makkah, if he have the 

The rewarda in store for the believer are 
as follows (see Suratu 'l-Baqarah, Surah ii 

11 They who have believed and done the 
things that be right, they shall be the inmates 
of Paradise,— theroin to abide for ever." 
• Surat 'n-Nisa , Surah iv. 60 :— 

" Those who have believed, and done the 
things that are right, we will bring them into 
gardens ueath which the rivers flow — therein 
to abide eternally ; therein shall they have 
wives of stainless purity : and we wiU bring 
them into shadowing shades." 

Suratu 'l-Ahrdf, Sarah vii. 40:— 

"Thoae who have believed and done the 
things which are right, (we will lay on no one 
a burden beyond his power)— these shall be 
inmates of Paradiae : for ever shall they abide 

" And will we removo whatever rancour waa 
in their bosoms ; rivers shall roll at their feet ; 
and they shall say, ' Praise be to Qod who 
hath guided us hither! We had not been 
guided had not Qod guided us I Of a surety 

Digitized by 





the Apostles of our Lord came to us with 
troth.' And a voice shall cry to them, ' This 
is Paradise, of which, as the meed of your 
works, ye are msde hsirs.' 

" And the inmates of Paradise shall cry to 
the inmates of the Fire, " Now have we found 
what our Lord promised us to be true. Have 
ye too found what your Lord promised you to 
be true?' And they shall answer, 'Yes.' 
And a Herald shall proclaim between them : 
* The curse of God be upon tho evil doers, 

"Who turn men aside from the way of 
God. and seek to make it crooked, and who 
believe not in the life to oome I ' 

44 And between them shall be a partition ; 
and on tkt wall al-A'raf, shall he men who 
will know all, by their tokens, and they shall 
cry to the intnatM of Paradise, ' Peace be on 
you ! ' but they shall not yet enter it, although 
they long to do so. 

" And when their eyes are turned towards 
the inmates of the Fire, they shall say, '0 
our Lord I pface us not with the offending 

** And they who sre upon al-A'raf shall cry 
to those whom they shall know by their 
tokens, * Tour amassing! and your pride ha? e 
availed you nothing. 

" * Are these they on whom ye sware Qod 
would not bestow mercy? Enter ye into 
Paradise ! where no fear shall be upon you, 
neither shall ye put to grief.' 

" And the inmates of the Are shall cry to 
the inmates of Paradise : • Pour upon us some 
water, or of the refreshments God hath givon 
you?'. They shall thoy, • Truly God hath 
forbidden both to unbcliev era." 

For a further descriptions of the Muhara- 
madan futnro state tho reador is referred to 
the articlo paradise, which deals more 
directly with the sensual Guarantor of the 
hoaven supposed to be in storo for the 
believer in th* mission of Mohammad. 

The following is a description of the 
believer which is given in the Qur'an, Siratu 
H-Huminin, the xxtiird Sarah, v. 1 : — 
14 Happy now the Believers, 

Who bumble themselves in their prayer, 

And who keep aloof from vain words. 

And who are doors of alms-deeds (zakat), 

And who restrain their appetites, 

(Save with their wives, or the slaves whom 
their right hands possess ; for in that case 
they shall he free from blamo : 

But they whose desires reach further than 
this are transgressors Q 

And who tend well their trusts and their 

And who keep them strictly to thuir 
prayers : 

These shall be the heritors, who shall in- 
herit Paradise, to abide theroin for ever." 


BENEFICE, [waqf.] 

armmkah) la commonded by Muhammad as 
one of the evidences of faith. (Mishkat* Book 
I o. I. part a) 

Amr ihn 'Abaratah relates » "I came to 
the Prophet and said, «0 Prophot, what is 
Islim ? ' And he said . c It is purity of speech 
and hospitality.* I then said, * And what is 
faith?' And he said, « Patience and 6en«- 

BENJAMIN. Heb. TCPU* Arabic 

fc»**W*t Binydmln. The youngest 
of -the children of Jacob. He is not men-, 
tioned by name in the Qurtth, but he if 
referred to in Surah xii. 69* u And when they 
entered in unto Joseph, he took his brother 
(i.e. Bonjamin) to stay with him. He said 
Verily I am thy brother, then take not that 
ill which they have been doing. And when 
ho had oq nipped them with their oqutptnent, 
he placed tho his brothers 
pack," Ac. [Joseph.] 

BEQUESTS. Arabic &*•> watiyah, 
pi. wafaya. A bequest or will can be made 
verbally, although it is held to be better to 
exeouto it in writing. Two lawful witnesses' 
are necessary to establish eithor a verbal 
bequest or a written will. A beqnost in favour 
of a stranger to the amount of one-third of 
ths wholo property, valid, but a bequest to 
any amount beyond that is invalid, unless 
the heirs give their consent. If a person 
niako a bequest in favour of another from 
whom he has received a mortal wound, it is 
not valid, and if a legatee slay his testator the 
bequest in his favour ia void. A bequest 
made to part of the heirs is not valid unless 
the other heirs five their consent. The 
bequest of a Muslim in favour of an unbe- 
liever, or of an unbeliever in favour of a 
Mnslim. is valid. If a person be involved in 
debt, logaoies bequeathed by him are not 
lawful A bequest in favour of a child yet 
unborn is valid, provided tho foetus happen to 
bo less than six months old at the time of the 
making of the wilL 

If a testator deny his bequest, and the 
legatee produce witnesses to prove It, it is 
generally held not to be a retractation of it. If 
a person on his death-bed emancipate a slave, 
it takes effect after bis death. 

If a person will that " the pilgrimage in- 
cumbent on him be performed on his behalf 
after his death," his heirs must depute a 
person for the purpose, and supply him with 
the necessary expenses. (Hamilton's Hidayah, 
voL iv. 466.) 

BESTIALITY ia said by Muslim 
Jurists to be the result of the most vitiated 
appetite and the utmost depravity of senti- 
ment. But if a man commit it, he doos not 
inour the Hadd, or stated punishment, as the 
act is not considered to have the properties 
of whoredom ; tho offender is to be punished 
by a discretionary correction (7V*ir). Ac- 
cording to Muslim law, tho beast should be 
killed, and it it be of an eatable species, it 
should be burnt. (Ridayah, voL ii. 27.) 
Ob*. According to the Mossic code, a man 
guiltv of this crime was surely to be put to 
death. (Ex. xviii. 10.) 


Digitized by 





BETROTHAL, [khitbah.] 

Br AH (**••). A Christian church. 
The word oooure in a tradition in the Mishkdt 
(W. o. vii. 2), and is translated by «Abdu 1- 
Haqq •• Kalisah." [chobch.] 

BID' AH (***). A novelty or in- 
novation in religion ; heresy ; schism. 

BIER. Arabic «)W jinauah and 
janazah. The same word is used for the 
corpse, the bier, and the funeral. In most 
Mn^ammadan countries the* ordinary charpov, 
or " bedstead*" is used for the bier, .which, m 
the case of a female, is covered with a canopy. 

BIHISHT (*~**)r The Persian 
word for the oolestial regions, [paradim, 


BILlDU 'L-ISLAM (<X**\ *h). 
•• The countries of Islam." A term used iu 
Mubammadan iaw for Muslim countries. It 
is synonymous with the term Daru '1-Islam. 
[oabu 'l-ulam.] 

BILAL (J**). The first Mu'a&in 
,or caller to prayer appointed by Muhammad. 
He was an Abyssinian slave who had been 
ransomed by Abu Bakr. He was tall, dark,, 
and gaunt, with negro features and bushy 
hair. Muhammad honoured and distinguished 
him as the •• first fruits of ^Abyssinia." He 
survived the Prophet. 

BILQIS (<j-A). The Queen of 
Saba', who visited Solomon and became one 
of his queens. An account of her, as it is 
given in the Qur'an, will bo found in the 
story of King Solomon, [solomon.] 

BINT LABON (^ ^). u The 
daughtor of a niilk-givor." A female camel 
two years old ; so called beoause the mother 
is then, suckling another foal The proper 
age for a camel gi? en in zakdt, or " legal 
alms," for camels from thirty-six in number 
up to forty-live. 

BINT MAKHA? (u*W* uuot). 

"The daughter of a pregnant." A female 
oamel passed one year; so called because 
the mother is again pregnant. This is the 
proper ago for a camel given in zakdt, or 
*• alms," for camels from twenty-five in number 
up to thirty-five. 

MAD. Although the Qur'an may be said to 
be the key-stone to the biography of Muham- 
mad, yet it contains but comparatively few 
references to the personal history of the Pro- 
phet The Traditions, or Abam* form the 
chief material for all biographical histories. 
[tbaditiok.] The first who attempted to 
compile an aeoount of Muhammad in the 
form of a history, was as-Zuhri, who died 
ah. 124, and whose work, no. longer extant, 
is mentioned by Ibn Khallikan. The earliest 
biographical writers whose works are extant 
arc— Ibn Ishaq, a.h 151; Al-Wiqidi, a.h. 

207; Ibn Hishfcn, A.H. 21$; Al-Bukh&ri 
(history), a.h. 266; At-T»hari, A.H. ^10. 
Amongst more recent biographies, the most 
noted are those by Ibnu '1-AsIr, a.h. 630, and 
Isma'il Abu 'l-flda', 732. Abu l-ttdtfs 
work was translated into Latin by John 
Qaghier, Professor of Arabic at Oxford, a.o. 
1723, and into English by the Rev. W. Murray, 
Episcopal clergymen at Duff us in Scotland, 
and published (without date) at Elgin. The 
first life of Muhammad published in English 
is that by Dean Prideaux, which first ap- 
peared in 1723, and afterwards passed through 
several editions. Dr. Sprenger commenced a 
life of Muhammad in English, and printed the 
first part at Allahabad, India, a.d. 1851 ; hut 
it waa nover completed. The learned author 
afterwards published the whole of his work 
in Gonnan, at Berlin, 1801). The only oom- 
pleto life of Muhammad iu English which has 
any protension to original research, is the 
well-known Uft of MuAomet, by Sir William 
Muir, LL.D. (First Edition, four vols., London, 
1868-61 ; Second Edition, one vol., London 

BIOGRAPHY. A Dictionary of 
Biography is called JWjft »U».t asmd'u 
'r-rijal (lit. " Tho Names of Men % The most 
oolebrated of these is, amongst Muslims, that 
by Ibn Kkallikan, whioh has always been 
considered a work of the highest importance 
for the civil and literary history of the Mu- 
bammadan people. Ibn Khallikan died A4i. 
681 (aj>. 1282), but his dictionary received 
numerous additions from subsequent writers. 
It has been translated into English by Mao* 
Guckin Do Slane (Paris, 1843). 

BIRDS. It is commonly believed 
by the Muhammadans that all kinds of birds, 
and many, if not all, beasts, have a language 
by which thoy communicate thoir thoughts to 
oach other, and in the Qur'an (Surah xxvii. 
16) it is stated that King Solomon was taught 
the language of birds. 

BFR ZAMZAM ( r yj /i). The 
well of Zamzam. [zah-cam.] 

BFR MA'CNAH (*V A). The 
well of Ma<Qnah. A celebrated spot four 
marches from Makkah, where a party of 
Muhammad's followers were slain by the 
Banu • Amir and Banu Sulaim. He prof eased 
to have roceived a apeoial message from 
heaven regarding these martyrs, which runs 
thus : — M Acquaint our people that we have 
met our Lord. He is well pleased with us, 
and we are well pleased with Him." It is a 
remarkable verse, as having for some reason 
or other been cancelled, and removed from 
the Qur'eiL (Mull's Life of Mohomtt, vol 
HI p. 207.) 

BIRTH, Evidence of. According 
to the Imam Abu If anifah, if a married woman 
should claim to be the mother of a child, her 
claim is not to be valid unless the birth of 
of the child is attested by the testimony of 
one woman. But in the ease of a father, inas- 

Digitized by 





much m the claim of parentage is a matter 
which relates purely to himself, his testimony 
alone ia to be accepted. 

The testimony of the midwife alone is suf- 
ficient with respect to birth, bat with regard 
to parentage, it is established by the fact of 
the mother of the child being the wife of the 

If the woman be in her *ia\Jah ['iddah] 
from a complete dirorce, the testimony of the 
midwife is not sufficient with respect to birth, 
bat the evidence of two men, or of one man 
and two women, is requisite. (Hamilton's 
Hidagah, toL iii. p. 134.) 

It is also ruled that it ia not lawful for a 
person to give evidence to anything which he 
ass not seen, except in the eases of frtrtA, 
death, and marriag: (Vol. ii. 676.) 


BI-SHAW (£r* ^r). Lit. " With- 
out the law." A term applied to those 
mystics who totally disregard the teaching of 
the Qur'en. Antinomians. [sofi.] 

BISMILLAH (IW <>-*). Lit. " In 
the name of God." An ejaculation frequently 
used at the commencement of any under- 
taking. There are two forms of the Bis- 
millab : — 

1. Bi^smi 'flahi 'r-rahmani 'r-ra&m, i.e. 
"In the name of Ood, the Compassionate, the 
Meroif ul. M This is used at the commencement 
of meals, patting on new olothes, beginning 
any new work, and at the commencement of 
books. It occurs at the head of every chapter 
or surah in the Qur'&n. with the exception of 
the ixlh (i.e. the SihoiH H- Barf ah). 

2. Bi-'smi Wnhi Wnhi 'l-akhar t i.e. "In the 
name of Ood. Ood the Most Great." Used at the 
time of slaughtering of animals, at the com- 
mencement of a battle, Ac, the attribute of 
mercy being omitted on suoh occssions. 

The formula Bi-'imi llihi % r-rahmani V- 
rahim is of Jewish origin. It was in the first 
instance taught to the Quraish by Umaiyah 
of ^Alf, the poet, who was a contemporary 
but somewhat older than, Muhammad, and 
who, during his mercantile journeys into 
Arabia Petri* and Syria, had made himself 
acquainted with the sacred .books and doc- 
trines of Jews and Christians. (Kitabu V- 
Aghani, 16, Delhi; quoted by Rodwell.) 

BI$A'AH (*cU|). A share in a 
mercantile adventure. Property entrusted to 
another to be employed in trade. 

BLACK STONE, [al-hajaru.'l- 


BLASPHEMY. Arabic y* hufr. 
Lit. " to hide n (lae truth). It inclndos a denial 
of any of the essential principles of Islftm. 

A Muslim convicted of blasphemy is sen- 
tenced to death in Mohammad an countries. 

BLEEDING. Arabic t-V* £(/*- 
mah. Tho two great cures recommended by 
Muhammad wero blood letting nnd drinking 

honey ; and he taught that it was unlucky to 
be bled on a Friday, Saturday, or 8unday, 
the most lucky day being Tuesday, and the 
most lucky date the seventeenth of the 
month. (Miihk&t, xxi. o. 1.) 

BLIND, The. Arabic A'rnd, pi. 
'Utnyan. It is not incumbent upon a blind 
man to engage in Jihad, or a religious war. 
And, according to the Imam Abu Ilanlfab, the 
evidence of a blind person is not admissible, 
but the Imim Zufar maintains that such 
evidence is lawful when it affects a matter in 
which hearsay prevails. Sales and purchases 
made by a blind person are lawful. (Hamil- 
ton's Hidaydh, vol ii., pp. 141, 402, 683.) 

BLOOD. The sale of blood is 
unlawful (Hamilton's Hidiyah t vol. ii. 
p. 42a) 

BLOOD, The Ayenger of. [qisai.] 

BLOOD, Issue of. [istihaeah.] 

BOASTING. Arabic *Ul*~ mufa- 
kbarah. Muhammad is related to have said, 
" V swear by God, a tribe must desist from 
boasting of their forefathers; for they are 
nothing more than coals from hell-fire (i.e. 
they were idolaters) ; and if you do not leave 
off boasting, verily you will be more hateful 
in the. sight of Ood than a black-beetle. Man- 
kind are all the sons of Adam, and Adam was 
of the earth.* 1 (AfisMkal, xxii. o. 13.) 

BOOKS OP MOSES, [taubat.] 

BOOKS, Stealing. The hand of a 
thief is not to be cut off for stealing a* book, 
whatever be the subject of which it treats, 
because the object of the theft can only be tho 
coN/snfs of tho book, and not the book itself. 
But yet, it is to be obsorved, the hand is 
to be cut off for stealing " an account book," 
because in this case it is evidont that the 
object of the theft is not the contents of the 
book, but the paper and material of whiob 
the book is made. (Hamilton's Jfiduyah, vol. 
ii. 92.) 

BOOTS, [shoes.] 

Ate* khiydnah. The punishment of 
amputation of the hand is not inflicted for a 
breach of trust. And if a guest steal the pro- 
perty of his host whilst ho is staying, in bis 
honse, tlm hand is not cut off. Breach of 
trust in Muslim law being a lens offence than 
oidinary thett, the punishment for breach 
of trust is left to the discretion of the judge. 
(Hamilton's llidayah, vol. ii. pp. 03-102.) 

BRIBERY (Arabic *>j rishwah) 
is not mentioned intheQur*an. In the Fataxoa 
'Atamgiri it is stated that presents to magis- 
trates sre of various kinds ; for example, if s 
present be made in order to establish a friend- 
ship, it is lawful : but if it be given to influence 
the decision of the judge in tho donor's 
favour, it is unlawful. It is slso said, if a 
present be made to a judge from a» sense of 

Digitized by 



BU 4 AS 

fear, it is lawful to give it, but unlawful to 
accept it. (Hamilton's Hidauah, toL iii 
p. 832.) 

BU* A§, Battle of. Arabic **>U» v>-> 
flarb Bu'ds. A battle fought between toe 
Baau Khasra) and Banu Aus, about six 
years before the flight of Muhammad from 

BUHTAN (e)U«). A false accu- 
sation; calumny. 

The word occurs twice in the Qurtn :— 

Surah iy. 112 : " Whoso commits a fault or 
sin, and throws it upon one who ii innocent, 
he hath to bear calumny (buhtan) and mani- 
fests in."- 

Surah xxir. 15 : " And why did ye not say 
when ye heard it, * It is not for us to speak of 
this'? Celebrated be Thy praises, this is a 
mighty calumny (buhtdny [backbiting.] 

BUKi(»l4). Heb. H3S he wept 

Weeping and lamentation for the deed. Immode- 
rate weeping and lamentation over the grates 
of the dead is clearly forbidden by Muham- 
mad, who is related to have said, "Whatever 
is from the eyes (t *. tears), and whatever is 
from the heart (i.e. sorrow), are from Ood ; 
but what is from the hands and tongue is 
from the doviL Keep yourselves, women, 
from wailing, which is the uoiso of tho doviL" 
(i/<attaf, y. o. vii.) The custom of wailing at 
the tombs of the dead is, however, common in 
all Mu^ammadan countries. (See Arabian 
Nights, Lane's Modem Egyptians, Shaw's 
Travel* in Barbarg.) [bubial.] 

AL-BUKBAfil (v£)W\). A short 

title given to the well-known collection of 
Sunni traditions by Aba 'Abdu 'llih Muham- 
mad ibn Ismail ibn Ibrahim ibn al-Mughirsh 
al-JuTi al-BuJ&sri, who was born st BufcJbira, 
A.U. 194 (A.D. 8l(M, and died at the village of 
jCharlony near Ssniarqsnd, a.u. 256 (a.\>, 
870). His compilation comprises upwards of 
7,000 traditions of tho acts and sayings of the 
Prophet, selecte4 from a mass of 600,000. His 
book is called the frxb'xk of ai-Bu£bari t and 
is said to have been the result of sixteen 
years labour, It is ssid that he was so 
anxious to record only trustworthy traditions 
that he performed a prostration in worship 
before tho Almighty before he recorded each 

BUKBTU NA§§AR (^ u^.;. 
"Nebuchadnezzar." It is thought by Jalalu 
<d-din that there is a reference to his army 
taking Jerusalem in the Qur*an, Surah xvii. 8, 
" And when the throat for the lost (crime) 
came (to be inflicted, we sent on enemy) to 
barm your faces, and to enter the temple as 
they entered it the first time." The author 
of the Q/amus says that Buj&t is " son," and 
Nasaar, '< an idol," i.e. " the son of Nass ar." 

BOLAS (u*?jO. "Despair." The 
noma of one of the chambers of hell, where' 
the proud will drink of the yellow water of 
the infernal region:, (Afn/ikat, xxii. c. 20.). 


BURAQ (jV). Lit. "The bright 
one." The animal upon which Muhammad is 
said to hav* performed tho nocturnal journey 
called J/tVsy. He was a white animal, be- 
tween the size of a mule and an u*s, having 
two wings. (Majma'u H-Bihar, p. 80.) Mu- 
liammad's conception of this mysterious animal 
is not unlike the Assyrian gryphon, of which 
Mr. Layord gives a sketch. [urBAj.] 

the AasTBiA* OXYFHOH (Loyard ii. 459). 

BURGLARY is punished as an 
ordinary theft, namely by the amputation of 
the hand, but it is one of the nicctios of Mu- 
fyammadsn law, according to the Ilauafi code, 
that if a thief bresk through the wall of the 
house, ami cntor thoroin, and tuke tho pro- 
perty, and deliver it to an accomplice stanaing 
at the entrance of the breach, amputation of 
the hand is not incurred by either of the 

Sarties, because the thief who entered the 
ouse did not carry out the property. 
(Hidigak, vol. ii. 108.) 

Jinaiak or Janata/i). The term Janazah is used 
both for the bier end for the Mufesmmadan 
funeral service. The burial service is founded 
upon the practice of Muhammad, snd vanes 
but little in different countries, although the 
ceremonies connected with tho funeral proces- 
sion are diversified. In Egypt and Bukhara, for 
instance, the male relations and friends of the 
deceased precede the corpse, whilst the fomale 
mourners follow behind. In India and Afghan- 
istan, women do not usually attend funerals, 
and the friends and relatives of tho deceased 
walk behind the. bior. There is a tradition 
amongst some Muhsmmadsne that no one 
should precede the corpse, as the angels go 
before. Funeral processions in Afghanistan 
are usually very simple in their arrange- 
ments, and sre said to be more in accordance 
with the praotloe of the Prophet, than 
those of Bpypt and Turkey. It is considered 
a very meritorious act to carry the bier, and 
four from among the near relations, every now 
and then relieved by an equal number, carry 
it on their shoulders. Unlike our Christian 
custom of walking slowly to the grave, the 
Muhammadans carry their dead quickly to 
the place of interment; for Muhammad is 
related to have said, that it is good to carry 
the dead quickly to the grave, to cause the 
righteous person to arrive soon at happiness, 

Digitized by 





and if he be a bad man, it is well to pnt 
wickedness away from one's shoulders. Fu- 
nerals should always be attended on foot ; for 
it is said that Mu^ammsd on one occasion 
rebnked his peoplo for following on home- 
back. "Hive you no shame?" said l>o, 
" since God's angels go on foot, and you go upon 
the backs of quadrupeds ? " It is a highly 
meritorious act to attend a funoral, whethor 
it be that of a Muslim, a Jew, or a Christian. 
There are, however, two trsditions which 
appear to mark a ooango of feeling on the 
part of the Prophet of Arabia towards the 
Jews and Christians. " A bier passed by the 
Prophet, and he stood up ; and it was said to 
the Prophet, this is the bier of a Jow. * It is 
the holdor of a soul/ he replied, ' from which 
we should take warning and fear.'" This 
rule is said to hate been abrogated, for, " on one 
one occasion the Prophet sitting on the road 
when a bier passed, and the Prophet disliked 
that the bier of a Jew should be higher than 
his head, and he therefore stood up." (Mish- 
kii f ▼. c. t.) Notwithstanding these con- 
tradictory traditions, we believe that in all 
eountriosMuhammadans are wont to pay great 
respect to the funerals of both Jews and 

The Muhammadan funeral service is not 
recited in the graveyard, it being too polluted 
a place for so sacred -an office ; but either in 
a mosque, or in some open space nesr the 
dwelling of the deceased person or the grave- 
yard. The owner of the corpse, i.e. the 
nearest relative, is the proper person to 
recite the service ; but it is usually said by 
the family Imim, or the QasT. 
Tbe following is the order of tho service :— 
Somo one present calls out, — 
" Here begin the prayers for the dead." 
Then those present sr range themselves in 
three, five; or seven rows opposite the corpse, 
with their faces Qiblsh-wards (i.e. towards 
Makkah). The Imam stands in front of the 
ranks opposite tho head (the 6hi'ahs stand 
opposite the loins of a men) of tho corpse, if 
H be that of male, or the wsist, if it be that 
of a female. 

The whole company having taken up 
the Qjyam, or standing position, the Imam 
recites the Nlyah. 

•• I purpose to perform prayers to God for 
this dead person, consisting of four Takbirs." 
Then placing bis hands to the lobes of his 
ears, he says the first Takbtr. 
"God is great!" 
Then folding his hands, the right hand 
placed upon the left, below the navel, he 
recites the Subhan :— 

M Holiness to Thee, God, 
And to Thee be praise. 
Great is Thy Name. 
Great is Thy Greatness. 
Great is Thy Praise. 
There is no deity but Thee." 
Then follows the second Takbtr : — 

"God is great !" 
Then the Durud:— 

" God, have mercy on Muhammad and 
upon his defendants, as Thou didst bestow 

mercy, and peace, and blessing, and compas- 
sion, and great kindness upon Abraham and 
upon his descends nts. 

•• Thou art praised, and Thou art great 1 
"0 God, bless Muhsmmad and his de- 
scendants, as Thou didst bless and didst have 
compassion and great kindness upon Abra- 
ham and upon his descendants." 
Then follows the third Takbir :— 

"God is great I " 
Aftor which the following prayer (Du'tf) is 
recited : — 

14 God, forgive our living and our dead 
and those of us who are present, and those 
who are absent, and our children, and our full 
grown persons, our men and our women. O 
God, those whom Thou dost keep alive 
amongst us, keep alive in Islam, and those 
whom Thou causest to die, let them die in 
the Faith." 

Then follows the fourth Takbtr*.— 

"God is great 1" 
Turning the heed round to the right, he 
says : — 

" Peace and meroy be to Thee." 
Turning the head round to the left, he 
says : — 

''Peace and meroy be to Thee." 
Tbe Takbtr is recited by the Imam aloud, 
but the Subhan, the Saldm, the Durud, and 
the ZHi'o, are recited by the Imam and the 
people in a low voice. 

The people then seat themselves on the 
ground, and raise their hands in silent prayer 
in behalf of the deceased's soul, and after- 
wards addressing the relatives they say, '* It 
is the decree of God." To which the chief 
mourner replies, " I am ploased with tho will 
of God." He then gives permission to the 
people to retire by saying, " There is permis- 
sion to depart." 

Those who wish to return to their houses 
do so at this time, and the rest proceed to 
the grave. The corpse is then placed on its 
back in the grave, with the head to the north 
and feet to the south, tho faoo being turned 
towards Makkah. The persons who place 
tho corpse in the grave repeat the following 
sentence : " We commit thee to earth in the 
name of God and in the religion of the Pro- 

The bands of the shroud having been 
loosed, the recess, which is called the lahd, it- 
closed in with unburnt bricks and the grave 
filled in with earth, [oravb.] In some 
countries it is usual to recite verso- 67 of tbe 
xxth Surah of the Qur'an as the clods of 
earth are thrown into the grave; but this 
practice is objected to by the Wanhabls, and 
by many learned divines. The verse is as 
follows :— 

"From it (the earth) have We (God) 
created you, and unto it will We return you. 
and out of it will We bring you forth the 
second time." 

After the burial, the people offer ifatihah 
(i.e. the first chapter of the Qur'an) in tho 
name of the deceased, and again when they 
have proceeded about forty paces from tho 
grave they offer another fatihnh ; for at this 

Digitized by 





juncture, it it said, the two angels Munkir 
and Nakfr examine the deceased as to his 
faith, [punishments or the oravk.] After 
this, food is distributed to beggars and reli- 
gious mendicants as a propitiatory offering to 
God, in the name of the deceased person. 

If the grave be for the body of a woman, it 
should be to the height of a man's chest, if for 
a man, to the height of the waiut. At the 
bottom of the grave the recess is made on the. 
side to receive the corpse, which is called 
the tabid or lahd. The dead are seldom 
interred in coffins, although they are not pro- 

To build tombs with atones or burnt brioks, 
or to write a verse of the Qur'an upon them, 
is forbidden in the Hadis; but large sfone 
and brick tombs are common to all Muham- 
madan countries, and very frequently thoy 
bear inscriptions. 

On tho third day after tho burial of the dead, 
it is usual for the relatives to visit the grave, 
and to recite selections from the Qur'an. 
Those who can afford to pav Maulavis, 
employ these learned men to reoite the whole 
of the Qur'in at the graves of their deceased 
relatives; and, the Qur'an is divided into 
sections to admit of its being recited by the 
several Maulavis at onoe. During the days 
of mourning the rolatives abstain from wear- 
ing any article of dress of a bright oolour, 
and their soilod garments remain unchanged. 

A funeral procession in Egypt is graphic- 
ally described by Mr. Lane iu his Modern 
Egyptian*. We give the account as it con- 
trasts strikingly with the simple processions 
of Sunni Muhammadsns in India. 

" The first persons are about six or more 
poor men, called • Yamaniyah,' mostly blind, 
who proceed two and two, or three and three, 
together. Walking at a moderate pace, or 
rather slowly, they chant incessantly, in a 
melancholy tone, tho profession of faith 
Q There is no deity but God ; Muhammad is 
God's Apostle ; God favour and preserve him !'). 
They are followed by some male relations 
and friends of the deceased, and, in many 
cases, by two or more persons of some sect 
of darweshes, bearing the flags of their order. 
Tbia is a general custom at the funeral of a 
darwesh. Next follow three or four or more 
schoolboys; one of them carries a mutty 
(or copy of the Qur'an), or a volume consist- 
ing of one of the thirty sections of the Qur'an, 
placed upon a kind of desk formed of palm- 
atioks, and covered over, generally with an 
embroidered kerchief. These boys chant, in a 
higher and livelier voice than the Yamaniyan, 
usually some words of a poem called the 
FlasAriifah, descriptive of the events of the 
last day, the judgment, Ac. The school- 
boys immediately precede the bier, which 
is borne head-foremost. Three or four 
friends of the deceased usually carry 
it for a short distance; then three or four 
other friends bear it a little further ; and 
then these are in like manner relieved. Casual 
passengers, also, often take part in this ser- 
vice, which is esteemed highly meritorious. 
Behind the bier walk the female mourners ; 

sometimes a group of more than a dozen, or 
twenty ; with their hair dishevelled, though 
generally concealed by the head- veil ; crying 
and shrieking, as before described ; and often, 
the hired mourners acoompany them, cele- 
brating the praises of the deceased. * Among 
the women, the relations and domestics of the 
decoasod are distinguished by a strip of linen 
or ootton stuff or muslin, generally blue, 
bound round the head, and tied in a single 
knot behind: the ends hanging down a few 
inches. Each of these also carries a hand- 
kerchief, usually dyed blue, which she some- 
times holds ovor bor shoulders, and at other 
times twirls with both hands over her head, 
or before hor face. The cries of the women, 
the lively chanting of the youths, and the 
deep tones uttered by the Yamaniyah, com- 
pose a strange discord. 

u Tho funeral procession of a man of woalth, 
or of a person of tho niiddlo classos, is some- 
times procedod by three or four or more 
camels, bearing bread and water to give to 
the poor at the tomb, and is composed of a 
more numerous and varied assemblage of 
persons. The foremost of these, are tho 
Yamaniyah, who chant the profession of the 
faith, as doscribod above. They are generally 
followed by some male friends of the deceased, 
arid some learned and devout persons who 
have boon invited to attend the funeral. Next 
follows a group of four or moro faqilis, chant- ' 
ing the ' Suratu '1- An'ain ' (the vith chapter of 
the Qur'an) ; and sometimes, another group, 
chanting the 'SOrat Yi-sin' (the xxxvith 
chapter); another, chanting the * Suratu 1- 
Kabf' (the xvmth chapter); and another 
chanting the * Suratu 'd-Dufcban ' (the xuvth 
chapter). These are followed by some mun- 
shids, singing the ' Burdah ; ' and these by 
certain persous called * Asfeabu 1- Ahaab,' who 
are members of religious orders founded by 
celebrated shaikhs. There are generally four 
or more of the order of the Hixbu 's-Sldat, a 
similar group of the IJizbu 'sh-Shazili, and 
another of the Hizbu 'sh-Sha'rawi ; each group 
chants a particular form of prayer. After 
them are generally borne two or more half- 
furled flags, the banners of one' or other of 
the principal orders of darweshes. Then 
follow the school-boys, the bier, and the 
female mourners, as in the procession beforo 
described, aud, perhaps, the led horses of the 
bearers, if these bo men of rank. A buffalo, 
to be sacrificed at the tomb, where its flesh 
is to be distributed to the poor, sometimes 
closes the procession. 

" The funeral of a devout shaikh, or of one 
of the great 'Ulama, is still more numerously 
attended, and tho bier of such a person is not 
covered with a shawl. A ' wall * is further 
honoured in his funeral by a remarkable 
custom. Women follow his bier, but, instead 
of wailing, as they .would after the oorpae of 
an ordinary mortal, they rend the air with the 
shrill and quavering cries of Joy called 
' zagharffc ' ; and if these cries are discontinued 
but for a minute, the bearers of the bier pro- 
test that they cannot proceed, that a super- 
natural power rivets them to the spot on 

Digitized by 



whidh ihaj stand. Very often, it it said, a 
* wall* impair the bearers of his corpse to a 

S articular spot. The following anecdote, 
escribing an ingenious node of pusxling a 
dead saint in a case of this kind, was related 
to me by one. of my friends. Some men were 
lately bearing tho corpse of a « wall * to a tomb 
prepared for it in the great cemetery on the 
north of the. metropolis, but on arriving at the 
gate called Babu ri-Naf r, which leads to the 
cemetery, they found themselves unable to 
proceed further, from the cause above-men- 
tioned. * It seems/ said ono of the bearers, 
'that the shaikh is determined not to be 
burled in the cemetery of Babu 'n-Na*r, and 
what shall we do?' They were all much 
perplexed, but being as obstinate as the saint 
himself, they did not immediately yield to his 
caprice. Retreating a few paces, and then 
advancing with a quick step, they thought by 
sach an impetus to force the oorpeo through 
the gateway ; but their efforts were unsuccess- 
ful ; asd the same experiment they repeated in 
vain several times. They then placed the 
bier on the ground to rest and consult ; and 
one of them, beckoning away his comrades to 
a distanoe beyond the hearing of the dead 
saint, said to them, ' Let us take up tho bier 
again, and turn it round several times till the 
shaikh becomes giddy ; ho then will not know 
in what direction we are going, and we may 
take him easily through the gate.' This they 
did ; the saint was puzsled as they expected, 
and quietly buried in the place which he had 
so striven to avoid. 

M In the funerals of females and boys, the 
bier is usually only preceded by the Ysmanl- 
v»h, chanting the profession of the faith, and 
py acme male relations of the deceased; sod 
■followed by the female mourners ; unless the 
deceased were of a family of wealth, or of 
considerable station in the world ; in which 
ease, the funeral procession is distinguished 
by some additional display. I shall give a 
short description of one of the most genteel and 
decorous funerals of this kind that I have 
witnessed : it was that of a young, unmarried 
lady. Two men, each bearing a large, furled, 
green flag, headed the procession, preceding 
the Yamanlyah, who ehanted in an unusually 
low and solemn manner. These faqlrs, who 
were in number about eight, were followed by 
a group of fakihs, chanting a chapter of the 
QuVan. Next after the latter was a man 
bearing a large branch of * Nabq ' (or lote- 
tree), an emblem of the deceased. On each 
side of him walked a parson bearing a tall 
staff or cane, to the top .of which were at- 
tached several hoops ornamented with strip* 
of various coloured paper. These were fol- 
lowed by two Turkish soldiers, side by sjde, 
one bearing, on a small round tray, a gilt 
silver 'qumqum' of rose-water, and the 
other bearing, on a similar tray, a < mibkjtarah* 
of gilt silver, In which some odoriferous sub- 
stance (as bensoin, or frankincense) was 
burning. These vessels diffused the odour of 
their eontento on the way, and were after- 
wards used to perfume the sepulchral vault. 
Passengers were occasionally sprinkled 



with the rose-water. Next followed four 
men, each of whom bore, upon a small tray, 
several small lighted tapers of wax, stuck in 
lumps of paste of ' hinnaV The bier was 
covered with rich shawls, and its shah id was 
decorated with handsome ornaments of the 
head, having, besides the ?*fe, a * qussah 
almas' (a long ornament of gold and dia- 
monds worn over the forehead), and. upon its 
flat top, a rich diamond qure. These were 
the Jewels of the deceased, or were, perhaps, 
as is often the case, borrowed for the occa- 
sion. The female mourners, in number about 
seven or eight, clad in the usual manner of 
the ladies of Egypt (with the black silk 
covering, Ac), folio wod the bier, not on foot, 
as is the oommon custom in funerals in this 
country, but mounted on high -saddled asses } 
and only the last two or three of them were 
wailing ; these being, probably, hired mourners. 
In another funeral-procession of a female, the 
daughter of a Turk of high rank, the Yama- 
nlyah wero followed by six slaves, walking 
two by two. The first two slaves bore each 
a silver qumqum of rose-water, which they 
sprinkled on the passengers ; and one of them 
•honoured me so profusely as to wot my 
dress very uncomfortably ; after which, he 

Fourod a small quantity into my hands ; and 
wetted my face with it, according to custom. 
Each of the next two bore a silver mibfcbarah, 
with perfume; and the other two carried a 
silver 'azqi (or hanging censer), with burning 
charcoal of frankincense. The jewels on the 
shahid of the bier were of a costly description. 
Eleven Is dies, mounted on high-saddled asses, 
together with several naddabahs, followed." 


is no express injunction, in either the Qur'an 
or the Traditions, regarding the burning of 
dead bodies, although the burning of tho 
living is strictly forbidden. For Muhammad 
said, "Punish not with God's punishment 
(which is Are), for it is not fit for anyone to 
punish with fire but God." (Mishkat, xiv 
o. v. part 1 J 

. The teaching of the Traditions is that a 
dead body is as fully eonsoious of pain as a 
living body, for 'Aytshah said, that the Prophet 
said, " The breaking of the bones of a corpse 
is the same as doing it in life." (A/tsAJbd/, v. 
c. vi. part 2.) 

It is, therefore, pretty clearly established 
that cremation of the dead is strictly forbidden 
by the Mul>amma&an religion. There is, 
however, nothing to confirm the impression 
that the burning of a Corpse in any way pro- 
vents its soul entering paradise. 

BURNING TO DEATH is strictly 
forbidden by Muslim law. «Ikrimsh relates 
that some apostates from Islam were brought 
to the Kfealifah 'All, and he burnt them ; and 
when Ibn • Abbas heard of it, he said, ".Had 
thoy been brought to me, I would not have 
burnt them ; for the Prophet said, * Punish 
not with God's punishment. Verily it is not 
fit for anyone to punish with fire but God.'" 
(MUhkat, xiv. a. v. part 1.) 

Digitized by 




BTJBQA' (gl^). The reil or coyer- 
ing used for the seclusion of women when 
walking abroad, [veiumq or womkn.] 

BURtTJ (t#). Lit. "Towers," 
which some interpret as real towers wherein 
the angels keep watch. A term used for the 
twelve signs' of I he sodiae. [signs of tub 
sodiao.] Al-Buroj is the title of the Lxxxvth 
8&rah of the Qur'an. 


is said bj commentators that Ood taught 
mankind to bury their dead when " Ood sent 
a orow to scratch the earth, to show him 
(Gain) how he might hide his brother's body." 
(Qur'an, Surah ▼. 84; Ta/sW-iheatM, in 
loco.) The custom of burying their dead is 
universal in Islam. The ceremonies con- 
nected with funerals will be found in the 
article on Burial, [burial.] 

maqharat or maqbardk % M The place of graves." 
Persian Qobr-gaM, or Qpbnttdn. They are 
sometimes spoken of by religious Muslims as 
Marqad, a " cemetery * or " sleeping-place,* 
but the name has not obtained a general 


application to burial-grounds in the Bast as it 
has in the West. They are generally situated 
outside the city, the graves being covered 
with pebbles, and distinguished by headstones, 
those on the gravos of men being with a 
turban-like head. The graves are dug from 
north to south. The grave-yards are usually 
much neglected. The Wahhabis hoid it to 
be a meritorious sot, in accordance with the 
injunctions of the Prophet, to neglect the 

Saves of the dead, the erection of brick tombs 
ing forbidden. (Hi<jayah t Arabic ed., vol i. 
p. 90.) A gravo-yard does not become public 
property until the proprietor formally makes 
a gift or bequest of it. (Hiddyah, vol iL, 
p. 867.) 

BUSHRA (or*). "Good new§ ; " 
" the gospel." A word used in the Traditions 
for tho publication of Islam. (A/i*A*o7, xxi v. 
c. i.) " Accept good news, ye sous of 
Tamlm," which 'Abdu '1-Haqq aaya means 
" embrace Islam." 

BUYING, [bai'.] 


Persian word used 

person, an old man, or a person of rank. 

(iiSJvt) Lit " great." A 
sad in the East fer a saintly 

C2ESAB. The Arabic and Persian 
form of the Latin Casar in Qaipar. The 
word occurs in the traditions of the $ah'ibu 7- 
Muulim (vol iL p. 99), where it is applied to 
the Emperor Heraoliua, who received a letter 
from Muhammad inviting him to Islam, when 
he waa at Edeesa on his way to Jerusalem, 
August, A.D. G2& The origin of the title is 
uncertain. Spartiaous, in hia life of Aeliua* 
verua (o. \iX mentions four different opinion* 
respecting its origin : (1) That tho word sig- 
nified an elephant in the language of tho Moors, 
and was given as a surname to one of tbe Julii 
because he had killed an elephant ; or (2) That 
it was given to one of the Julii because he had 
been cut (cat*u$) out of hia mother's womb 
after her death ; or (8) Because he had been 
born with a great quantity' of hair (aiesariet) 
on his head; or (4) Because ho had asure- 
eoloured (catsii) eyes. Of these opinions the 
second is the one adopted by the Arabic- 
Persian Dictionary the Qhiy&fu 'l-Lughdt. 

The first of the Julian family who occurs 
in history as Having obtained the surname of 
Oasar ia Sex. Julius Oaear, prsstor in ac. 
208. It was first assumed aa an imperial 
title by Augustus as the adopted aon of the 
dictator, and wae by Augustus handed down 
to hia adopted aor Tiberius. It continued to 
be ueed by Caligula, Claudiua, aod Nero, ae 
members, either by adoption or female 
deaoent, of Caaar'a family; but though the 
family became extinct with Nero, succeeding 
emperors still retained it as part of their 

titles, and it waa the practice to prefix it to 
their own name, a a, for instance, Imperator 
CaMur DomitianuM Auqustut. The title waa 
superseded in the Greek Empire under 
Alexis Commenua by that of Sebaatocrator. 
In the west, it waa oooforred on Cbarlea tbe 
Groat, and was borne by thoae who succeeded 
him on the imperial throne. Although this 
dignity camo to an end with tho resignation 
of Francia II. in 180C, tho title Kaiser is still 
assumed by tbe Emperors of Austria and 
Germany, and more recently by the Queen of 
England as Qfiifur-i-Hina, or Empress of 

CAIN. Arabic J>Vs Qabil (Qdbil). 
The account of Cain and Abel aa given in the 
Qurau, Surah v. 80, will bo found in the 
article abkl. Tho Commentators say that 
the occasion of making the offering was as 
follows : Each of them being born with a twin 
sister, Adam by God's direction ordered Cain 
to marry Abel's twin sistor, and Abel to marry 
Cain's, but that Cain refused. They were then 
ordored to submit the queetion by making a 
sacrifice, and Cain offered a aheaf of the very 
worst of his corn, whilst Abel offered the best 
fatted lamb of his flock. (Taftiru 7-£ai>d*d, 
iw loco.) 

CALEB. Arabic Kdlab. The aon 
of Jephnnneh (Ykfannah). He is not men- 
tioned in tho Qui-Mn, but his name occurs in 
the Ta/Mfru V-Bai*uwi t iu Surah iv. 18. 

Digitized by 



CALF, GOLDEN, The, which, the 
Israelite* worshipped, is mentioned five timet 
in the Quran. Borahs it 48, 68; I v. 152; 
vii. 14ft ; xx. 90. Id 8urah xx. 00, the per*on 
who made It is ssJd to be as Stairi [hoses.] 

CALIPH, [mali*ah.] 

* CALUMNY is expressed by the 
word QMbok* which means Anything whis- 
pered to the detriment of en absent person, 
although it be true. Buhtait, expressing a 
false soousation. It is strictly forbidden in 
both the Qur'an end Hadi*. [ghuah.] 

CAMEL. Arabic Ibil. In the 
Qur'an (Surah Ixxftviii* 17), the institution of 
csraels to ride upon is mentioned ss en 
example of God's wisdom end kindness: "Do 
thoy not look then at the camel how she is 
created.* As a proof of the great usefulness 
of the camel to the Arabian, and of the 
manner in which its very existence has in- 
fluenced his language, it is remarkable that 
in almost every psgo of the Arabic Dic- 
tionary Qiimus (ss also in Richardson's 
edition), there is iome referenoe to a camel. 

Oamels are a lawful it orifice on the mat 
festiTals and on other occasion*. And al 
though it i* lawful to slay a camel by foo£, 
or by merely cutting its throat, the most 
eligible method, according to Muslim law, in 
to slay a camel by aeAr, or by sneering it in 
the hollow of the throat near the breast bono, 
•eeauee, eays Abu Qanlfah, it is according to 
the ■MsWoi, or praotioe of Muhammad, and also 
because in that part of the throat three "blood- 
vessels of a oamel art oombinod Hamil- 
ton's ffidayah, toL It. p. 71) There it takat, 
or legal alms, on camels, [iajut.] Muham* 
madan law rules that the person who leads a 
string of camels Is responsible for anything 
any -one' of the camels may injure or tread 
down. (Ihid, iv. S79.) 

CANAAN. Arabic Katfdn. Ac 
cording to al-Jalelaln and al-Battawl, the 
commentators, Oanaan was the unhelioving 
son of Nosh, but, aocording *to the Qimw 
dictionary, the grandson, who was drowned 
to the flood, and whose eaae is recorded In 
the Qur'an (Surah xi. 44). Ho is said to be 
. a son of Noah's wife We'ilah, who waa an in- 
fldel - And the Ark moved on them amid 
wares like mountains: and Noah called to 
his son — for he waa apart — * JEmberk with us. 
O my child I and be not with the unbelievers. 
He said, * I will betake me to a mountain that 
shall secure me from the water/ He said, 
'None shall be secure this day from the 
doom of God, sare hhn on whom He shall 
have mercy.' And a ware passed between 
them, and he was among the drowned.*' 

CAPTIVES. A$lr, pi. U$drd and 
Utari ) With respect te captives, the Imam, 
of leader of the army, has ft in his choice to 
slay them. " because the Prophet put eap- 
trrea to death, and also because slaying them 
terminates wickedness"; or, he may if he 
choose make Mem stores. It is not lawful 



for the Imam to send captives back to their 
homo and country, because that would be to 
strengthen the cause of infidelity against 
IsUm. If they become Muslims after their 
capture, they must not be put to death, but 
they may bo sold after their conversion. A 
converted captive must not be suffered to 
return to his country, and it is not lawful to 
release a captive gratuitously. The only 
method of dividing plnndor which consists of 
slaves, is by soiling them at the end of the 
expedition and thon dividing the money. 
(TfWdsoJ, ii. ICO.)* rw^YBBT.] 

CARAVAN. Persian Kdrwdn, 
Arabic Qifilah. As the roads in the East 
are often unsafe and lead through dreary 
wastes, merchants and traveller* associste 
together for mutual defence and comfort. 
These companies ere oalled both karwefa 
and qdfilah. The partv is si ways under the 
direction of a paid director, who Is oalled 
Karwan- or Qaulah* Basal. If aioaravan is 
attacked on the road, tho Muhammadan law 
alldws the punishment of oruoiflxion for the 
offence, (tlidaynh, vol. ii. 131.) But it is a 
curious provision of the Muslim law that if 
some of the travellers in a cars ran oommit 
a robbery upon otbers of the same caravan, 
punishment (t'.e of amputation) is not in- 
curred by them. (Vol Jf. 137.) 

CABUON (Arabic Maiiak) is for- 
bidden m she Qur'sa, 8urah ii. 60. " Thai 
which dhlk o/^tssjT, and blood, and swine's 
flash, and tHat over whleh sny other name 
than that of God hath been Invoked, is for- 
bidden. But he who shsll partake of them 
by constraint, without lust or wilf ulnessi no 
f la ahaQ bu upon him." 

CASTING LOTS. Zalam, or 
oasting lots by •hooting arrows, was an 
ancient Arabic ousten ■, which is forbidden by 
Muhammad in his Qur'an, Surah v. 4 ; hut 

r 4 aA,or oasting lota, in its ordinary sense, 
not forbidden, for 'Ayishah relates that 
when the Prophet went on a Journey, he used 
to cast lots as to which wife he should take 
with him. (MuUcSt BibuV-Qatam.) 

OATS. Arabic Sirrah. Accord, 
ing to a Hadfs of Abu Qutadah, who was one 
of the Companions, Muhammad said, " Cats 
are not impure, they keep watch around us.* 
He used water from which a oat had drunk 
for his purifications, and his wife 'Ayishah 
ate from a vessel from whioh a oat had eaten. 
(Afisttof, book iii, o. 10, pt. 8.) 

CATTLE. Arabic An'&m. They 
are said in the Qur'an to be the gift of God. 
fcurah xl 79, "God it la who bath made for 
you oattle, that ye may ride on some and eat 
others.* 1 

Cattle kept for the purpose of labour, such 
as carrying burthens, drawing ploughs, 6c, 
are not subject to takat , neither is there takdt 
on oattle who are left to forage for one half 
year or more. (Hidayah, i. lo\) 

Al-An'am is the title of the srxth Surah of 


Digitized by 





GAVE, The Companions of the 
(Arabio Ashabu H~kahf), or the Seven Sleepers 
of Ephesus, form the subject of one of the 
chapter* of the Qur'in, Surah xviii.. 6. 
[ASHABO •L-K.imr.] 

CELIBACY (Arabic 'Uuubah), 
although not absolutely condemned bj Mu- 
hammad, is held to be a lower form of Ufo to 
that of marriage. It is related that 'Usniitn 
ibn Mas/ tin wished to lead a oelebate life, end 
the Prophet forbade him, for, said he, u Whoo 
a Muslim marrios he perfeots his religion." 
(A/i*AJfcaf,book xii. c. xx.) 

CEYLON. Arabic Sarandib. The 
Oommentators say that when Adam and Kto 
were cast ont of Paiadise, Adam fell on the 
Island of Oeylon, and five near Jiddah in 
Arabia, and that after a separation of 200 
years, Adam was, on his repentanoe. con- 
ducted by the angel Gabriel to a mountain 
near Makkah, where he found and knew his 
wife, the mountain being named 'Aral ah ; and 
that afterwards he retired with her to Oeylon, 
when they continued to propagate their 
species. (DUerbelot, BiU Orient., p. 55.) 

CHASTITY. " Neither their (the 
Muslims') tenets nor their practice will in 
any respect bear to como into competition 
with Christian, or oven with Jewish morality. 
.... For instance, we oall the Muslims 
chaste because they abstained from indis- 
criminate profligacy, and kept carefully 
within the bounds prescribed as licit by 
their Prophet But those bounds, besides the 
utmost freedom of diroroe and change* of 
wives, admitted an illimitable licence of oo- 
habitation with ' all that the right hand of 
the believer might possess,* or, in other 
words, with any possible number of damsel* 
he might choose to purchase, or receive in 
gift, or take captive in war." (Muir's Life of 
Mahomet, vol i. 272.. [cohoubdi xon, slavxs, 


CHARITY, as it implies tenderness 
and affection, is expressed by bubb, or mahab- 
bah ; as it denotes almsgiving, it is sadaqah. 
He who is liberal and charitable to the poor 
is called muhibbu U-fuqcttxP. 

CHERUBIM. Arabic Karuto, jpl. 
Karubbi ; Lit. M Those who are near." Efeb. 
O^Vtt- The word karubbi is used by the 

commentator al-Baizawi, for the angels men- 
tioned in the Qur'an, Surah xL 70 : " Those 
around it (the throne of Qod) celebrate the 
praise of their Lord, and believe in Him, and 
ask pardon for those who believe." Al-Baisawi 
ssys the Karubin are the highest rank, and 
the first created angels. 1,1 u sain says there 
are 70,000 ranks of them round the throne of 
God. (Tafsirv 7-floi*a»i, Tafsiru Husain, 
in loco.) 

CHESS. Arabic Shatranj. Ac- 
cording to the Hidayah, "It is an abomi- 
nation to play at chess, dice, or any other 

game, for if anything be staked it is 
gambling (maisir), whioh. is expressly for- 
bidden in tho Qur'an; or if, on the other 
hand, nothing be haxarded, it la useless and 
vain. Besides, the Prophet has declared all 
tho entertainments of a Muslim to be vain 
except three : the breaking in of his horse, the 
drawing of his bow, and playing and amusing 
himself with his wives. Several- of the 
learned, however, deem the game it chess 
lawful as having a tendoncy to quicken the 
understanding. This is the opinion of ask- 
Shafi'i. If a man play at chess for a stake, it 
destroys the integrity of his character, but if 
he do not play for a stake, the integrity of his 
character la not affected. (Hamilton's Hidd- 
yah, voL iv. p. 122.) 

OHILDBEN. Arabic Atdad. 
There are no special injunctions in the 
Qur'an regarding the customs to be, ob- 
served at the birth of an infant (oircuinci- 
aion not \>eing evon once mentioned in that 
book), nor with reference to the train- 
ing and instruction of the young; but the 
subject is frequently referred to in the Tra- 
ditions and in Mu^ainmadan books on Ethics. 
Muhammadans have aq largely incorporated 
the customs of the Hindus In India with their 
own, especially these observed at the births of 
children, that it is sometimes difficult to dis- 
tinguish those which are special characteris- 
tics of Islam ; many of the customs recorded 
in Herklot'e Musalmans, for example, being 
merely those common to Hindus as well as 
Muhammadans. We shall, however, ondea- 
tout to describe tbose whioh are generally 
admitted to have some authority in the pre- 
oepts of the Muslim religion. 

(1.) At the birth of a child, after he has 
been properly washed with water and bound 
in swaddling clothes, he is carried by the mid- 
wife to the assembly of male relatives and 
friends, who have met on the ocoasiou, when 
the ohief Maulawi, or some person present, 
recites the Aidn, or summons to prayer 
razAif], in the infant's right ear, and the 
iqamah, which is the Ajan with the addition 
of the words, M We are standing up tor 
prayers n [i<umah], in the left oar ; a custom 
whioh is founded on the exainnle of tho Pro- 
phet, who Is related to have done so at the 
birth of his grandson Hasan (Mishkat, book 
xviii. c iv. 2). The Maulawi then chews a 
little date fruit and inserts it into the infant's 
mouth, a custom also founded upon the ex- 
ample of Muhammad. {Mishkat, book xviii 
o. iv. 1.) This ceremony being over, alms are 
distributed, and fat ihaks are recited for the 
health and prosperity of tfce child. According 
to the traditions, tho amount of silver given 
in alms should be of the same weight as 
the hair on the infant's head— the child's 
hoad being shaved for this purpose. (Mish- 
kat, ibid, part 2.) The friends and neigh- 
bours then visit the home, and bring presents, 
and pay congratulatory cpmplimenta on the 
joyful occasion. 

(2.) Tht naming of tho child should, accord- 
ing to tho Traditions (Mishkat, ibid), be 

Digitized by 





given on the seventh dmy ; tho child being 
either named titer some member of tho 
family, or aftor some saint veneratod by the 
family, or some name suggested by the au- 
spicious hour, the planet, or the sign of the 
zodiac. [sxonouM.] 

(8.) On this, the seventh day, is observed 
also the ctrtmony of 'Amqah, established by 
Muhammad himself (Babu H-'Aqiqah in 
Arabic Ed. $ab.ih of Aba Diud, vol. li. p. 86) 
It consists of a sacrifice to God, in the name 
of the child, of two he-goats for a boy, and 
ono he-goat for a girl. Tho goats must be 
not above a year old, and without spot or 
blemish. The animal is dressed and cooked, 
and whilst the friends eat of it they offer the 
following prayer:— "0 Ood 1 I offer to thee 
instoad of my own offspring, life for life, 
blood for blood, head for head, bono for bone, 
hair for hair, skin for skin. In the name of 
the greet God, I do sacrifice this goat ! " 

(4.) The mother is purified on the fortieth 
cfay, whnn she is at liberty to go about as 
usual, and it is on this day that the infant is 
generally placed in tho swinging cradle pecu- 
liar to eastern households. It is a day of 
some rejoicing amongst the members of the 

(6.) As soon es the child is able to talk, or 
when he has attained the age of four roars, 
four months, and four days, he is taught the 
Birmt'Ilah ; that is, to recite the inscription 
which occurs at the commencement of the 
Qur'an: "Bi'tmti 'ilahi 'r-rahmani 'r-ra&m* 
In the name of God the Merciful, tho Gra- 
cious. After this ceremony, the child is sent 
to school and taught the alphabet* and to 
recite certain chapters of tho Quran by rote, 

(6.) According to the opinion of Sunnt 
doctors, the circumcision of the child should 
take place in his seventh year ; the opera • 
tion being generaUyperformed by the barber. 
[ciaouMcisioH.] The child is not required to 
observe all the customs of the Muslim law 
until he has arrived at puberty [fdbbxtt] ; 
but H is held incumbent on parents and 
guardians to teach him the prayers as soon 
as ho has been circumcised. 

(7.) The time when the child has finished 
reeiting the whole of the Qur'Ai, once through, 
is also regarded as an important epoch in the 
life of a child. On this occasion the scholar 
makes his obeisance to his tutor and presonts 
him with trays of sweetmeats, a suit of 
clothes, and money. 

. As we have already remarked, tho instruc- 
tion of youth is a frequent subject >>f 
discussion in books of Muslim Ethics. 
The following, which is taken from the 
A£Jbfaq-i-Jatiui t is an interesting specimen 
of Mnhammadan ideas on the subject: — 
The first requisite is to employ a proper 
nurse of a well-balanced temperament, for 
the qualities, both temperamental and sptf- 
tnal, of the nurse are communicated to the 
infant. Next, since we are recommended bv 
the Traditions to give the name on the seventh 
day (after birth}, the precept had better he 
eonformed to. in dolaylng it, however, thoro 
Is this advantage, that time Is given for a 

deliberate selection of an appropiiate name. 
For, if we give the child an ill-assorted one. 
his whole life is embittered in oonsequenee 
Henco caution in determining the name is one 
of the parents obligations towards his off- 

If we would prevent the child's acquiring 
Culpable habits, we must apply ourselves to 
educate him as soon as weaned. For though 
men have a capacity for perfection, the ten- 
dency to vice is naturally implanted in the soul. 
The first requisite is to restrain him abso- 
lutely from all acquaintance with those ex- 
cesses whioh are characterised as vice. For 
the mind of children is like a clear tablet, 
equally open to any inscription. Next to that, 
ho should bo taught the institutes of religion 
and rules of propriety, and, according as his 
power and capacity may admit, confined to 
their practice, and reprehended and restrained 
from their neglect Thus, at the age of 
seven, we are told by the Traditions to enjoin 
him merely to say his prayers ; at the age of 
ten, if he omits them, to admonish him by 
blows. By praising the good and censuring 
the bad, we should render him emulous of 
right and apprehensive of wrong. We should 
oommend him whon he performs a creditable 
action, and intimidate him when he commits 
a reprehensible one ; aud yet we should avoid, 
if possible, subjecting him to positive cen- 
sure, imputing it rather to oversight, lest he 
grow audacious. If he keep his fault a 
secret, we are not to rend away the disguise ; 
but- if he do so repeatedly, we must rebuke 
him severely in private, aggravating the 
heinousness of such a practioe, and intimidat- 
ing him from its repetition. We must beware, 
however, of too much frequency of detection 
and roproof, for fear of his growing need to 
censure, and contracting a habit of reckless- 
ness; and thus, according to the proverb, 
" Men grow eager for that whioh is withheld," 
feeling a tendency to repeat the offence. For 
these reasons we should prefer to work by 
enhancing the attraction of virtue. 

On moat, drink, and fine clothing, he must 
be taught to look with contempt, and deeply 
impressed with the conviction that it is the 
practice of women only to prise the colour- 
ing and figuring of dress ; that men ought to 
hold themselves above it. The proprieties of 
meal-taking are those in whioh he should be 
earliest instructed , as far as he can acquire 
them. He should be made to understand that 
the proper end of eating is health and not 
gratification ; that food and drink are a sort 
of medicine for the care of hunger and thirst ; 
and just as medicines are only to be taken in 
the measure of need, according as sickness 
may require their influence, food and drink 
are only to be used in quantity sufficient to 
tatisfy hunger and remove thirst. He should 
be forbidden to vary his diet, and taught to 
prof er limiting himself to a single dish. His 
appetite should also be checked that he may 
be satisfied with meals at the stated hours. 
Let him not be a lover of delioaoies. He 
should now and then be kept on dry bread 
only, in ordor that in time of need ho may be 

Digitized by 




Able to subsist on that. Habits like ihoao are 
better than riohes. Let his principal men) be 
made in the evening rather than the morning, 
or he will be overpowered by drowsiness and 
lassitude during the day. Flesh let him hare 
sparingly, or he will grow heavy and dull. 
Sweetmeats and other such aperient food 
should be forbidden him, as likewise oil 
liquid at the time of meals. Incumbent as it 
is on all men to esohew strong drinks, there 
are obvious reasons why it is superlatively so 
on boys, impairing them both in mind and 
body, and leading to anger, rashness., auda- 
city, and levity, qualities which suoh a prac- 
tice is sure to confirm. Parties of this nature 
he shquld not bo allowed unneoessarily to 
frequent, nor to listen to reprehensible con vor- 
sstiou. His food should not bo given to him 
till he han dcnnatohed his tasks, unions suf- 
fering from positive exhaustion, lie must bo 
forbiddou to conceal any of his actions, lest 
he grow bold in impropriety ; for, manifestly, 
the motive to concealment can be no other 
than an idoa that thoy are culpable. Sleep* 
ing in the day and sleeping overmuch at night 
should be prohibited. $oft clothing and all 
tho uses or luxury, such as cool retreats in 
the hot season, and firoa and fur in the oold, 
' he should be taught to abstain from; he 
should be inured to exeroisu, foot- walking, 
horse-riding, aud all other appropriate accom- 

Next, let him learn the proprieties of con- 
versation and behaviour. Let huu not h« 
tricked out with trimmings of the hair and 
womanly attention to dross, nor he presented 
with riujjx till the proper time for wearing 
them. £et him be forbidden to boast to his 
companions of his auoestry or worldly advan- 
tage*. Let him be restrained from speaking 
untruths or from swearing in any case, whether 
true or false ,* for an oath is wrongful iu any- 
one, and repugnant to tho letter of the Tradi- 
tions, saving when roquired by the interest 
of the public. And oven though oaths may 
be requisite to mea 9 to boys they never can 
be so. Let him bo trained to silence, to 
speaking only when addressed, to listening in 
the presonoe of his eldors, and ox pi owning 
him soil corroctly. 

For an instructor he should have a man of 
principle and intelligence, well acquainted 
with the discipline of morals, fond of cloanli- 
ness, noted for stateliness, dignity, and huma- 
nity, well acquainted with the dispositions of 
kings* with the etiquetto of dining in their 
company, and with the terms of intercourse 
with all classes of mankind. It is desir- 
able that others of his kind, and especially 
sons of noblemen, whose manners havo 
always a distinguished eleganoe, should be 
at school with him, so that in their society 
he may escape lassitude, learn demeanour, 
and nxort himself with emulation in ids 
studies.. If tho instructor correct hiin with 
blown, ho muHt bo forbidden to cry, for that 
is the practice of slaves and imbeciles. On 
the other hand, the instructor must be care- 
ful not to rosort to blows, except he is wit- 
ness of an offence openly committed. When 


compelled to inflict them, it is desirable in 
the outset to make them small in number and 
great in pain ; otherwise the warning is not so 
efficacious, and he may grow audacious 
enough to repeat tho offence. 

Let him be encouraged to liberality, and 
taught to look with contempt on the perish • 
able* things of this world ; for more HI comes 
from the love of mouoy than from the simoom 
of the/dosort or the sorpout of the field. The 
Imam al-Ohasxali, in commenting en the text, 
a Preserye me and them from idolatry,* says 
that by idols is here meant gold and silver ; 
and Abraham's prayer is that he and his 
descendants may be kept far removed from 
tho worship of gold and silver, and from 
fixing their arTootions on them ; because the 
love of these was the root of all evil In his 
leisure hours he may bo allowed to play, 
provided it does not lead to excess of fatiguo 
or the commission of anything wrong. 

'When the disowning power begins to pre- 
ponderate, it should be explained to him that 
tho original object of worldly possessions is 
the maintenance of health ; so that the body 
may he made to last the period reqnislto to 
the spirit's qualifying itself for the life 
eternal. Then, if he is to belong to the 
scientific dosses, lot him be instructed in the 
sciences Let him be employed (as soon as 
disongaged from studying tho oMfntiels of the 
roligionp in acquiring the soieaoei. The best 
course is to ascertain, by examination of tho 
youth's oharacter foi what science or art he 
is best qualified, and to employ him accord- 
ingly *, for, agreeably to the proverb, " All 
facilities are not created to the same person"; 
every ono is not qualified for every profes- 
sion, but each for a particular one. 

This,' indeed, is the expression of a prin- 
ciple by which tho fortunes of man and of the 
world are regulated. With tho old philosn-, 
phors it was a practice to inspect the hoi o- 
. scope of nativity, and to devote the child to 
that profession! whioh appeared from the 
planetary positions to be suitable to his 
nature, mien a person is adapted to a pro- 
fession, ho oan acquire it with little pains; 
and when unadanteU, the utmost ho oan do Is 
hut to waste his timr and defer his esta- 
blishment In life. When a profession beam 
an incongruity with his nature, and means 
and appliances are unpropitious, we should 
not urge him to pursue it, but exchange it for 
some other, provided that there i#» no hope at 
all of suooeeding with the first ; otherwise it 
may lead to his perplexity. In the prosecu- 
tion of every profession, let him adopt a 
system whioh will call Into play the ardour 
of his nature, assist him in preserving health, 
and prevent obtusity and lassitude. 

As soon as ho is perfeet in a profession, 
let him be .required to gain his livelihood 
thereby; in order that, from an experience 
of its advantages, ho may Mtrive to master 
it oompletely, and mako full progress iu 
the minutiss of its principles. And for this 
livelihood he must be trained to look to 
that honourable emolument which charac- 
terises the woll-eonnocted. He must not 

Digitized by 



depend on the provision afforded by his 
father. For it generally happens, when the 



sons of the wealthy, by the pride of their 
parents' opulence, are debarred from acquir- 
ing a profession, that they sink by the vicis- 

uig m jHuiowiuut vuwv t«»j «»«•«. ~j — w . 

sitndes of fortune into ntter insigniflcanoo. 
Therefore, when he has so far mastered his 

Srofession as to earn a livelihood, it is expo- 
ient to provide him with a consort, and let 
him depend on his separate earning. Tho 
Kings of Firs, forbearing to bring their sons 
np surrounded by domestios and retinue, sent 
them off to a distance, in order to habituate 
them to a life of hardship. The Dilemito 
chiefs had the same practice. A person bred 
upon the opposite principle can hardly be 
brought to good, especially if at all ad- 
vanced in years \ like hard wood whioh is 
with difficulty straightened. And thjs was 
the answer Socrates gave, when asked why 
his intimacies lay chiefly among the young, 

In training daughters to that whioh befits 
them, domestic ministration, rigid seclusion, 
chastity, modesty, and tho other qualities 
already appropriated to women— no care can 
be too great. They should be made emulous 
of acquiring the virtues of their sex* but must 
be altogether forbidden to read and write. 
When they reach the marriageable age, no 
thne should be lost in marrying them to 
proper mates. (8ee Akyiq-i-JaUU, Thomp 
son's od:) 

of a thief is not to be out off for stealing a 
fret-bom child, although there be ornaments 
upon it, because a free person is not property, 
and the ornaments are only appendages ; and 
also because the thief may pload thaf he took 
the child up when it was crying, with a view 
to appease it, and to dell?er it to the nurse. 
But Abu Yusuf does not agree with flanif ah -^ 
for he says where the value of the ornaments 
amounts to tendirms, amputation is incurred. 
Amputation is also inflicted for stealing an 
infant slave, because a slave is property, 
although Abu Yusuf says H is not. (Bida- 
yoA, ii. 91.) 

CHO&BOES. Arabic Kku$raw. 
The King of Persia to whom Muhammad 
cent a letter inviting him to Islam. He is 
said to be Nausherwah. (8ee Ghiwdiu /- 
iAtghat m hnoi refer also to Muir's Life of 
Mahomet, vol. if. 64 n.) 


TIANS. Arabic, tfo*rantoaA, " Christianity"; 
the terms used for Christians being iYflirau, 
pL Na*era t or '/saw*. 

Christianity seems to have been widely dif- 
fused in Arabia ftt tho time of Muhammad. 
According to Cauasm de Peroeral, who quotes 
from Arabic writers, Christianity existed 
amongst the Band TaghUb of Mesopotamia, 
the Banu -Abdn 1-Qais, the Banfl iHaria of 
Najrin, the Band Ghess&n of Syria, and 
other tribes between al-Madinah and al- 

The historian Philostorges (/its/. RccU*. 
lib. 1, o. 8) tells us that a monk named Thoo- 
philus, who was an Indian bishop, was sent 
by tho Emporor Oonstanoo, a.d 849; to the 
Qimvarite King of Yemen, and obtained per- 
mission to build three Christian churches for 
those who professed Christianity ; ono at 
Zafir, another at 'Adan, and a third at Hnr- 
mus on the Persian Gulf. According to the 
same author, the Christian religion was in- 
troduced into Najran in the fifth century* A 
bishop sAnt by the Patriarch of Alexandria 
was established in the city of Zafir, and we are 
told by Muslim authors, quoted by Caussin de 
Perceval, that a Christian church was built at 
gan'i' whioh was the wonder of the age, the 
Roman Emperor and the Vioeroy of Abyssinia 
furnishing the materials and workmen for the ' 
building. The Arabs of Taman were ordered by 
the ruler of Abyssinia to perform a pilgrimage 
to this new church instead of to the Ke*bah ; 
an ediot which is said to have been resisted 
and to hate giren rise to tho " War of thefilo- 
phant," when Abrahah, the Viceroy of Egypt, 
took an oath that he would destroy tho 
Meccan temple, and marched at tho head of 
an army of Abyssinian*, mounted on an 
elephant This "War of the Elephant" 
marks tho period of Muhammad's birth. 

The Christianity of this period is described 
by Mosheim as «• expiring under a motley and 
enormous heap of superstitious inventions, 
with neither the courage nor the force to raise 
her hoad or display her national oharms to 
a darkened and deluded world." Doubtless 
much of the Hucoess of Islam in its earlier 
stage was due to tne state of degradation into 
whioh the Christian Church had fallen. The 
bitter dissensions of the Greeks, Nestorians, 
Eutyohians, and Monophysites are matters of 
history, and must have held up the religion of 
Joans to tho ridicule of the heathen world. 
The controversies regarding the nature and 
person of our Divine Lord had begotten a 
sect of Tritheists, led by a 8yrlan philoso- 
pher named John Philoponus of Alexandria) 
and are sufficient to account for Muhammad's 
conception of tho Blossed Trinity. The wor* 
ship of the Virgin Msry bad also riron rise to 
a religious controversy l»etween the Antidno- 
Marianites and the Oollyridians ; the former 
holding that the Virgin was not immaculate, 
and the latter raising her to a position of a 
goddess. Under the circumstances it is not 
surprising to find that the mind of tho Arabian 
reformer turned away from Christianity and 
endeavoured to construct a religion on the 
lines of Judaism, [judaism. J 

Al-Bait awi and other Muslim commenta- 
tors, admit that Muhammad reoeived Chris- 
tian instruction from learned Christians, 
named Jubrft and Yesera (al-Baitawi on 
Surah xri. 105), and that on this account the 
Quraieh said, '• It is only some mortal that 
teacnes him I" For the Traditions relate 
that Muhammad used to stop and listen to 
theee two Christians as they read aloud the 
Books of' Moses (TaurM) and the Now Testa- 
ment (I*jU). But it is roinarkable that Mu- 

Digitized by 





hammad should, after all, have obtained such 
a ouraory knowledge of Christianity. For 
from the text of the Qur'an (extraote of 
which are subjoined), it is eTident that he was 
under the impression that the Sacrament of 
Baptism was $ibgAah, or the dyeing of the 
Christians' olothes ; and if the Chapter of the 
Table refers to the Saorament of the Lord's 
Supper (whioh is uncertain), it was "a table 
sent out of heaven that it may be a recurring 
fostival. H The doctrine of the Trinity is sup- 
posed to be a Tritheism of God, Jesus Christ, 
and the Virgin Mary; and a proof against 
the Divinity of Christ is urged from the fact 
that He and His mother "both ate food." 
The crucifixion is denied, and Mary the 
mother of Jesus is confounded with Mary the 
sister of Aaron. Suoh mistakes and omissions 
could only arise from a most imperfect ac- 
quaintance with the ordinary institutions and 
beliefs of the Christian communities, with 
whom Muhammad must have been brought 
in contact. The gentler tone and spirit of 
the Christians seems to hare won the sym- 
pathy of Muhammad, and his expressions 
regarding them are less severe than with 
reference to the Jews ; but the abstruse cha- 
racter of their oreed, as shown in their end- 
less sohisms regarding the nature of the 
Trinity and the person of Christ, and the 
idolatrous character of their worship, as still 
seen in the ancient Syrian and Coptic 
churches, led him to turn from Christianity 
to Judaism ss a model whereby to effect the 
reformation of a degraded and idolatrous 
people like the ancient Arabians.' The 
Jewish and Mosaic character of Muhammad's 
system will be treated of in another place. 


The following selections from the Qur'an 
will show the actual teaching of that book 
regarding Christianity. In ths whole of the 
Qur'an there is not a single quotation from 
the New Testament, and it is notioeable that 
nearly all the allusions to Christianity are 
contained in Meocan Surahs ; Surah it being 
according to Jalalu 'd-din Suyfifci, one of the 
earliest chapters given at Makkah, and 
Sarah v. the last. 

Surah v. 86 :— 

44 Of all men thou wilt certainly find the 
Jews, and those who join other gods with 
God, to be the most intense in hatred of those 
who believe; and thou shalt certainly find 
those to be nearest in affection to them who 
say, 'We are Christians.' This, because 
there are amongst them priests (qissisun) 
and monks, and because they are not 

Surah ii. 60:— 

" Yerily, they who believe (Muslims), and 
they who follow the Jewish religion, and the 
Christians, and the Sabeites— whoever of 
these believeth in God and tho last dsy, and 
doeth that which is right, shall have their 
reward with their Lord: fear shall not 
come upon them, neither shall they be 
grieved. 4 

STh* same verse occurs again in Surah v. 

Surah ii. 106:— 

" And they say, - None but Jews or Chris- 
tians shall enter Paradise:' This is their 
wish. Sat: Give your proofs if ye speak 
the truth. But they who set their face 
with resignation Godward, and do what is 
right, — their reward is wfth their Lord; no 
fear shall come on them, neither shall they 
be grieved. Moreover, the Jews say, 'The 
Christians lean on naught:' 'On naught 
lean the Jews,' say the Christians. Yet 
both are readers of tho Book. So with like 
words say they who have no knowledge. 
But on the resurrection day, God shall 
judge between them as to that in wnioh 
they differ. And who oommitteth s greater 
wrong than he who hindereth God's namo 
from boing romembored in His tomplos, 
and who basteth to ruin thorn ? Suoh men 
oannot enter thorn but with foar. Theirs 
is shame in this world, and a severe tor- 
ment in the next. The East and the West 
is God's : therefore, whichever way ye turn, 
there is the face of God. Truly God is 
immense and knoweth all. And they say, 
'God hath a son:' Not Praise be to 
Him 1 But — His, whatever is in the Heavens 
and the Earth I All obeyeth Him, sole 
maker of the Heavens and of the' Earth 1 
And when He deoreeth a thing, He only 
saith to it, 'Be/ and it is. And they who 
have no knowledge say, ' Unless God speak 
to us, or thou shew us a sign ....!' So, 
with liko words, said those who were 
before them: their hearts are alike. 
Clear signs have we already shown for 
those who have firm faith. Verily, with 
the Truth have we sent thee, a bearer 
of good tidings and a warner: and of the 
people of Hell thou shalt not be questioned. 
"But until thou follow their religion, neither 
Jews nor Christians wjll be satisfied with 
thee. Say: Vorily, guidance of God, — 
that is the guidanco I And if, after 
' the Knowledge,' which hath reached 
thee, thou follow their desires, thou shalt 
And neither helper nor protector against 

SQrah iv. 166 :— 

M Nay, but God hath sealed them up for 
their unbelief, so that but few believe. 
And for their unbelief, — and for their 
having spoken against Mary a grievous 
calumny, — and for their saying, 'Yerily we 
have slain the Messiah (Ma*ih)i Jesus f/*a) 
the son of Mary, an Apostle of God.' Yet 
they slew him not, and tney crucified him not, 
but they had only his likeness. And they who 
differed about him were in doubt concerning 
him. No sure knowledge hsd they about 
him, but followed only an opinion, and 
they did not really slay him, but God took 
him uu to Himself. And God is Mighty, 

Surah U. 130:— 

" They ssy, moreover, ' Become Jews or 
Christians that ye may have the true 
guidance.' Sat : Nay 1 the religion of 
Abraham, the sound in faith, and not 
one of those who join gods with God! 

Digitized by 



Say ye: • We believe in God, and that 
which hath been aent down to us, and 
that which hath been aent down to Abra- 
ham and Iahmael and Isaac and Jacob and 
the tribes: and that which hath been 
given to Monet and to Jeans, and that 
which was given to the prophet* from their 
Lord. No difference do we make between 
Any of them: and to Qod are we resigned 
(Muslims!* If, therefore, they believe even 
aa ye believe, then have they trne guid- 
ance : but if they turn back, then do they 
cut themselves off from you : and God will 
suffice to protect thee ogninat thorn, for He 
fa the Hearer, the Knower. The Daptiem 
of God, and who is better to baptise than 
God ? And Him do we serve.* 

Surah v. 76:— 

" They surely are In (Id els who say, * God 
is the third of three:' for there is no God 
but one Qod: and if they refrain not from 
what they say, a grievous chastisement 
shall light on such of them as are In H dels. 
Will they not, therefore, be turned unto 
God, and ask pardon of Him? since God 
is Forgiving, Merciful 1 The Messiah, Son 
of Mary, Is but an Apostle ; othor Apostlos 
have flourished before him ; and his mother 
was a Just person: they both ate food. 
Behold! how we make olear to them the 
signs ! then behold how they turn aside ! 
Sat: Will ye worship, beside God, that 
which can neither hurt nor help? But 
God 1 He only Heareth, Knowetu. Sat : 
O people of the Book I outstep not bounds 
of truth In your religion: neither follow 
the desires of those who have already 
gone astray, and whe have caused many to 
go astray, and have themselves gone astray 
from the evenness of the way. Thoso 
among the children of Israel who believed 
not were cursed by the tongue of David, 
and of Jesus, Son of Mary. This, because 
they were rebellious, and became transgres- 
sors: they forbade not one another the 
iniquity which they wrought 1 detestable 
are their actions 1 " 

Surah v. 18:— 

" And of those who say, 'We are Chris- 
tians,' have we accepted the covenant. But 
they too have forgotten a part of what they - 
were taught ; wherefore we have stirred up 
enmity and hatred among them that shall 
last till the day of the Resnrroction ; and in 
the end will God tell them of their doings. 
people of the Scriptures! now is our 
Apostle come to you to clear up to you 
muoh that ye concealed of those Scriptures, 
and to pass over many things. Now hath 
a light and a clear Book oome to you from 
God, by which God will guide him who 
shall follow after His good pleasure to 
paths of peace, and will bring them out of 
the darknese to the light, by His will: and 
to the straight path will He guide them. 
Infidels now are they who say, * Verily 
God Is al-Masty Ibn Marram (the Messiah, 
son of Mary) ! Sat : And who could aught 
obtain from God, if He chOae to destroy 
al-Masih Ibn Maryara, and his mother, and 



all who are on the earth together? For 
with God is the sovereignty of the Hea- 
vens and of the Earth, and of all that is 
between them ! He oreateth what He will j 
and over all things is God potent. Say 
the Jewa and Christians, * Sons are we 
of God and His beloved.' Sat : Why then 
doth He chastise you for your sins ? Nay I 
ye are hut a part of the men whom He 
hath created ! " 

Surah v. 58 :— 

"0 Believers I take not the Jews or 
Christians aa friends. They are but one 
another's friends. If any one of you taketh 
them for his friends, he surely is one of 
them! God will not guide the evil-doers. 
So shalt thou see the diseased at heart 
speed away to them, and say, ■ We fear lost 
a change of fortune befall us.' But haply 
God will of Himself bring abont some vic- 
tory or event of His own ordering : then soon 
will they repent them of their secret imagin- 


Surah xxii. 18 :— 

** As to those who believe, and the Jews, 
and the Saboites, snd the Christians, and the 
Magians, ami thoso who join other gods with 
God, of a truth, God shall doeido hotwocn 
thorn on the day of resurrection : for God is 
witness of all things." 

Surah v. 112: — 

44 Remembor when the Apostles said — ' O 
Jesus, Son of Mary I is Thy Lord able to send 
down a furnished TABLE to us out of 
Heaven?' He said— • Fear God if ye be 
believers.' They "aid — * Wo desire to eat 
therefrom, and to have our hearts asuured ; 
and to know that thou hast indeed spoken 
truth to us, and to be witnesses thoreof.' 
Jesus, Son of Mary, said — '0 God, our 
Lord 1 send down a table to us out of Hea- 
ven, that it may become a recurring festival 
to us, to the first of us and to the last Of us, 
and a sign from Thee ; and do Thou nourish 
us, for Thou art the best of nourishers.' 
And God said— Verily, I will cause it to 
descend unto you; but whoever among you 
after that shall disbelieve, I will surely 
chastise him with a ohastisement wherewith 
I will not chastise any othor croaturo. 
And when. God shall say — *0 Jesus, Son 
of Mary, hast Thou said unto mankind— 
"Take me and my mother as two Gods, 
beside (Jod ? "* He shall say—* Glory bo unto 
Thee ! it is not for me to say that which I 
know to be not the truth ; had I said that, 
verily Thou wouldest have known it : Thou 
knowest what is in me, hut I know not what 
is in Theo; for Thou woll knowest things 

Sarah xix- 86 :— 

" This is Josns, the son of Mary ; this is a 
statement of the truth concerning which they 
doubt. It beseemeth not God to begot a 
son. Glory be to Him! when He decreeth 
a thing, He only aaith to it, Be, and it is. 
And verily, God is my Lord and your 
Lord } adore Him then. This Is the right 
way. But The Sects have fallen to variance 
among themselves about Je$ut : but woe, 

Digitized by 





because of iht assembly of a great day. to 
those who believe not 1 " 

The only Now Testament eainte mentioned 
by name in the Qur*in, are John the Baptist, 
Zacherias, and the Virgin Mary. 

In the Mitkkdtu H-MafSbib, there are re- 
corded in the traditional sayings of Muham- 
mad, about six apparent plagiarisms from the 
New Testament; but whether they are the 
plagiarisms of Muhammad himself or of those 
who profess to record his sayings, it is impos- 
sible to toll :— 

Aba Hursirah says tbe Prophet said, " Of. 
the seven persons whom God, in the lsst day, 
will draw to Himself, will be a man who has 
given alms and concealed it, so that his left 
hand knoweth not what the right hand 
doeth.* (Book 1. e. viii. pt. 1; oomp. 
Matt tL 8.) 

Again : " Ood accepts not the prsyers of 
those who pray in long robes," (Book i. 
c. ix. pt. 2; comp. Matt. xii. 88. ) 

Again : " The doors of the celestial region*; 
shall not open to them (the wicked) until a 
oamel pass through the eye of a needle." 
(Book t. 8; oomp. Mark x. 

Abu Umamah rotates that the Prophet 
said, "Blessed be Him who hath seen me. 
And blessed be htm who Tiath not seen ma 
and yot hath believed." (Book xxiv. c xxvi. 
pt 8 ; comp. John xx. 29.) 

Mu'ax relates that the Prophet said, •« Do 
unto afl men as you would they should do 
unto you, and reject for others what you 
would reject for yourself.** (Book L o. L 
pt8; Matt vii. 12.) 

Abu Hurairab relates that the Prophet 
said, " Verily Ood will say in the day of ro- 
surreotion, O ye sons of men I I was sick and 
ye did not visit me. And the sons of men 
will say, Thou defender, how could wo 
visit Thee, for Thou art the Lord of the 
universe, and art free from siokness ? And 
God will say, ye sons of men, did you not 
know that such a one of my servants was 
siek and ye did not visit him," Ac. Ac. 
(Book v. o. I pt 1; comp, Matt xxv. 

Although it would be diffloult to prove it 
from the text of the Qur*an, the general 
belief of MuToainmadans is that Christians 
are not In a state of salvation, and Lata, or 
tbe " blazing firo," mentioned in Surah lxx. 
16, it, according to the Imam al-Beghawi, 
reserved for them. 

The condition of a Christian In a Muslim 
state is that of a £m**i, or one who pays 
tribute to a Muhammedan governor, for 
which he enjoys protection. He is allowed 
to repair any old church which may have 
been in existence at the time the countrv was 
subdued by Islam, but he is not allowed to 
erect new ones; "for," eays Aba Hanifah, 
** the oonstructiou of ohurches or svnagogueo 
In Muslim territory is unlawful, being for- 
bidden in the Traditions." " It also behoves 
the Imam to make distinction between Mus- 
lims and £iststu (ie. Christians, Jews, and 
otbers paying tribute). It is therefore not 

allowable for them to ride upon horses or 
use armour, or to wear the same dresses 
as Muslims." The reason for this, says 
Abu Qanifah, "is that Mnframmadana are 
to be held in honour and £sm*u« are 

The wivos also of 2immis are to be kept 
apart from those of Muslims on the public 
roads and hatha And it is also ordered 
that a mark should be placed on their 
doors, in order that when Muslim beggars 
come to them thoy should not pray for. 

The learned have ruled that a Zimmi ' 
should not be allowed to ride at all, except 
in oases of ueoessity, and if he be thus of 
necessity allowed to rido, he should dismount 
when ho meets a Muslim. (Hidayah. vol. it 

A judge when he administer* su oatb 
to a Christian, must direct him to say: 
"I swear by God wbo sent the Gosoel to 

It is a singular ruling of the Mufeammadan 
law that a claim of parentaa* made by a 
Christian is preferable to a claim of bondage 
advanood by a Muslim. Abu Qanlfah say* 
if a boy be in the possession of two men, tlio 
ono a Muslim and the other a Christian, ami 
the Christian assert that the boy is his son., 
and tho Muslim assert that he Is his slave, 
he 'must be decroed to bo the sou o{ the 
Christian and free, beoanse although Islam is 
the superior religion, there can be no balance 
between the olaim of offspring and the claim 
of bondage. (/<<•*, vol. iv. 18&) 

Sir William Muir, referring to Muhammad's 
reception of tho Banft rtanifah and other 
Christian tribes, A.B. 9, says, " On the depar- 
ture of the embassy the Prophot gave 
them a vessel with some water In it running 
ovor from his own ablutions, and said to 
them, 'When yo reaeh your country break 
down your churoh, sprinkle its site with this 
water, and build a M asiid in its place.* These 
commands they oarried into effect, and Aban- 
doned' Christianity without oompunetion. 
To another Christian tribe he proldbited the 
practice of baptism; so that although the 
adults continued to be nominally Christian, 
their ohildren grew up with no provision but 
that of the Qur'an, .... It is no wonder 
that Christianity, thus insulted and trampled 
under foot, languished and soon disappeared 
from the peninsula,*' (Lift of Mahomet, vol 
iv. 219.) 

CHTJjtCHES. Arabic Bia'h and 
Kanitah, which terms inolude equally 
churches and synagoguee. The construction 
of churches or synagogues in Muslim terri- 
tory is unlawful, this being forbidden in the 
Traditions ; but as for places of worship which 
belonged to the Jews or Christians beforo 
the country was oonquered by tho Muhem- 
madan power, t*ney are at liberty to repair 
them, because the buildings cannot endure 
for ever, end, ae the Imam of the Muslim 
army hss left these people to the exercise of 
their own religion, it is a necessary inference 

Digitized by 





that ho has engaged not to prevent them 
from building or repairing their ehnrchea or 
synagogues. If, however, they attempt to 
remove these, and to build them in a piano 
different from their former situation, ' the 
Imam muat prevent them, since this Is an 
actual construction. Monasteries and her- 
mitages aro under the same law. Places of 
prayer within their dwellings ire allowed to 
bo constructed, because they Are mer ely an 
appurtenance to a private habitation. What 
is here said is held to be the rule with 
regard to cities, but not with respect to vil- 
lages, because as the " tokens of Islam " (i.e. 
prayer, festivals, Ac.) appear in cities, simmls 
(i.e. those paying tax for protection) should 
not be permitted to exhibit the tokons of 
their Infidelity In the fneo of Islam. Bat as 
the tokons of Islam do not appear In vil- 
lages, the erection of ehurohos and syna- 
gogues is not prohibited there. But the Imiim 
Abfi Hanifah held that this exemption merely 
applied to the village of Kusa, where the 
greater part of the inhabitants were gimmis. 
He adds that in the country of Arabia, Jews 
and Christians are prohibited from construct- 
ing synagogues and churches, either in cities 
or villages, according to the saying of the 
Prophet, M Two relioions cannbt exist in the 
country of Arabia." ([[iddijak, book ix. c. viii.) 

If a Jew or a Christian, being in nouno 
health, build a ohnrch or a synagogue and 
then dio, such building is an inheritance, and 
descends to the heirs of the founder. Accord- 
ing to AbQ Qanffah, it is a pious appropria- 
tion ; but hia two disciples hold such erections 
to be tinfnl % and only to bo considered as or- 
dinary property. If a Jew or a Christian will 
that his bouse after his doath shall be con- 
verted Into either a synagogue or church, the 
bequest is valid. (Hidayah, book lii. c. vi.) 

the following tradition related by T«l*q 
ibn «AH (JftsAfcet, iv. o. viii. 2) exhibits Mu- 
hammad's determination to destroy Christian 
churches s M We told the Prophet that there 
was a ohurch on our ground; and we re- 
quested the favour of his giving us the water 
which remained after he had performed **zf *\ 
And the Prophet called for water, performed 
wa*u and washed out his mouth ; after which 
he poured the water for us into a vessel and 
ordered us to roturn, saying, 'When you 
arrive, destroy your church (Arabic oPaA), 
and pour this water on the spot, and build a 
mosque there." 

CIRCUMCISION. Arabic Khiidn, 
bkitdnak, or Qatnah. Circumcision is not 
once alluded to In the Qur'an. The omission 
is remarkable, and Muslim writers do not 
attempt any explanation of it. It is held to 
be svaaviA, or foundod upon the customs of 
the Prophet (Fatiwa 'Alamgfri, vol iv. 
p. 387), and dating its institution from the 
time of Abraham. There is no authentio 
account of the circumcision of Muhammad, 
but it is asserted by some writers that he waa 
born circumcised. This, however, is denied by 
the moat eminent scholars. (Raddu 7- M u j£f ar, 
toL v. p. 885.) 

In the $ahihu 'l-Bul&ari, p. 981, a short 
ohapter is devoted to the subject of k&itan, 
of '« orrcumcision," in which there ere three 
traditions :' — 

Aba Hursirah relates that the Prophet said 
one of the observances of Fi(rab is circumci- 

Aba Hursirah relates that the Prophet 
said that Abraham was oiroumoised when he 
was eighty years old. 

Said ibn Jubair relates that it waa asked 
of Ibn « Abbas, " How old were you when the 
Prophet died? " He said, " I was oiroumoised 
In tne days when it occurred." And Jubair 
says they did not circumcise in those days 
until mon were full grown. 

It is recommended to bo performed upon a 
boy between thoages of soven and twelve, but 
it Is lawful to oireumotso a child seven days 
after his birth. In the case of s convert to 
Islam from some other creed, to whom the 
operation may be an occasion of great suffer- 
ing, it can be dispensed with, although it is 
considered expedient and proper for all new 
converts to be ciroumcisea. In all oases an 
adnlt i* expected to ciroumeise himself, as it 
is a shame for an adult person to uncover 
himself to another. 

The cirdumoision of females is also allowed, 
and is commonly practised in Arabia. (Fa- 
tiwa 'Alamoiri, vol. iv. p. 287.) 

The barber is generally tne person em- 
ployed for the circumcision of boys, and the 
operation aa practised by Mu^ammadana in 
India is performed in the following manner. 
A bit of stick is used as a probe, and carried 
round and round between the glans and pre- 
puce, to ascertain the exact extant of the 
framnm, and that no unnatural adhesions 
exist The foreskin is then drawn forwards 
and a pair of foroeps, consisting of a couple 
of pieces of split bamboo, five or six inches 
long and a quarter of an inoh thiok, tied 
firmly together at one end with a string to 
the extent of an inoh, applied from above in 
an oblique direction, so as to exclude about 
an inoh and a half of the prepuce above and 
three-quarters of an inch below. The for- 
oeps severely grasping it, oauses a good deal 
of pain, but this stato of suffering does not 
continue long, since the next thing to be done 
is tike removal, which is done by one stroke 
of the rasor drawn directly downwards. The 
haemorrhage which follows is inoonsiderable 
and easily stopped by the application of 
burnt rags and ashes. 

According to several Mufeamniadan doctors, 
there were seventeen of the prophets bom in 
a circumcised state, namely, Zaxarvyi, Shis, 
Idris, Tasuf, #ansalah, 'isa, MOsa, Adam, 
NOb, Shu'aib, 8am, L<U, $4lil>, Sulaimln, 
Tahya, Had, and Muhammad. (Dwrru 7- 
i/d&fer, p. 619.) 

MALS. All quadrupeds that seise their 
prey with their teeth, and all birds which 
seise it with their talons, are unlawful 
(juxrim), the Prophet having prohibited man- 
kind from eating them. 


Digitized by 


58 OLEiwv 

Hyenas and foxos, being both included 
under ibe olass of animals of prey, are un- 
lawful (This ia the dootrine of Aba Qanifah, 
but ash-8hafi<i holds that they are lawful) 
Elephants and weasels are aUo animals of 
prey. PeUoaus and kitoa are abominable 
(truikruh), because they devour doad bodies. 

Crows which feed on grain are wMkjir 
indifferent, but oarrion crows and ravens are 
unlawful. Abu Uanifah says the magpio is 
indifferent {mubafr), hut the Imam Yusuf says 
it is ahominablo (makruh). 

Crocodiles and otters and wasps, and, in 
general, all insects are mahruh, or abomin- 
able The ass and the mule are both unlaw- 
ful. Aooording to Aba ^anifah and Malik, 
horse-flesh is unlawful, but ash-Shafi*i says 
it is indifferent The flesh of haras is also 

No animal that lives in tho water, except 
fish, is lawful. But Malik allows thorn. . 

Fishes dying of themselves are unlawful, 
and so are all animals who are not slain by 
icieafc (Bidawah, ? ol iv. p. 74.) [xahah.] 

It must be observed that inMuhammadan 
law animals' are either batiU, " lawful." or 
stuodft, M indifferent," or woAruA, "abomin- 
able" (i.e. whioh is condemned but still is 
lawful), or faram, "unlawful" 

CLERGY. The Christian clergy 
are mentioned in the Qur'an with expressions 
of comparative praise. Surah v. 85 : •• Thou 
wilt surely find that the strongest ill enmity 
against those who believe are the Jews, and 
the idolaters : and thou wilt find those to be 
nearest in affection to them who say « We 
are Christians'; that is because there are 
amongst*, them priests (qiw$in) and monks, 
and because they are not proud." 

The Muframmadans have no class" of people 
occupying the precise position of priests or 
clergy, although the Imams, or leaders of 
prayers in the public, assembly, are persons ot 
learning apjpointed by the congregation. In 
Central Asia, His usual to set apart a learned 
man (well skilled in theology) by binding the 
turban round his head, the aot being per- 
formed by a leading maulawi or scholar. 

In Turkey and the western portion of 
Islam, those who are qualified to give an 
opinion in religious matters, and to take the 
lead in guiding the people in spiritual affairs. 
are called Hifasu? (pi of •«&'«), a term which 
has, in Hindustan and Central Asia, assumed 
the form of. maulawi, a word derived from 
mtmla, " lord." 

The recognised offices in Islim correspond- 
ing to thai of a priest or religious teacher, 
are, lmim, Mufti, and Qa> I. Imim (in addi- 
tion to its being used for the Qalifah, or 
Caliph, in the Traditions), is the person who 
loads tho publie prayers, an office answering 
to the Latin Antistes. This official is sp- 
pointed either by the congregation, or by tho 
parish or section ot the town or village, who 
frequent the" mosque in whioh ho leads the 
nravers. Mufti is the legal adviaer, who 
decides difficult religious questions, and 
assists the Qa>i, or judge. Q*ftis the judge 


and the administrator of the law The 
appointments of MufU and QSfi are in 
the hands of the Muslim government of the 
place. It is usual for the Qizi to take 
the lead in prayers, at lunerals, whilst the 
briam of the parish generally performs the 
nikdfa oi religious service at marriages. 

These offices are nut nooobssrily hereditary, 
but it is usual in MuJtpimnsdan oountrios 
for them to pass from father to son. In 
India at tho present time thoro are families 
who retain the titles of Mufti and Q£*i, 
although tho dutios connected with these 
offices are no longer performed by them. 

CAUTION (Arabic ffazar) is 

enjoined by Muhammad, who is related to 
have said, " A Muslim is not bitten twice at 
the same hole." "He is no poriect man who 
has not fallen into trouble, for there is no skil- 
ful physician but experience." When a man 
has spoken, and has then looked first to his 
right and then to his left, what he has said 
is sacred to those present, and they must 
not disclose it to others." (Mtihkat, xxii. 
c. Iviii.) 

COINAGE. [mon»y.] 


'Astir, a collector of the tenths ; and 'AwU 
muta$addiqy+ collector of alms. 

The Khalifah is to allow the officer em- 
ployed in the collection of the xakat as much 
out of it aa is in proportion to his labour, and 
will remunerate himself and his assistants. 
(£?<%<!*, vol 1 p. 64.) 


In the Qur'an it is stated that God gave 
Mosos certain monitions on tables (of stone), 
and also that he gave him nine dear signs. 
(Soe Surah vil 142, and Surah xvil 10?.) 
These two statements have perplexed ihe 
commentators very muoh, and every effort is 
made, by them W reconcile the nine signs 
with the Ton Commandments, although it is 
evident from the Qur'an iteelf , that the nine 
clear signs refer to the miracles of Mosos. 


According to the Traditions, the Prophet 
himself was a little confused ir, the matter, 
and may to some extent be responsible for the 
mistakes of the commentators on hi* book, for 
it is related (JuVsAaoi, book 1 c il pi %) that 
a Jow came to the Prophet and asked him 
. about the nine (§io) wonders whioh. appeared 
by the hands of Moses. The Prophet said, 
"Do not associate anything with God. do not 
steal, do not commit adultery, do not kill, do 
not tako an innocent before the king to 
bo killed, do not practise magic, do not take 
interest, do not aeouae an innocent woman of 
adultery, do not run away in battle, and 
especially for you, O Jowe, not to work on 
the Sabbath." *Abdu 'l-^aqq remarks on 
this tradition that the Jew asked about the 
nine (sic) miracles (or plagues) of Egypt, and 
the Prophet gave him the Ten Command; . 

Digitized by 





A comparison of the Ten Oommandments 
given by the great Jewish law-giver with those 
reeerded la the above tradition and in the 
nth Sarah of the Quran, verse 152, will ihow 
how imperfectly the Arabian Prophet wee 
acquainted with tho Old Testament sorip- 

The oommentator Husain, who wrote fonr 
hundred years ago, *ays the following verses 
in the BOratn 1-An*am (vi.) are thoie Ten 
Ootnmendments whioh in every dispensation 
are incumbent on mankind, and oannot be 
abrogated (meaning undoubtedly the Ten 
Oommandmente given to Moees). 

M Sat: Come, I will rehearse what jour Lord 
hath made binding en you— (1) that ye assign 
not aught to- Him as partner : (2) and that ye 
be good to your parents: (8) and that ye slay 
not your children, because of poverty; for 
them and for you will we provide: (4) and 
that ye come not near to pollution!, outward 
or inward : (5) end tbet ye slay not anyone 
whom God hath 'crbfdden vou, unless for 
a just cans*. This hath he enjoined on 
you, to the intent that ye may understand. 
(6) And come not nigh to the substanoe of 
the orphan, bnt to improve it, until he ooroe 
of age* (7) and use a full measure, and a 
just balance : We 'will not task a soul beyond 
its ability. (8) And when ye give Judgment, 
observe Justice, even though it be the affair 
of a kiusmsn, (9) and folHl the oovcnant of 
Ood. This hath God enjoined you for your 
monition — And, -this is m? right way.' 
Follow it then : (10) and follow not other pit hi 
lest ye be scattered from Bis path. This 
hsth He enjoined you, that ye may fear Him." 
(Surah vi 162.) 

FUL. Arabic Amiru 'MfVminfn 
(i^friftett j>*\). A title giten by the 
Muslims in the first instance to the first Kha- 
Ufah, Abu Bakr, and afterwards retained by 
duooeedmg Jfrha llfahs. It is assumed by 
atmoet any Mufenrnmsdan ruler in the pre- 
sent dav. 

COMMERCE. Arabic Itydra/. 
(I)V). Commerce and merchandise 
are said in 4he Quran te he of God." Surah 
xvil 68: u It is your Lord who drives the 
ships for you in the sea tljat ye may seek 
after plenty from Him ; verily He is ever mer- 
etfaf to you. And when distress touohes you 
in the sea, thoee whom ye call upon, exoept 
Him, stray away from you ; but when Ho has 
brought you safe to shore, ye also turn away 
(from Ood) ; for man is ever ungratefuL" 

Zmket is due on merchandise of every 
description, in proportion to 5 yer cent. 

COMPANIONS, The. [ashab.] 
COMPULSION. Arabie Ikrdh 
(*V^) MoJiammadan law maket 
provision for persons acting under compul- 
sion, when the person who compels ha* it in 
his power to oxecuto what ho orderi, i>e no 

a king or a thief. (fftddyoA, vol. iii. p. 459.) 
E.g. a person foroed into a contract may dis- 
solve it A Muslim may lawfully eat food 
which if prohibited if he be oompelled to do 
■o, being threatened with loss of life or limb. 
Nor is a Munlim gujlty of sin who declares 
himself an unbeliever whon the Ions of a limb 
or of life is threatened. According to the 
Imam Abu I?an?fah, if a Muslim be compelled 
to divorce his wife, the divorce is valid; but 
with him the other throe Imams are not 
agreed in this ruling. 

CONCUBINE. Arabic Surriyah 
(**»-), 4>1. aar&ri. The Mubatfimadan 
rehgieh appears to give almost unlimited 
license to concubinage, provided the woman 
be enslave, and not a free Muslim woman. 

Tho*e female ilaves must be either (\) 
taken captive in war, (2) or purohased oy 
money, (8) or the descendants of slaves. 
Even msrried women, if taken in war, are, 
according to an injunction of the Qur'aa, 
Surah iv 28, entirely at the disposal oi the 
Muslim conqueror. »• (Unlawful) to you are 
married women, txetpt suoh as your right 
hsod eossoss (i.e. taken In war. or purohased 
sUvoa)." This institution of ooneubinage Is 
founded ttpon tho example of Muhammad 
himself, who took Rihanab the Jewess as nit 
concubine after the battle with the Batifi 
fjuraisth (A.M. 6). and alio Maria the Oopt, 
who was sent him ss a slavs by the Governor 
of Kgypt 

eJhould a noncuWne bear her master s 
child, tho NuVammadan law rnles that she 
and her offuprio? are loso facto free. For a 
further treatment of this subject, see artiole 


Amongst the 8hi'ahs, the temporary mar* 
riage called Mut f ah exhibits the worst form 
of ooncubinsgs. [mn*AH.J 

It \n interesting to oompare the condition 
of the oonoubine under Muslim law and under 
tbe Mosaic. Under the law of Moses, a con- 
cubine would generally be either a Hebrew 
girl bought of her father « or a Gentile captive 
taken in war. 8o that whilst the Muham 
madan law forbids concubinage with a free 
woman, the Mosaic law permitted it and.legfs- 
lated for it. See liodus xxi. \ M If a man 
sell his daughter to be a maid-servant, she 
shall pot go out as men-sef vants do. If she 
please not her master who hath betrothed her 
to himself, then shall he let her be redeemed ; 
to sell her onto a strange nation he shall have 
no power, seeing he hath dealt deoeKfuUy with 

With regard to lemale slaves taken In war, 
the Mossio law ruled. Dent xxi. 10 : •• When 
thou goest to war against thine enemies* 
and the Lord thy Ood hath delivered them 
into thine bauds* and thou nast taken them 4 
captive, sod seest, a beautiful woman, and 
hast a desire unto her, that thou wouldst 
hs*e her to thy wife; then thou shalt bring 
her to thine home, Ac . . . And it shall he, 
if thou have no delight in her, then thou shslt 
1st her go whither she will * but thou snalt 
not sell her," Ac 

Digitized by 






of people in a mosauo it oalled Jastfah 
(£+*•), *&• term also Deing used in Afghan* 
istan for the mosque itself. 

There are special rewards for those Mu- 
bammadens who assemble together for the 
stated prajers; lor Mu^ainmad nas ssid f 
44 The prayers which are Said in a congrega- 
tioninorease the rewards of the worshipper 
twenty-eeYen degrees/ " Say your prayers 
in a oongregstion, far a wolf does not eat the 
sheep exoept one has strayed from the flock.* 
(Miskkat, book It. ch. xxiv.) 

The Sunni style themeelves Ahiu Sunnah 
wa Jantah, i.e. " the people of the traditions 
and of the congregation/ in contradistinction 
to the Shi' aha, who do not worship in a con- 
gregation unless the Imam, or leader, be a 
man entirely free from sin. [****•] 

The word jam'ah is. also used for an 
assombly of people collected to decide a ques- 
tion of law or theology, the ijmfr being their 
decision, more frequently called ijn&u 7- 

CONSCIENCE. There is no word 
in the Qur'an whioh exactly expresses 
the Christian oenoeption of conscience. The 
word naJkfoM), which, according to Arable 
lexicons, expresses very much the same idea 
as the Hebrew #03 nepAesh, "life, animal 

spirit, breath" (Job xli.*21), seems to be used 
in the Qur'an to convey the meaning of con- 
science, although English translators render 
it " iOuL" Muslim theologians say there are 
four kinds of consciences spoken of in the 
Qur'an: (1) Nafi lawwamak, the " self - 
accusing soul or conscience " (Surah Ixxt. 8). 
(%) Nafi ammarah, the *' soul or conscience 
prone to evil" (Sureh xii. 53). (8) Nafg 
smlsui'tfmaA, the " peaceful soul or con- 
science " (Sarah lxxxix. 12). (4) Naf$ mul> 
kammah, the "soul or conscience in' which 
is breathed both bad and good" (Surah 
IxxxIt. 27.) 

It occurs also in the sense of oonsoicnee in 
the Treditions (AtoAtfr, book i. eh. i. nt. 8) : 
" When anything pricks your soul {nafi) for- 
sake it." Abdu H-IJaoq, in his Persian oora- 
menUry on the i//«*£a/, renders it by saf, 
but the English word conscience would seem 
to express the precis© ides. In Persian Mu- 
<feammadan works, ss well as in common con- 
versation, the word nafg is now used in its 
eril sense, of desire or. passion, hut it must 
be evident that this is not its Qor*anie mean- 
ing. The word X. J f immah, which in later 
Arable, together with p+k * osiir, ie used 
to express conscience, has in the only pas- 
sage where it occurs in the Qur'an a decidedly 
different meaning, e^. Surah ix. 8, 10, where 
H means clientship. Ssle and Rodwell both 
translate it " faith," but Pelmer more accu- 
rately renders it •• tiee of olientehip." 

CONVERSATION. The follow- 
nig ini»t motions are given in the Qur'an re- 
i uuin^ talking and conversation. Surah 

xxxi. 17, »• Be moderate in thy walk, and 
lower thy voice ; verily the most disagreeable 
of voioes is the voice of asset" Surah ii. 
77, " Speak to men kindly." In the Tradi- 
tions, Ion Mas'ftd relates that Muhammad 
said, " May those people go to the fire of hell 
who speak much." 

On the subject of conversation, Fsqir Jani 
Muhammad As'sd, the author of the cele- 
brated ethical work entitled the AkJbluk-i- 
Jalali, p. 288, says :— 

"He should not talk mnch, for ii is s sign 
of levity in feeling and weakness in judgment, 
and tonds to lower him in point of consider* - 
tion and position. We ere told that the Pro- 

Shet used to observe the strictest medium in 
is language ; so much so, that, in the most 
protracted interviews, you might have counted 
the words he uttered. Buzurg Jainihr used 
to say, ' When you soe a person talking much 
without occasion, bo sure he is out of bis 
senses.' Let him not give vent to expres- 
sions till he has determined in his own mind 
what he is going to say. When anyone is 
relating a story, however woll known to the 
listouer, the. latter is not to intimate his ac- 
quaintance with it till the narrative is eon- 
eluded. A question put to others he must 
not himself reply to; if put to a body of 
which ho is a member, let him not prevent 
the others; and if another is engaged in 
answering what himself could answer better, 
let him keep silence till the other's ststement 
is completed, Mid thon give his own, but in 
such sort as not to annoy the former speaker. 
Let him not commence his reply till the 
querist's sentence is concluded Oonversa 
tions and discussions whioh do not concern 
him, although held in hie presence, he is not 
to interfere in; and if people conceal what 
they are saying; he must not attempt furtively 
to overhear. To his elders he should snesk 
with judgment, pitching his voice at a medium 
between high aud low. Should any abstruse 
topio present itself, he should give it per- 
spicuity by comparison. Prolixity be should 
never sim st, when not absolutely required ; 
on the contrary, let it be his endeavour to 
comprosi ell he has to say. Neither should be 
employ anusosl terms or far-fetched figures. 
He should beware of obscenity and bad lsu- 
guago ; or if ho must needs refer to an inde- 
cent ftibjeot, let him bo content with allusion 
by metephor. Of all things, let him keep 
clear of a taste for indelicacy, which tends to 
lower his breeding, degrade bis respectability, 
•od bring him into genoral disagreement and 
dislike. liet his language upon every occa- 
sion correspond with the exigenoy of his posi- 
tion; and if accompanied by gesticulation of 
the hand or eye or eyebrow, let it be only of 
that grsoeful sort which his situation calls 
for. Let him never, for right or wrong, en- 
gage in disputes with others of the company ; 
least of all with the elders or the trtflere of 
it : and wheu embsrked In suoh dispute, let 
him be rigidly obeervaut of the rules of 

'* Let him not deal in profound observation 
beyond the intellect of tho*e he js addressing, 

Digitized by 





bufc adapt hia discourse to the Judgment of his 
hearers. Thus even the Prophet has declared— 
* We of the prophetio Order are enjoined to ad- 
dress men in the measure of their understand- 
ings ' : and Jesus (blessed be he) said, * Use not 
wisdom with the unwise to thoir annoyance ' 
(St. Matthew vii. 6?). In all his conversation 
let bim adhere to the ways of courtesy. 
Never let him mimic anyone's gestures, 
actions, or words, not give utterance to the 
language of menace. 

" When addressing a great person, let him 
begin with something ominous of good, as the 
permanence of his fortune, felicity, and so 

"From all back -biting, carping, slander, 
ami falsehood, whethor hoard or spoken, let 
him hold it essontlal to keep dear ; nay, even 
from any partnership with those addiotad to 
such practices. Let him listen more than he 
ftpoaks. It was tho answer of a wise man bo 
those who asked him why he did so, 
( Because,' said he, ' God has given me two 
ears snd only ono tongue'; which was as 
much as to aay, * Hear twice as much as you 

MADAN RELIGION. According to the author 
of the Htdiyah (vol. ii. 170), if a hostile in- 
fidel embrace Islam in a hostile country, his 
person is his own. and he is not made a slave, 
nor can his children be enslaved. His pro- 
perty is also his own. But it is not so in the 
ease of one who has been first conquered and 
then embraces Islam, for his own person and 
his children become slaves, and his wives sre 
at the raeroy of tho victorious Muslim , whilst 
his lands also booomo the property of the 

COVENANT. The word in the 

Qur'in and the Traditions for God's Cove- 
nant with His people is Mtfiq. Muham- 
mad taught, both in ths Qur'in and in the 
Traditions, that in the beginning God called 
all the souls of mankind together and took a 
promise (vrtdah) and a covenant (mifdc) ' ron * 

The account of this transaction is given as 
follows in the Qur'an, Surah viL 171 :— 

" Thy Lord brought forth their descendant* 
from -the reins of the sons of Adam and took 
them to witness against themselves, * Ana I 
not.' said He, * your Lord ? ' They said, • Tea, 
we witness it' This we did, lest ye should 
say on the Day of Resurrection, 'Truly, of 
this were we heedless, because uninformed.' 

M Or lest ye should say, 'Our fathers, 
indeed, aforetime Joined other gods with our 
God, and we are their aeed after them : wilt 
thou destroy us for tho doings of vain 

But the story as told in tho Traditions is 
more graphic : — 

M Ubai ibn Ka'b relates, in explanation of 
the verso in the Suratu 1-A*rif (verse 171) : 
When God created (the spirits of) the sons 
of Adam, he collected them together and 
made them of different tribos, and of different 

appearances, and gave them powers of speech. 
Then thoy began to speak, and God took 
from them a promise (tori'ob*), and a covenant 
(mfsao/), and said, 'Am I not thy Lord?' 
They all answered and said, * Thou art,' 
Then God said, 'Swear by the seven hea- 
vona and the seven earths, and by Adam your 
father, that you will not say in the resurrec- 
tion, We did not understand this. Know yo 
therefore that thero ia no Deity but Me, and 
there is no God but Me. Do not assooiate 
anything with Me. I will verily send to you 
your own apostles who shall remind you of . 
this Promise and of thia Covenant, and I will 
send to you your own books.' Tho sons of 
Adam then replied, ' We are witnesses that 
Thou art our Lord (Rabb) t and our God 
(AlUiA). Thore is no Lord but Thee and no 
God but Thee.' Then thoy confessed this 
and made it known to Adam. Then Adam 
looked at them and beheld that there were 
amongst to em those that were rich and poor, 
handsome and ugly, and he said, '0 Lord 
why didst Thou not make them all alike ? ' 
And the Lord said, ' Truly I willod it thus in 
order that aome of my servants may be 
thankful' Then Adam saw amongst his pos- 
terity, prophets, like unto lamps, and upon 
these lamps there were lights, and thoy were 
appointed by special covenants of prophecy 
(nabumah) and of apostleship {ivuatah). 
And thus it is writton in the Qur'in (Surah 
xxxiit. 7), • Remember we have entered into 
covenant with the Prophets, with thee Mu- 
hammad, and with Noah, and with Abraham, 
and with Musa, and with Jesus the Son of 
Mary, and we mado with them a covenant.' 
And (continues Ubal) Josus waa amongst the 
spirits." ( AfuAttf, Arabio Kd. Babu '1-Qadr.) 


ll no injunction in oither the Qur'in or Tra- 
ditions as to a man covering his bead during 
prayers, although it is generally held to be 
more modest and correct for him to do so. 

With reference to women, the law is impe- 
rative, for 'Ayishah relates that Muhammad 
aaid, '• God accepts not the prayer of an adult 
woman uhIcms sbo cover her head.*' (MiihJrdt, 
iv. o. ix.) 


TURES. Mul^ammadana charge the Jews 
and Christians with having altered their 
sacred books. The word used by Muham- 
madan writers for this supposed corruption of 
the sacred Scriptures of the Jews and Chris- 
tians is Tabrif. 

The Imam FaV&ru 'd-tlin Real, in his com- 
mentary, Tafsir-i-Kabir, explains Tahrif to 
mean " to change, alter, or turn aaide any- 
thing from the truth." Muslim divines say 
there are two kinds of takrif, namely, lab- 
rf/*-t-ata*fUiM?f , a corruption of the meaning ; 
and Uibr\f-i-lafui, a corruption of the words. 

Mufyammadan controversialists, whon they 
become acquainted with the naturo of the 
contents of the sacred hooka of the Jews and 
Christians, and of the impossibility of recon- 
ciling the contents of the Qur'an with those of 

Digitized by 





the sacred Scriptures, ohaigo the Christians 
wlih .the tabrif-i'Uifti. They say the 
Christiana here expunged the word dkmad 
from the prophecies, and have inaerted the 
expression *• son of God," and the story of 
the crucifixion, death, and resurrection of our 
bleeaed Lord. This view, however, is not the 
one held by the most celebrated of the Mus- 
lim oommentators. 

The Imain Muhammad Ismi'il al-Bukhari 
(p. 1127, line 7), reoords that Ibn 'Abbas said 
that " the word Tokay (corruption) signifies 
to change a thing from its original naturo ; 
and that there is no man who could oorrupt 
a single word of what proceeded from God, 
so that the Jews and Christians could corrupt 
only by misrepresenting the meowing of the 
words of God.** 

Ibn Masai and Ibn Abi Hitim state, in the 
commentary known ss tho Ta/tir Durr-i- 
Manty; tfeat they havo It on tho authority of 
Ibn Muniyah, that the Taurat (i.e. the books 
of Moses), and the Infil (i.e. the Gospels), are 
in the same state of purity in which they were 
sent do*wn from heaven, and that no altera- 
tions had boon made in them, but that the 
Jows wore wont to deceive tho people by un- 
sound arguments, and by wresting the sense 
of Soripture. 

Shah Waliyu llah, in his commentary, the 
Fautu 7- AV/6tr, and also Ibn 'Abbas, support 
tho eatno view. 

This appears to be tho correct interpreta- 
tion of tho various vorsoS of the Qur*in 
charging the Jews with having corrupted the 
meaning of the sacred Scriptures. 

For example, S&ratu, Ali Ornran (iii.)i 72 : 
' There aro certainly some of them who read 
tho Scriptures perversely, that ye may think 
what they road to bo really in the Scriptures, 
yet it is not in the Scriptures ; and they say 
this is from God, but it is not from God ; and 
they speak that which is false eonporning God 
against their own knowledge-" 

The Imam Fafcferu 'd-diu, in his commen- 
tary <»n this verse, and many others of the 
same character which occur in the Qur*an, 
says it refers to a tahrif-i-ma^'naw^ and that 
ft does not mean that the Jews altered the 
text, but merely that they made alterations 
in the course of reading. 

But whilst all the old commentators, who 
most probably had never seen a copy of the 
sacred books of the Jews and Christians, onto 
oharge them with a takrif-i-i*a*nawi t aU 
modern controversialists amongst the Mu- 
bammadans contend for a '^H/W-Jq/fci, as 
being the only solution of the difficulty. 

In dealing with such opponents, the Chris- 
tian divine will avail himself of the following 
argumenU: — 

L The (Jur'an does not charge the Jews 
and Christians with corrupting tho text of 
tholr sacred books ; and many learned Mus- 
lim oommentators admit that such is not the 

2. The Qurtn asserts that the Holy-Scrip- 
tures' of the Jews and Christians existed in 
the days of Mufeammad, who invariably 
speaks of them with reverence and respect. 

8. There now exist manuscripts of tho Old 
and New Testaments of an earlier date than 
that of Mqlmmmad (a.d. 610-682.) 

4. There are versions of tho Old and New 
Testament now extant, which existed before 
Mufeanimad ; for example, the 8epiuagini, the 
Latin Vulgate, the Syriae,, the Coptic, and 
the Armenian vorsions. 

5. The rtexapla, or Ootapla of Orlgen, which 
dates four centuries before Muhammad, gives 
various versions of the Old Testament Sorip 
turos in parallel columns. 

6. The Syrian Christians of St Thomas, of 
Malabar and Travanoore. in the south of 
India, who were separated from the western 
world for oenturies, possess tho same Scrip- 

7. In the works of Justin Martyr, who 
lived from a.d. 108 to 167, \hero are nume- 
rous quotations from our ssered books, which 
prove that they were exactly the same as 
those we havo now. The same may be said 
of other early Christian writers. 

Muhammadau controversialist* of the pro- 
sent day urge that the humorous readings 
which exist in tho Christian books are a proof 
that they have been corrupted. But these do 
not affect, in the least, the main points at 
issue between the Christian and the Muslim. 
The Divine Sonship of Christ, the Father- 
hood of God, the Crucifixion, Death, and Re- 
surrection of Christ, an4 tho Atonement, are 
all clearly stated in almost every book of tho 
New Testament, whilst they aro rejected' by 
the Qur'an. 

The most plausible of modern objection* 
urged by Muslim divines is, that the Chris- 
tians hsve hit the Infil which was sent down 
from heaven to Jeiuis ; and that tho New Tes- 
tament oontstns ujoroly the i/cicft*, or 8*mvJk 
— the tradition* hsnded down )iv Matthew,' 
Mark, Luke, John, haul, and others. It is, 
of oourse, a more assertion, unsupported by 
any proof; but it appoars to be a line of 
argument which commends itself to many 
modern Muslims. 

CREATION. Arabic KhalqaJu The 
following are tho allusions to the Creation which 
occur in the Qur'fcn, Surah L 87: "Of old We 
(God ) oreated the heavens and the earth and all 
that is between them in six days, and no wea- 
riness touohed Us." Surah xU. 8; "Do ye 
indeed disbelieve in Him who in two days 
created the earth f Do ye assign Him equals ft 
The Lord of the World is He. And He nath 
placed on the earth the Arm mountains wnich 
tower above it, and He hath blessed it, and 
distributed its nourishments throughout it 
(for the cravings of all are alike), in four 
days. Then He applied .Himself to the 
heaven, which was but smoke : and to it and 
to the earth He said, "Gome ye, In ebedienoo 
or against your will?" end they both said, 
M Wo come obedient." And He Completed 
them as seven heavens in two days, and hi 
each heaven made known Its office ; and We 
furnished the lower heaven with lights and 
guardian angels. This is the disposition of 
tho Almighty, the all-knowing one." Sural 

Digitized by 



xri 8: "He created the heavens end the 
eerth to tei forth his truth, high let Him be 
oxelted above the gods they Join with Him I 
Men hath He oreeted oat of a moiet gorm ; yet 
lo I men ie en open caviller. And the cattle 1 
for Ton hath He oreeted them, *o. . . . , 
Shall He who hath created be at be who 
hath not oreeted ? Will ye not ooneider ? " 
Sarah xiil S: "It U God who hath reared the 
heavens without pillars, tbon canst behold; 
then seated Himee|f upon Hie throne, and 
impoeed lewe on the sun and moon; eaoh 
travellethto its appointeth goal. He ordereth 
all things. Ho maketh His signs clear. 
Haply ye will have Arm faith in a meeting 
with your Lord. And He it is who hath ont- 
stretehed the earth, and placed on it the firm 
menntslne, and rivers : and of every fruit Ho 
hath placed on it two kinds. He causetb tho 
eight to enshroud the day* Sarah xxxv. 
12 " God created yon of dust— then of the 
gonna of life — thou made yon two 'exes.** 

According to the Tradition* (MisMknt, xxiv. 
e. i pt $1 God created the earth on Satur- 
day, the hiDe on Sunday, tho trees on Monday, 
all unpleasant things on Tnesday, the light 
on Wednesday, the beasts on Thursday, and 
Ae^am, who was the last df Creation, was 
oreatod after the time of afternoon prayers on 

(TREED. The Muhammadan Creed, 
or KoHmoin kk-tkokndak (shortly Kalimak) is 
the well-known formula :— 

"I testify that there is no deity bnt 
flod, and- Muhammad is the Apostle of 

It is th* belief of Mo^emmadeoe thai the 
first pari of this creed, whioh is called tbo 
nq/i wa iibnt, namely, " There is no deity hat 
God," has been the expression of belief of. 
every prophet sinoe the days of Adam, and 
that the second portion has been changed 
according to the dispensation : for example, 
thai m the davs of Moees it would be: 
"There is no deity but God, and Moses is 
the Oonverser with God.* In the* Christian 
dispensation it was: "There ie no deity 
but God, and Jesus is the Spirit of 

JMHr relates that Mohammad said « the 
keys of Paradise are hearing witness that 
there is no deity hut God.* 

The recital of the KaKmak, or Creed, is 
the first of five pillars of practical religion in 
Jslam; end when anyone is converted to 
Islam he is required, to repeat this formula, 
and the following are the conditions required 
of every MnsHm with reference to it. :-- 

I. That H shaU he repeated, aloud, at 
least once m a life-time 

i/ That the meaning of it shall be folly 

8 That H shall he believed in "bv the 

4. That H shall be professed until death. 

6. Thai it shall be recited eorreotly. 

6. That it shall be always professed and 
declared without hesitation. 




CREMATION, [btomuhg th* 


CRESCENT. The figure of the 
crescent is the Turkish symbol! and hence it 
has been regarded by European! as the spe- 
cial emblem oi tho Muhammadan religion, 
although it is unknown to the Mnljjunmadans 
of tho East. This figure, however, did not 
originate with tho Turks, but it was the 
symbol of sovereignty in the oity of Bysan- 
tium previous to the Muslim oonquest, as 
may be seen from the medals struck in 
honour of Augustus Trajan and othors. The 
oresoent has been the symbol of three dif- 
fesent orders of knighthood; tho first et 
which was instituted by Oharlos L, King of 
Maples, a.d. 1268; the second in 1448 by 
Rene* of Anjou ; the third by Sultan fcellm 
in 1801. It must have been adopted by Mu- 
hammadans for the first time upon the over* 
throw of the Bysantine Empire by Muhammad 
II., and it is. now generally used by tho 
Turks as the insignia of their creed 

CROCODILE. Arabic Tinudk, 
The flesh of a crocodile is unlawful lor food 
to a Muhammadan. (Hamilton's IliHayak, 
lv. 74 ) 

CROSS, The. Ar&h\cAf~9aUb. The 
Qur*an denies the oruoifixion of our blessed 
Lord rcBwmxioir], and It is rolatod by al- 
WaqidJ that Mufeamumd had such a repug- 
nanoe to the form of the cress that ho broke 
everything brought into his house with that 
figure upon It. (Muir, hi 61.) According to 
AbO Huraireh, the Prophet said, " I swear by 
heaven. It is near, when Jesus the Boo of Mary 
will dosoend from heaven upon your people, a 
joet king, and He will hrtnt Ma enm$ f and kill 
the swine. (Minhkit, xxili. c vi.) Tho Imam 
Abo Yusuf says that if a cross or a crucifix is 
stolen from a church, amputation (tho punifth* 
ment for theft) is not incurred ; hut if it is 
stolen from • private dwelling it h theft. 
(Hamilton's Wdayxh, vol & p, 90.) 

CRUCIFIXION. The Crucifixion 
of the Lord J seas Christ is denied by the 
teaohing of the Qnr'an. [years chwat.] His 
a punishment ssnotioned by tho Mufmuima- 
dan religion for highway robbers. (Dimil* 
ton's iftVtyoA, vol. if. 181.) 

CRUSI/TY. A striking instance 
of the nrueHy of Muhammad s oharaoter 
occurs in a tradition given in the Saklb* % 
Bvkjiari (p. 1019). Anas relates, "Some 
of the pecple of the tribe of 'Ukl came to the 
Prophet and emhraoed Islam ; but the air of 
nt-uatRnah did not agree with them, and tbey 
wsntod to loevo the place. And the l*rophet 
ordered tbem to go whero the cameJs riven in 
alms were assembled, and te drink thotr milk, 
which they did, and recovered from their 
siokness. Bnt after this they bsssins ape- 
states, and renounced Islam, and stall the 
camels. Then the Prophet sent some people 
after them, and they were seised and brought 

Digitized by 





back to al-Madinah. Then the Prophet 
ordered their hands and their feet to be cut 
off at a punishment for thoft, and their eyee 
to be pulled out. But the Prophet did not 
stop the bleeding, and they died.* And in 
another it reads, " The Prophet ordered hot 
irons to be drawn across their eyes, and then 
to be oast on the plain of al-Madinah ; and 
when they asked for water it was not given 
them, and they died." 

Sir William. Muir (toI. it. p. 807) says : 
•' Magnanimity or moderation are nowhere 
discernible as features in the conduct of Mu- 
hammad towards suoh of his enemies as 
failed to tender a timely allegiance. Oyer 
the bodies of the Quraish who fell at Badr he 
exulted with savage satisfaction ; and several 

prisoners, accused of no crime but of scepti- 
cism and political opposition, were deliberately 
executed at his command. The Prince- of 
Khaibar, after being subjected to inhuman 
torture for the purpose of discovering the 
treasures of 'his tribe, was, with his cousin, 
put to death on the pretext of having trea- 
cherously concealed them, and his wife was 
led 3 way oaptive to the tent of the con- 
queror. Sentence of exile was enforced by 
Muhammad with rigorous severity on two 
whole Jewish tribes at al-Madfnah j and of a 
third, likewise his neighbours, the women and 
children were sold into distant captivity, 
while the men, amounting to several hundreds, 
were butchered in oold blood before his 


dabbatu 'l-ab? (<*>m *u). 

Lit "The Reptile of the Earth.' 7 A monster 
who -shall arise in the last day, and shall cry 
unto the people of the earth that mankiud 
have not bolloved in the revelations of God 
(vid* Qur'an, Surah xxvii. 84): "And when 
sentence falls upon thein wo will bring forth 
a oeoaf out of the earth, that shall speak to 
them and say, ' Men of our signs would not 
be sure.'"' According to the Traditions he 
will be, the third sign of the coming resurrec- 
tion, and will oome forth from the mountain 
of $ufah. (Miikkat, xxiii. o. iv.) Both Sale 
and Rodwell have confounded the Dabbatu 
1-Ars with -Al-Jassasah, the spy, mentioned 
in a tradition bv Fatimah (Miskkat, xxiii. 
e. iv.), and which is held to be a demon now 
in existence. fAL-JASSASAH.] For a descrip- 
tion of the Dabbah, see the article on the 


DABOR Gr* a )- "The West 
wind.* A term used by the §ufis to ex- 
press the lust of the flesh, and its overwhelm- 
ing power in the heart of man, (Abdu V- 
Bastaq's Dictionary of §uf\ Ten**.) 

DAHHA (Usj). Plural of the 
Persian sj, Un. The ten days of the 
Muharram, during whioh public mourning for 
'AH and his sons is observed by Shi*ah 
Muframmadans. (Wilson's Glossary of Indian 

ad-DAHB ( tftJtt). " A long space 
of time." A title given to the Lxxvrth 
chapter of the Qur'an ; called also Suratu 1- 
InOn, " The Chapter of Man." The title is 
taken from the first verse of the chapter: 
4 Did not there pass over man a long spaoe of 

DAHBl (i5;*><>). One who believes 
in the eternity of matter, and asserts that 
the duration of this world is from eternity, 
and denies the Day of Resurrection and Judg- 

ment; an Atheist, ((2kiya$u '1-LugAot, in 

DAIN ((*«>). A debt contracted 
with some definite term fixed for repayment, 
as distinguished from e/orf , whioh is used for 
a loan given without any fixed term for re- 
payment, [burr.] 

DAJJAL (JWa). Lit. "false, 
lying." The name given in the tfadit. to 
certain religious impostors who shall appear 
in the world ; a term equivalent to our use 
of the word Antichrist. Muhammad is related 
to have ssid there would be about thirty. 

The Masifiu 'd-Daifal, or "the lying 
Christ," it is said, will be the last of the 
DqjjaU, for an account of whom refer to 
article on masiuu 'd-dajjal. 

DALlL ( JJ*>). " An argument ; a 
proof." Data buthdni, M a convincing argu- 
ment." DalU qai% " a decisive proof." 

DAMA8CUS. Arabic Dima$hq 
Aooording to Jalalu M-din Suvu(i, Damas- 
cus is tho seoond sacred city in Syria, 
Jerusalem being the first; and some have 
thought it must be the **Irem of .the 
columns" mentioned in the Qur'an, Surah 
lxxxix. 6, although this is not the view of 
most Muslim writers, [nan.] Damascus is 
not mentioned in the Quran. With regard to 
the date of the erection of the oity, Mu^am- 
msdan historians differ. Some say it was 
built by a slave named Dimaahq, who be- 
longed to Abraham, having been given to 
the patriaroh by Nimrod; others say Di- 
mashq was a slave belonging to Alexander the 
Great, and that the city was btiiH in his 

Damascus was taken by Khalid in the 
roign of the Kfealifah 'Ulnar, u. 18, and it 
became the capital of the Umaiyade Khalifahs 
under Mu'ftwiyah, A.H. 41, and remained the 
chief city of Islam until the fall. of that 

Digitized by 



dynasty, A.R 188, when the Abbassidos moved 
their capital flrsi to al-Kufab and thou to 

The great moaquo at Damascus was orootod 
by 'Abdu 'l-Malik ibn Marwan, the fifth Kha- 
lifah of the Umaiyades. It wae commenced 
a.h. 88, and finished in ten years, being 
erected on the ruins of an ancient Greek 
temple and. of a Christian ohureh. 

The eooount. ae given by Jalalu *d-din 
SavOJti, in his Hiitorvofthf TempU of Jeru- 
Maim, is curious and Interesting, showing that 
for a time the Muslims and Christians wor- 
shipped in the same building together. 

"Here (in Damascus) all the servants of 
Qod joined, and built a ohureh to worship 
Qod in. Some say, howevor, that this church 
wss built by tho Greeks : for ' Ahdu 'Hah Ibn 
'Abbas, baring marched against Damascus and 
besieged it, demolished tho walla, after bo had 
entered the city by storm. Then there foil 
down a stone, baring certain letters inscribed 
tberoon m tho Greek languago They there- 
fore sont to bring n certain monk who could 
read Greek ; but be said, 'Bring me in pitch 
the impression of the letters on the stone, 
which no found to be as follows : « Woe onto 
thee, mother bf shame 1 Pious is he who 
inflicts upon thee with usury tho ill which 
God designs for thee in retribution. Woe unto 
thee from five eyes, who shall destroy thy wall 
after four thousand years/ Now, < Abdu llih's 
entire name was 'Abdu Hah Ibn 'All Ibn 'Abdi 
Hah Ibn 'Abbas Ibn 'Abdu 1-Muqallib. 

* Again, the historian Ibn Isabh* says: 
When God had granted unto tho Muslims 
the possession, as conquerors of the whole of 
8yria, He granted them among other oitle* 
that of Damascus with Its dependencies. Thus 
God sent down His mercy upon them, and the 
commander-in-chief of the army (besieging 
Damascus), who was eKhor Abu 'Ubaidab or, 
as «ome say, Khalid Ibn al-Watid, wrote a 
treaty of capitulation and articles of sur- 
render. By these he settled and appointed 
fourteen churches to remain in tho hand* of 
the Muslims. Tho church of which we have 
spoken above war left open and free for 
future consideration. This was on tho plea 
that Kb&lid had' entered the city at the 
awnrd'a point by the eastern gate ; hut that 
the Christians at the asmo time were allowed 
to surrender by Aba 'Ubeidsh, who entered 
at the western gate, opened undor articles. 
This caused diaaenaion ; but at longth it waa 
agreed that half the place abould be regarded 
aa having capitulated and half aa atormed. 

"The Mualims therefore took this churoh, 
and Abu l Uhaidah made it into a moaque. 
Fie was afterward* appointed Emir of Syria, 
and was ths first who prayed hore, all the 
company of Companions praying after him 
in the open ores, now called the Companion*' 
Tower; but the wall niuat then haro been 
cut through, hard by the leaning tower, if 
the Companions really prayed in the ' blossed 
•precinct. At first the Chriatlana and Mue- 
Ihna entered by the aame gate, which waa 
1 the gat* of Adoration and Prayer,' over 
against the Qlblah, whuio the great tower now 



atanda. Afterwards the Christians changed 
and went into their church by the gate facing 
the woat ; tho Maalima taking the right-hand 
moaque. But tho Christiana wore not auf- 
forred to chant aloud, or recite their books 
or atrike tbeir bells (or clappers), in order 
to honour the Companions with reverence end 
fear. Also. Mu'awiyah built In his daya a 
honss for the Amir, right opposite tho 
mosque. Here he built a green chapel. 
This palace was noted for its perfection. 
Here Mu'awiyah dwelt forty years; nor did 
this state of things change from A.B. 14 to 
a.jl 66. But AiWalid Ibn 'Abdu l-Malik 
began to think of destroying the churches, 
and of adding some to those already in the 
hands of the Mualima, so as to construct one 
great mosque *, and this because some of the 
Muslims were sore troubled by bearing the 
recitations of the Christians from the Gospel, 
and their uplifted voioes in prayer. He de- 
signed, .therefore, to remove them from the 
Muslims aud to annex this spot to the other, 
so as to make one great mosque. Therefore 
he called for the Christians, and asked them 
whether they would depart from those plaeoa 
which were in their hands, receiving tn ex- • 
obange greater portions in lien thereof ; and 
also retaining four churchoa not mentioned in 
the treaty — the Church of Maria, the Church 
of the Crucified, just within ths eastern gate, 
the church Tailu 'I Habn, and the Church of 
the Glorious Mother, oeoupied previously by 
the burnisher*. This, however, they vehe- 
mently refused to do. Thereupon the Khali- 
fsh said, ' Bring me then- the treaty which 
you possess since the time of the Com- 
panions/ They brought it, therefore, and It 
was read In al-Wattd's presence; when, lol 
the Chnroh of Thomas, outside the gets of 
Thomas, hard by tho river, did not enter into 
the treaty, and was one ef those called 'the 
greater of churches left upon 1 (for future 
disposal). • There.' he said. ' this will I 
destroy and contort it into a moaque.' They 
said, * Nay, let it alono, O commander of the 
Faithful, evon although not mentioned among 
the churches, for we are content that you take 
the chapel of the church.' To this agree- 
ment, then, ho hold them, and received from 
them the Quhbah (or chapel vault, dome) of 
the church. Then he summoned workmen 
able to pull down, and assembled aU the 
amirs, chiefs, and great men. But the Chris- 
tian bishops and priests coming, said, ' O 
commander of the Faithful, we And in our 
hooks that whosoever shall demolish this 
church will go mad.* Then ssid the Khali- 
fsh, ' And I am vory willing to be mad with 
God'a inspiration; therefore no one shall 
demolish it before me.' Then ho aeoendod 
tho western tower, which bad two spires, 
and contained a monastic cell Here- be 
found a monk, whom he ordered to deacond* 
The monk making difficulties, and linger- 
ing, al-Waliri took him by the back of his 
nsek, and ceased not ' pushing him until 
he hsd thrown him down stairs. Then he 
ascended to tho most lofty spot in the church, 
sbovo tbe groat altar, called 'the Altar of 


Digitized by 





the Martyrs.' Here he soiled the ends of 
hit sash, wbioh was of a bright' yellow colour, 
and fixed thein into his belt. Taking, then, 
an axe into his hand, he struck against tho 
very topmost stone, and brought it down. 
Thon he called the amirs, and desired thorn 
to pall down the building as quickly as pos- 
sible. Hereupon all the Muslims shouted, 
1 Qod is great I * three times ; also the Ohris- 
tians loudly cried out with thoir wailing and 
woe upon the steps of Jairun, whore thoy 
had assembled. Al-Walid therefore desired 
the oommander of his guard to inflict blows 
upon them until they should depart, which he 
did. The Muslims then demolished all that 
tho Christians had built in tho great square 
here — altars and buildings and cloisters — 
until the whole square was one flat surfaoe. 
He then resolved to build a splendid pile, un- 
rlTalled for beauty of arohiteoture, which 
hone could hereafter surpass. Al-Walid 
therefore commissioned the most eminent 
architects and mathematicians to build the 
mosque, aocording to the model they most 
preferred. His brother chiefly mored and 
stirred him up to this undertaking, and neat 
to him presided Sulaiman *Abdu 1-Malik. It 
Is said that al-Walid sent to the king of 
Greece to demand stone-masons and other 
workmen, for the purpose of building this 
mosque in the way ne desired, sending word, 
that if the king refused, he would overrun 
his territory with his army, and rednce to 
utter ruin every church in his dominions, even 
the Church of the Holy City, and the Ghuroh 
of Jfidessa, and utterly destroy every vestige 
of the Greeks still remaining. The king of 
Greece, sent, therefore, numerous workmen, 
with a letter, expressing himself thus : • If 
thy father knoweth what thou doest, and por- 
mits it, then truly I acouse him of disgraceful 
conduct, and blame him more than thee. If 
he understandoth it not, but thou only art 
conscious, then I blame thee a bo to him.' 
When the letter came to al-Walid, he wished 
to' reply unto it, and assembled sevoral per- 
sons for consoltation. One of these was a 
well-known poet, who said, 'I will answer 
him, • Commander of the Faithful ! out of 
the Book of God.' So said al-Walid, • Where, 
then, is that answer? ' He replied this verse, 
1 David and Solomon, lo 1 they assume a 
right to the corn-field, a right to the place 
where the people are shearing their steep. 
Also, we are witnesses of thoir decree ; for Solo- 
mon hath given us to understand it, and both 
(David and Solomon) have come to us as judges 
and learned men.' Al-Walid, by this reply, 
oaused great surprise to the king of Greece. 
Al-Firsuk alludes to this in these verses :— 

"I have rosde a separation between the 
Christians end their churches, and between the 
peoplo who shine and those who are in dark- 

" 1 neglected for a season thus to apportion 
their happiness, I being a procrastinating vin- 
dicator of their grievances." 

"Thy Lord hath made thee to resolve 
upon removing their churches from those 
mosques wherein good words are recited." 

" Whilst they were together In one place, 
some were praying and prostrating themselves 
on their faces, slightly separated from others 
who, behold 1 were adoring God and idols." 

M How shall tho people of the Cross unite to 
ring their bolls, when the reading of the 
Qur*an is perpetually intermingled ? " 

44 I rosolved then to remove them, just as 
did those wise men when they decreed them- 
selves a right to the soed-field and the 

"When al-Walid resolved to build the 
chapel which is in the midst of the cloister, 
called * the Vulture's Chapel' (a name given 
to it by the country-people, because the por- 
tioos on each side look like two wings), he dug 
deep at the four oorners of the intended 
chapel, until they came to sweet and limpid 
water. Hore they first placed tho foundation 
ef the well of the vineyard. Upon this they 
built with stone, and when the four oorners 
were of sufficient height, thoy then built 
thereon the chapel ; but it fell down again. 
Then said al-Walid to some one of the mathe- 
maticians, who well knew the plan of the 
Vulture's Chapel, '' I wish you to build this 
chapel ; for the injunction of God hath been 
given me, and I am confident that no one bnt 
thyself may build it' He therefore built the 
four oorners, and covered them with wicker, 
and disappeared for a whole year, al-Walid 
not knowing where he wss. After a year, 
al-Walid dug down to the four corner foun- 
dations. Then ho (i.e. the architect) said, 
* Do not be in a hurry, O oommander of the 
Faithful l' Then he found the mathemati- 
cian, who had a man's head with him. He 
came to the four oorners, and uncovered the 
wicker work, and lo 1 all that had been bnilt 
above the earth had fallen down, until they 
were on a level with the earth. So he said, 
4 From this (work have I come).' Then he 
proceeded to build, and firmly fixed and sup- 
ported a beautiful fabric. 

44 Some person also said al-Walid wished to 
construct a brilliant chapel of pure gold, 
whereby the rank of the mosque might be 
magnified. Hereupon the superintendent said 
unto him, ' You cannot effect this.' Upon 
which al-Walid struck him fifty blows with a 
whip, saying, * Am I then incapable of effect- 
ing this?' The man replied, 'Certainly.' 
Then he said, * I will, then, find out a way to 
know the truth. Bring forth all the gold 
thou hast'; whioh he did: and al-Walid 
melted it, and formed it into one large brick, 
whioh contained one thousand pieces of gold. 
But the man said; 'O Commander of the 
Faithful I we shall require so many thousand 
brioki of this sort, if thon dost possess them ; 
nor will this euflloe for our work. Al-Walid 
seeing that he was true and Just, presented 
him with Afty dinars; and when al-Walid 
roofed the great precinct, he adorned the 
roof, as well as the whole extent of the pave- 
ment, with a surfaoe of gold. Some of al- 
Walid's family also said unto him, * They who 
eome after thee will emulate thee in rendering 
the outer roof of this mosque more commodious 
every year.' Upon this al-Walid ordered all the 

Digitized by 





lesd of the country to bo collected together, in 
order to 'construct therewith an exterior out- 
ward covering, answering to the interior, 
which ahould be light upon tho roof, and on 
the side-posts that supported the roof. So 
they oolloctod lead throughout all Syria nnd 
many other countries ; and whilst they wore 
returning, they met with a certain woman 
who possessed a weight of lead— a weight of 
many talents. They began to chaffer with 
the woman for it ; but she refused to sell it, 
except for its weight in silver. So they 
wrote to the Commander of the Faithful, in- 
forming him of this, who replied, 'Buy it 
from her, even for its weight in silver.' When, 
then, thoy offered this sum unto her, she 
ssid, • Now that you have agreed to my pro- 
posal, and are satisfied to give the woight in 
silver, 1 give the weight as an offering unto 
Qod. to serve for the roof' of the mosque.' 
Heroopon they marked one corner of the 
weight with the impression of a seal, « This 
is God's.' Some say the woman was an 
Israelite ; some ssy that they sought for 
lead in open ditches or holes, and came to a 
stone sepulchre, within which was a leaden 
sepulchre, whence thoy brought forth a dead 
body, and laid it on the ground. Whilst drag- 
ging it out, the head fell to the ground, and 
the neck being broken, much blood flowed 
forth from the mouth, wfcioh terrified them 
so much, that they rapidly fled away. This 
is said to have been the burial-plaee of King 
Saul. Also, the guardian of the mosque oaino 
unto al-Walid and ssid, 'O Commander of 
the Faithful ! men ssy that al-WaUd hath ex- 
ponded the money of the treasury nnjufltly.' 
Hereupon al-Walid desired that all the 
people should be summoned to prayer. When 
all were assembled. al-Walid mounted the 
pulpit, and said, * Such and such reports hare 
reached me.' Then he said, *0 'Ulnar Ibn 
•al-Muhajir ! stand up and produce the money 
of the treasury.' Now it waa carried upon 
mules. Therefore, pieces of hide being placsd 
in the midst, beneath the chapel, he poured 
out all the gold and silver, to such a height, 
that those who stood on either tide could not 
see one another. Scales beine then brought 
out, the whole was weighed, when it was 
found thai the amount would suffice for the 
public use for three years to come, even if 
nothing were added to the amount Then all 
the people rejoiced, praising and glorifying 
Ood for this. Then said the I&elifah, *0 
people of Damascus I you boast among men 
of four things ; of your air, of your water, of 
your cheerfulness, and of your gracefulness. 
Would that you would add to these a fifth, and 
become of the number of those who praise 
God, and are liberal in his service. Would 
that, thus changing, you would become thank- 
ful suppliants.' 

••In the Qiblah of thia mosque were 
« three golden scimitars, enamelled in lapis 
Usuli. Upon each scimitar was engraved 
the following sentence : • In the name 
of God, the Merciful and Compassionate! 
There is no god but God. He is the ever- 
living, the self-subsisting Being, who never 

slumbers nor sleeps. There is no god but 
Ood. He has no partner. We will never 
sdoro any but our Lord, tho one God. Our 
faith h Is lorn, and our Prophet isMuhamrasd. 
This mosque was built, and tho churchec 
which stood on the lito of tho ohapel were 
demolished, by order of the servant of Ood, 
the Commander of the Faithful, al-Wallrl Ibn 
( Abdu 'I Malik Ibn Marwiin, in tho month 
?Q 'l-Qa'deb, a.m. 80/ Upon another tablet 
was inscribed the whole of the first ohapter 
of the Qur'in. Here also were depicted the 
stars, then the morning twilight, then the 
spiral course of the sun, then the wsy 
of living which obtained aftor the arrival 
of the Faithful at Dsmaseus, Also, it is said, 
that all the floor of this mosque was divided 
into small slabs, and that the stone (carving) 
of the waits extended to the utmost pin- 
nacle. Above was a great golden vine, and 
above this were splendid enamelled knobs of 
green, red, blue, and white, whereby were 
figured and expressed all countries and 
regions, especially the Ke*bah, abore the 
tower ; also all the countries to the right and 
left (of Makkah), and all the most beautiful 
shrubs and trees of overy region, famous 
either for their fruits or flowers. The root 
had corniest of gold. Hero was suspended 
a chain of gold and silver, which branched off 
into seven separate lights. In the tow or of 
tho Companions were two stones— beryls 
(some say they were the jewels called pearls); 
thsy were called ' The Little Ones.' When 
the candles were put out, they inflamed the 
eves by their brilliant light. Jn the time of 
sl-Anun Ibn ar- Rash id, Suleiman, oaptain of 
the guard, waa sent by that IQialifah to Da- 
mascus, to steal those atones and bring them 
to him'; which he did. When al-Ma'mun dis- 
co rered this, he eent them to Damssons, as a 
proof of his brother's misoonduct They 
afterwards again ranished, and in their place 
is a glass vowel. In this mosque all the 
gates, from the dome (gallery) unto the en- 
trance, are open, and have no bars or looks. 
Over esoh is a loose curtain. In like manner 
there is a curtain upon all the walls ss far as 
the bases of the golden vine, above which are 
the enamelled knobs. The capitals of the 
pillars ware thiokly covered with dead gild, 
tag. Here were also small galleries, to look 
down from, enolosed on the four sidos of the 
skirting wall. Al-Walld also built the 
northern minaret, now called *the Bride- 
groom's Tower.' As to the western gallery, 
that existed many ages before, in each 
corner of this was a cell, raised upon very 
lofty walls, and used by the Greeks as an 
observatory.. The two northern of these fell, 
and the two opposite remained. In the year 
740, part of the eastern had been burnt. It 
then fell down, but was built up anew out of 
the Christians' money, because they had me- 
ditated the destruction (of it) by fire. It then 
Was restored after a most beautiful plan. 
This is the tower (but God knows) upon 
which Jesus son of Maria will alight, /or Mu- 
hammad is reported to have said, 'I saw 
Jesus son of Maria corns forth from near the 

Digitized by 




white mlnarot, east of the mosque, planing 
hie hands upon the wings of two angels, 
firmly bound to him. Upon him wae the 
Divine glory (the Sheohinah). Ha was marked 
by the red tinge of baptism. This is tho 
mark of original sin.' Josus (it is also said) 
shall come forth from t|ie White Tower by 
the eastern gate, and shall enter the mosque. 
Then shall the word como forth for Jesus to 
Qght with Antiohrist at the corner of the 
city, as long as it shall please Qod. Now, 
when this mosque (the stares' mosque) was 
comploted, there was not to bo found upon 
the face of tbo earth a building more beau- 
tiful, more splendid, moro graceful, than this. 
On whatever side, or area, or placo, tho spec- 
tator looked, he still thought thatsido or suet 
the most preferable for beauty. In this 
mosque wero certain talismans, placed therein 
slnco the time of the rooks ; so that no veno- 
' moua or stinging creaturo could by any means 
obtain ontranco into this eucloturo, neither 
sorpont, scorpion, boetle, nor spider. Thoy 
say, also, that neither sparrows nor pigeons 
built their nests thero, nor was anything to be 
found there which could annoy people. Most, 
or all, of those talismans woro burnt by the 
Ore that consumed the mosque, which Arc 
took plaoo in tho night of Sha'bun, a.m. 461. 
Al-Walid frequently preyed In the mosque. 
One night (it is related) he *aid to his 
people, *I wish to pray to-night In the 
mosque; let no one remain there whilst I 
pray therein.' So when he came unto the 
gate of the Two Moments, he desired the 
gate to be opened, and entering in, he saw a 
man standing between the gate of tho Two 
Moments and the gste of St George, praying. 
He was rather nearor to the gato of 8t. 
Ocorgo than to the other. So the fthalifah 
said unto his people, * Did 1 not charge you 
that no one should remain whilst I was pray- 
ing in the mosque ? ' Then one of them said, 
♦0 Commander of the Faithful! this is St 
Ueorgo, who prays every night in the mosque.' 
Again, one prayer in this mosque equals 
thirty thousand prayers. 

•• Again. A certain man, going out of the 
gate of the mosque which is noar tho Jairiin, 
met Ka*b the scribe, who ssid, ' Whither 
bound?' Ho repliod, *To the Bsitu 1-Mu- 
.qaddas, therein to pray.' Then said Ka*b, <1 
will show tou a spot whorein whosoever 
prayeth shall receive the same blessings as if 
he prayed in the Baitu 1-Muqaddas.' The 
man, therefore, went with him. Then Ka'b 
showed him the space between the little 
pate from whence you go to Abyssinia, that 
is, the space covered by the srch of the 
gste, oontaiiung about one hundred yards, 
to tho wost, and said, 'VYboso prayeth within 
those two points shall be regarded as praying 
within the Baitu 1-Mnqsdda*.' Now, this spot 
is said to be a spot fit to be sought by pilgrims. 
Here, it is asserted, is the head of John, son 
of Zacharias (1'oaco be with Uim !i. For al- 
vViiUd Ibn Muslim being duatreu to show 
whOro John's head was to ho found, pointed 
with his hand to the plastered pillar— the 
fourth from the east corner. Zaid Ibn Wskad 


says, • At the time it was proposed to build 
the mosque of Damasous, 1 saw the head of 
John, sou of Zaeharias, brought forth from 
underneath one of the corners of the ohapeh 
The hair of tho head was unchanged.' He 
says in another place, • Being nominated by 
al-Walid superintendent of the building, we 
found a cave, of which discovery we informed 
al-Walid. He esme, therefore, unto us at 
night, with a wax taper iu his hand. Upon 
descending we found an elaborately carved 
little shrine, three within three {U. within 
tho first a second, within the sooond a third} 
Within tbitt last was a. sarcophagus, and 
within this a casket; within which was the 
boad of John, son of Zacharias. Over the 
casket was written, •* Hnn is the head of John, 
son of Zacharias. Ptaco be with him 1 " By 
al- Wand's commend we restored the head to 
tho spot whence It had been taken. Tho 
pillars whioh are above this soot are inclined 
obliquely to the othora to distinguish the 
place. There is also over it a pillar with a 
head in plaster.' He asserts again, that 
when tho happy event occurred of the con- 
quest of Damascus, a certain person wont up 
the stairs which led to tho ohuroh, then 
standing where the mosque now stands. 
Here the blood of John, sou of Zacharias was 
seen to Aow in torrents and to boil up, nor 
did the blood sink down and become still 
until that seventy thousand had been slain 
over him. The spot where the head was 
found is now called aUSakasak (perhaps, the 
Nail of tho Narrow Cave). 

" In the days of 'Umar, the Christiana re- 
quested thst be would confirm their claim to 
the right of meeting in those places which al- 
Walid had taken from them and converted 
into mosques. They, therefore, claimed the 
whole inner area as their own from 'Umar. 
The latter thought it right to restore them 
what al-Welid nad taken from them, but 
upon examination he found that the churches 
without the suburbs .were net comprehended 
in the articles of sut render by the Compa- 
nions,' such, for example as the great Church 
of the Monastery ef Observants or Carmelites, 
the Church of the Convent behind the Church 
of St. Thomas, end all the churches of the 
neighbouring tillages. 'Umar theroforo gato 
them the ohoieo, ofther to rostore thorn tho 
churches thoy demanded, demolishing in that 
case all the other churches, or to leave those 
cburchee unmolested, and to receive from 
them a full consent to the free use of the open 
•pace by the Muslims. To this latter pro- 
posal they, after three days deliberation, 
agreed; and proper writings were drawn 
np on both sides. They gave the Muslims a 
deed of grant, and 'Umar gave them full 
seciuity and assurance of protection. Nothing 
was to be compared to this mosque. It 
is said to be one of the strongholds of 
Pai adiso, and that no inhabitant of Damascus 
would long for Paradise when be looks upon 
his beautiful mosque. Al-Mamun camo to 
Damascus in company with his brother el- 
Mu'tas im, and the Qasi Yahya Ibn Aksam. 
Whilst viewing the mosque he said, • What is 

Digitized by 



the most wondrous sight here t ' His brother 
said, « These offerings and pledges.* TheQ&si 
said, * The marble and the columns. ' Then said 
al Ma*man t * The most wondrous thing to mo 
is f whether any other could be built at all like 
this.' » (//itl. TempU 9/ Jerusalem, by Jalalu 
*ddln, translatod by Reynolds, p. 407.) 

DANCING. Arabio Raq$. 
Dancing Is generally held to be unlawful, 
although ft does not appear to be forbiddon 
in either the Qur'an or the Traditions, bnt 
according to al-Bukhari (Arabio ed., p. 185), 
the Prophet expressly permitted it on the 
day of the great festival Those who hold it 
to be unlawful qnote t bo following verse from 
the Qur'an, Surah xvli. 39, « Walk not proudly 
on tbe earth," as a prohibition, although it 
does not seem to refer to the subject. 

The Qufis make dancing a religious 
exercise, but the Sunni Muslims consider it 
unlawful (Hidauaiu 'i-SoV/, p. 107.) 

DANIEL. Arabic DdniydL A 
prophet celebrated amongst Mulyammedans 
as an interpreter of dreams. He is not men- 
tioned in either the Qur'an or the Tradition!, 
hut in the (faasu H-Ambivd\ p. 281, it is 
stated that in tbe reign of Du\ktu Nassar 
(Nebuohadneuor) he was imprisoned; and 
when he was in prison, the king had a dream 
which he had forgotten, and bearing that 
Daniol was an intorproter of dreams, he sent 
for him. When Daniel was in the presence 
of the King, he refused to prostrate, saying, 
H was lawful to prostrate alone to the Lord 
Almighty- For this he nearly lost his life, 
but was spared to interpret the king's dream, 
which was as follows: " He saw a great Idol, 
the head of which was of gold, abore tho 
navel of silver, below the navel of copper, tho 
legs of iron, and the feet of clsy. And sud- 
denly a stono fell from heaven upon the idol, 
and ground H to powder, and mixed all the 
substances, so that the wind blew them in all 
directions ; but the stone grew gradually, and 
to such an extent that it covered the wholo 
earth." The interpretation of it, as given by 
Daniel is said to be this : The idol represented 
different nations ; the gold was the kingdom 
of Nebuchadnezzar, the silver the kingdom 
of his son, the copper the Romans, the iron 
the Persians, and the clay the tribe Zauzan, 
from whieh the kings of Persia and Homo 
should be descended ; the .great stone being 
a religion which should spread iteolf over the 
whole earth in the last day. 

DAR ( } U). "A house, dwelling, 
habHstion, land, country.** A word which Ts 
used in various combinations, e.g, : — 
ad-Ddr . The abode—the city of 

ad-Ddrain . The two abodes — this 

world and the next. 
Daru } l-adab , A seat of learning; a 

Ddtu 'l-baqu' . The abode which re- 

maineth — heaven. 
Ddru H-fand . The abode whieh passeth 

away— earth. 



Ddru H-giurur . The abode of delusion— 
the world. 

Ddru'l-buxn . The vale of tears— the 

Daru'l-ibUlff . The abode of temptation 
— the world. 

Ddru H-tifil&fak The seat of the Imam or 
Kk*Uf*b— capital 

DfiruH-kutub . A. library. 

DdruH-t&uld . The home of eternity- 

ad'DSru''iM The blessed abodo— Pa- 

Ddru %qazff . The Qaxfs court 

Daru *t A-sst/a* A hospital 

Darn Vauno- . The abode of joy— Para- 
. Ddru *t-tarb A mint 

Daru % t-Mij/dfah A. banqueting room. 

fDAftu 'l-bawar, daru 'l-harb, dabu V 


DAROAH (*^o). A royal court 
(Persian) In India it is a term used for a 
Muliammadan shrine or tomb of some reputed 
holy person, and whioh is tho object of pil- 

5rimsge and adoration. ( Wilton a Glossary of 
ndian Terms.) 


Lit. " The abode of perdition.** . A term used 
for hell in the Quran. Surah xlv. 88: "And 
bave made their people to alight at tho abode 
of perdition* 

DARU 'L-HARB (v»r*-fl } \*). 
11 The land of warfere,** According to the 
Dictionary Qkiydsu V-Z^ca/?/, Ddru H-b&rb 
is * a country belonging to inddola which has 
not been subdued by Islsm.* 1 According to 
the Qjhnus. it Is " a country in whioh peaco 
has not been proclaimed botweon Muslims 
and uubolievers." 

In tho Fatuwa'Alamniri, voL U. p. 854, it is 
written tbst a Ddru 't-bnrb becomes a Ddru 
HJildm on one condition, namely, the promul- 
gation of the edicts of Islam. The Imam 
Muhammad, in his book called the Ziydtlah % 
says a Ddru 7- Islam again becomes a Daru 7- 
knrby according to Abu Htnifah, on three 
conditions, namely : (1) That the edicts of the 
unbelievers he promulgated, and the edicts of 
Islam bo snppressed ; (2) That the country in 
question be adjoining a Ddru 'I- barb and no 
other Muslim country lie botween them 
(that is, when the duty of Jihad or religious 
war becomes incumbent on them, and they 
have not tho power to carry it on> (8) That no 
protection (omen) remains for either a Muslim 
or a f tmmi ; viz. that amdnu *l-awwat t or that 
first protection which was given them when the 
country was first conquered by Islam. The 
Imams Yusuf and Muhammad both say that 
when the edicts of unbelievers are promul- 
gated in a country, it is sufficient to consti- 
tute it a Z)«Tu7-Aaro. 

In the Raddu 'l-Mukktdr, vol. iii. p. 891, it 
is stated, « If tho edicts of Islim remain in 
force, together with the ediots of the unbe- 
lievers, then the country oannot he said to be 

Digitized by 




a Daru %karh.* The important question as 
to whether a oountry in the position of Hin- 
dustan may he oonsidered a Daru H-I$lam or 
a Dam H~barb has been fully discussed by 
Dr. W. W. Hunter, of the Bengal Civil Ser- 
vice, in hia work entitled, Indian AfundmanM, 
which is the result of careful inquiry as to 
the necessary conditions of a Jihad, or a 
Orescentade, instituted at the time of the 
excitement which existed in India in 
1870-71, in consoquenco of a Wahhabi con- 
spiracy for the overthrow of Christian rule in 
that country. The whole matter, according 
to the Sunni Musulmana, hinges upon the 
question whether India is Dim %harb, M a 
land of warfare," or Dam 'I- Islam, " a land 
of Islam.** 

The Muftis belonging to the Qanifi and 
Shafl'I seoU at Makkah decided that, " as long 
as even some of the peculiar observances of 
Islam prevail in a country, it isiJaruV-iflais." 

The decision of the Mufti of the Maliki sect 
was very similar, being to the following effect : 
" A oountry does not become Daru 'l-karb 
as soon as it passes into the hands of the 
infidels, but when all or most of the injunc- 
tions of Islam disappear therefrom." 

The law doctors of North India decided 
that, " the absence of protection and liberty 
to Musulmans is essential in a Jihad, or reli- 
gious war, and also that there should be a 
probability of victory to the armies of Islam." 

The 8hi*ah decision on tho subject was as 
follows: "A Jihad is lawful only when the 
armies of Islam are led by the rightful Imam, 
when arms and ammunitions of war and ex- 
perienced warriors are ready, when it is 
against the enemies of God, when he who 
makes war is in possession of his reason, and 
when he has secured the permission of his 
parents, and has sufficient money to meet the 
expenses of his journey." 

The Sunnis and Shi'ahs alike behove in 
the eventual triumph of Islam, when the 
whole world shall become followers of the 
Prophet, of Arabia; but whilst the Sunnis 
are, of course, ready to undertake the 
accomplishment of this great end, " whenever 
there is a probability of victory to the Mu- 
sulmans," the Shi'ahs, true to the one great 
principle of their sect, must wait until the 
appeuranco of a rightful Imam, [jihad.] 

DARU 'L-ISLiM (,*— St $*). 
M Land of Islam." According to the Raddu 7- 
Mukhtar, vol hi. p. 891, it is a country 
in which the edicts of Islam are fully pro- 

In a state brought under Muslims, all these 
who do not embrace the faith are piaoed 
under certain disabilities. They can worship 
Ood according to their own eustoms, provided 
tkey are not idolater* / but it must bo done 
without any ostentation, and, whilst churches 
and synagogues may be repaired, no new place 
of worehtp can be erected. " Tho construction 
of ohurohee, or synagogues, in Muslim terri- 
tory is unlawful, this being forbidden in the 
Traditions ; but if places of worship belong- 
ing to Jews, or Christiana, be destroyed, or 


fall into decay, they are at liberty to repair 
them, because buildings cannot endure for 

Idol temples must be destroyed, and 
idolatry suppressed by force in all countries 
ruled according to strict Muslim law. (Hi- 
ddyah, voL ii. p. 219.) 

For further particulars t see article daxu 

daru 'L-qarAr ov*-n >U). 

" Tho abode that abideth." An expression 
which occurs hi the Qur'an, Surah xl 42 : «• 
my people 1 this present life is only a passing 
joy, but the lifo to come is the mansion that 

DARU 'S-SAtiAM ((A It >\*). 

" The abode of peace." An expression which 
ocours iu the Qur'an, Surah vi. 127; "For 
them is a dwelling of peace with their Lord I 
and in recompense for their works, shall He 
be their protector." 

DARU 'S-SALTANAH (UsUlt jl»). 
" The seat of government." A term given to 
the capital of a province, or a Muslim state. 

DARU »S-8AWAB (^yat } U). 

«• The house of roeompenso." A name given 
to the Jannatu ( Adn, or Garden of Eden, by 
the commentator al-Baisfcwi. 


A Persian word for a religious mendicant. A 
dervesh. It is derived from tho word dar t 
" a door " ; lit. one who goes from door to 
door. Amongst religious Muhommadens, the 
darvesh is called a faqvr, which is the word 
generally used for religious mendicant orders 
in Arabic books. The subject is, therefore, 
oonsidered in the article on vaqul 

DAUGHTERS. Arabic Bint, 
pi. Bandt; Heb. Bath (j-q). In 

the law of inheritance, the position of a 
daughter is secured by a verse in the Qur'an, 
Surah iv. 12 : " With regard to your children, 
God has commanded you to give the sons the 
portion of two daughters, and if there be 
daughters, more than two, then they shall 
have two-thirds of that which their father 
hath left, but if ahe be an only daughter she 
shall have the half." 

The Sirdjiyah explains the above as 
follows : — 

" Daughters begotten by the deceased take 
in three oases : half goes to one only, and two- 
thirds to two or more: and, if there* be a 
eon, the male has the share of two femalos, 
and he makes them rosjdueriee. The eon's 
daughters are like the daughters begotten 
by the deceased ; and they may be in six 
oases: half goes to one only, and two-thirds 
to two or more, on failure of daughters be- 
gotten by the deceased ; with a single daugh- 
ter of the deceased, they have a sixth, com- 
pleting (with the daughter's half) two-thirds ; 
but, with two daughters of the deoeased, they 
have no share of the inheritance, unless there 
be, in an equal degree with, or in a lower 

Digitized by 



degree than, them, a boy, who makes them 
residuariee. At to the remainder between 
them, the male hai the portion of two 
females ; and all of the eon's daughters are 
excluded by the son himself . 

11 If a man leave three son's daughters, 
some of thorn In lower degrees than othore, 
and three daughters of the son of anothor 
son, some of them in lower degree than others, 
snd three daughters of the son's son of 
another son, some of them in lower degrees 
than others, as in the following table, this is 
called the caee of tathbih. 

k. Seoond set. Third set. 

8on. Son. Son. 

Son, daughter. Son. Son 

Son, daughter. Son, daughter. Son. 

Son. daughter. Son, daughter. Son, daughter. 
Son, daughter. 8on, daughter. 
Son, daughter. 

" Here .the eldest of the first line has none 
equal in degree with her ; the middle one of 
the first line is equalled in degree by the 
eldest of the second, and the youngest of the 
first line it equalled by the middle one of 
the second, and by the eldest of tho third line ; 
the youngest of the second line is equalled 
by the middle one of the third line, and the 
youngest of the third set has no equal in 
degree. When thou hast comprehended this, 
then we say : the eldest of the first line has a 
moiety ; the middle one of the first line has 
« sixth, together with hor equal in degree, to 
max* up two-thirds ; and those in lower 
degrees never take anything, unless there be 
a son with them, who makes them residua- 
ries, both her who is equal to him in degree, 
and her who is above him, but who is not 
entitled to a share ; those below him are ex- 
cluded. 1 ' (Bsmsay's- ed. Ai-Sirafiunh,) 

The age of puberty, or majority, of a 
daughter is established by the usual signs of 
womanhood ; but in the absence of these signs, 
according to. Abu tfanlfah, she is not of age 
until she is eighteen. But the two imams, 
Muhammad and TQsuf, fix the age at fifteen, 
and with this opinion the Imam ash-Shafi'i 

With regard to a daughter's freedom inn 
marriage contract, Bhsifrh 'Abdu 'l-Hsqq, in 
his commentary on tho Traditions (vol. iii. 
p. 106), says, "Ail the learned doetors are 
agreed that a virgin daughter, until ehe has 
arrived at the age of puberty, is entirely at 
the disposal of her father or lawful guardian, 
but that in the event of a woman having been 
left a widow after ehe has attained the sge 
of puberty, she is entirely at liberty to marry 
whom she likes." There is, however, he says, 
some difference of opinion ss to the free- 
dom of a girl who has not been married end 
has arrived at the age of puberty. Abfi 
Han if ah rules that she is entirely free from 
the control of her gutrdisn with regard to her 
marriage, but ash-ShaA'T rules otherwise. 
Again, as regards a widow who is not of 
age. Aba Qentfah asyff the eannot marry 
without her guardfsn's permission, bnt ash 
Shftfi'I says she is free. 


According to tho teaching of the Prophet, 
" a virgin daughter givos her oonsent to mar- 
riage by silence." He also taught u that a 
woman ripe in years shall have her consent 
asked, and if she remain silent her silence is 
consent, but if she do not consent, she shall 
not bo forced.'' But this tradition is also to 
be compared with another, in which he said, 
" There is no marriage without the permission 
of the guardians." (Afiehkat, xiii. e. iv. pt. 2.} 
Henoe the difference between the learned 
doctors on this subject. 

,The author of the A&laq-i-Jalati says it is 
not advisable to teach girls to read and write, 
and this is the general feeling amongst 
Mohammedans in all parts of the world, 
although it is considered right to enable 
them to recite the Quran and the liturgical 

The father or guardian is to be blamed who 
does not marry his daughter at an early ago, 
for Muhammad is related to have said, „" It 
is written in the Book of Moses, that fjrho- 
soevor does not marry his daughter when she 
hath reached the age of twelve years is re- 
sponsible for any sin she may commit." 

The aneiont Arabs used to call the angels 
the " daughters of God," and objected strongly, 
as the Badawls do in the present day, to 
female offspring, and they used to bury their 
infant daughters alive. These practices Mu- 
hammad reprobates in the Quran, Surah xvL 
59: " And they ascribe daughters unto Godl 
Olory be to Him I But they desire thorn not 
for themselves. , For when the birth of a 
daughter Is announced to any one of them, 
dark shadows settle on his face, and he is sad; 
he hideth bim from the people because of 
the ill tidings. Shall he keep it with disgrace, 
or bury it in the dust ? Are not their judg- 
ments wrong ? " 

Mr. Rodwell remarks on this verse : " Thus 
Rabbinism teaches that to be a woman is a 
great degradation. The modern Jew says in 
his Daily Prayers, f oL 6, 6, «• Blessed art thou, 
O Lord our God 1 King of the UnWerse 1 who 
hath not made me a woman." 

. D0MAH 0» } S). A fortified town 
held by the Christie u chiof Uk aider, who was 
defeated by the Muslim general gfe &lid, and 
by htm converted to Muhammadaniem, A.H. 9. 
But the mercenary character of Ukaidar'a 
conversion led him to revolt after Muham- 
mad's death. (Muir's Life of Mahomet, volt 
iv. p. 191.; 

DAVID.. Arabic Ddwud, or 
Dawuel A king of Israel and a Prophet, 
to whom God revealed the ZahGr, or Book 
of Psalms, [sabub.] He has no special 
title or kalimah, as all Muslims are agreed 
that he was not a law-givor or the founder 
of a dispensation. The aocount of him in 
the Quran is exceedingly meagre. It is 
given as follows, with tho commentator's 
remarks translated in italics by Mr. Lane : — 

•« And God gave him (David) the kingship 
over the children of Inrael, and wisdom, after 
the death of Samuel and Saul, and the* 

Digitized by 



[namely these two gifts] had not keen given 
toaether to any one before him ; and He taught 
him what He pleased, as the art of making 
eoaU of mail, and the language of bird*. Ana 
were it not for Odd's repelling inon, one by 
another, surely the earth had become oorrnnt 
by the predominance of the polytheists and the 
slaughter of the Muslims and the ruin of the 
places of worship: but God is benefloent to 
the peoples, ana hath repelled some by others.* 1 
(Surah U. 227.) 

" Hath the story of the two opposing parties 
come unto thee, when they ascended over the 
walls of the oratory of David, having been pre- 
vented going in unto him by the door, because of 
his betng engaged in devotion t When they 
went in'unto David, and he was frightened at 
them, they said, Pear not: we are two oppos- 
ing parties // is said that they were two 
parties of more than one each; una if is said 
that they were two individuals, angels, who 
came as two litigants, to admonish David, who 
had ninety-nine wives, and had desired the wife 
of a person who had none but her, and mam*d 
her and taken her as his wife. [Otae of them 
said,] Ono of us hath wronged the other; 
therefore judge betweon us with truth, and 
be not untaftt, but direct us into the right 
way. Vorily this my brother in religion had 
nlne-and-ninety ewes, and I had one ewo; and 
he said, Hake me her keeper. And he over- 
oamo me in the dispute.— And the other con- 
fessed htm to have spoken fmla.— [David] 
said, Verily he hath wronged thee in demand- 
ing thy ewe to add her to his ewes : and verily 
many associates wrong one another, except 
those who believe and do righteous deeds: 
and few indeed are they. — And the two angels 
said, ascending in their [proper or assumed] 
forms to heaven; Th* man hath passed sentence 
against himself So David was admonished. 
And David perceived that We had tried him 
by his love of that woman ; wherefore he asked 
pardon of his Lord, and fell down bowing 
himsolf (or prostrating himself \ and repented. 
So We forgave him that ; and verily for bim 
fwas ordained] a high rank with Us (that is, 
an increase of good fortune in this world), and 
[there shall be for bim] an excellent rqtreat 
in the world to corned (Surah xxxviii. 20-24.) 

u Wo oompelled the mountains to* q \prify 
Us, with David, and the birds also, on his com- 
manding them to do so, when he experienced 
languors and We did this. And We taught 
bim the art of making costs of mail (for 
before his time plates of metal were used) for 
you among mankind in general,' that they 
might defend you from your suffering in 
warring with your enemies. — Will ye then, 
people of Mecca, be thankful for Mu 
favours, believing the apostles t n (Sarah xxi. 
70, 80.) 

Sale observes that Yahya the oomroontator, 
most rationally understands hereby the divine 
revelations which David received irom God, 
and not the art of making coats of uiaiL— 
The cause of his applying himself to this art 
is thus related in the Mtrmtu f M-Zaman : — He 
used to go forth in disguise: and when he 
found any people who knew him not, he ap- 


proached them and asked them respecting 
the conduct of David, and tntj praised him 
and prayed for him; but one day, as he wss 
asking questions respecting himself as usual, 
God sent to him an angel in the form of a 
human being, who said, " An excellent man 
were David if he did not take from the public 
treasury." Whereupon the heart of David 
we* contracted, and ho begged of God to 
render him independent : so Ho made iron soft 
to him, and it became in his hands as thread ; 
and he used to sell a coat of mail for four 
thousand [pieces of money— -whether gold or 
silver is not said), and with part of this hs 
obtained food for b tin to If, and part he gave in 
almu, and with part he fed his family. Hence 
an excellent ooat of mail is often called by 
the Arabs " Dawudi." ia w Davidean." (Set- 
Lane's translation of The Thousand and One 
Nights % chap. viii. note 6.) 

David, it is said, divided his time regularly , 
setting apart one day for the service of God, 
another day for rendering justice to his 
people, another day for preaching to them, 
and another day for his own affairs. 

DA'WA (<jj*«0* A claim in a law- 
suit A claim or demand. (See Hamilton's 
Hidayah. vol lii. p. 68.) 

DA* WAH (*> *>). Lit " A call, in- 
vocation (i.e. of Goers holp).* A term used to 
express a system of incantation whJob is held 
to be lawful by orthodox Mohammedans ; 
whilst «Ar, « msgio," and kahauah, " fortune- 
telling," are said to be unlawful, the Pro- 
phot having forbidden both. 

From the Muslim books it appears that 
Mohammad is believed to have sanctioned the 
use of spells and incantations, so long as the 
words usod were only those of the namee of 
God, or of tho good angels* and of the good 
gonii ; although the more striot amongst 
them (the Wahhabfis, for example.) would say 
that only an invocation of God Himself was 
lawful — teaohing which appeare to be more 
in aooordance with that of Muhammad, who 
is related to have said, M There is nothing 
wrong in using spells so long as you do not 
associate anything with God." (Miskkit, xxi 
o. 1.) It is therefore clearly Lawful to use 
charms and amulets On whioh the name of 
God only is inscribed, and to invoke the help 
of God by any oeremony, provided no one is 
associated with Him. 

The Science of da*wah has, however, been 
very much elaborated, and in many respects 
Hs teachers seem to have departed from the 
original teaching of their Prophet on the sub* 

In India, the most popular work on da*wah 
is tho Jawahiru 7- gjjnmsah, by Shaikh Abu 
'i-Mnwayyid of Gpiorat, a.8. 060, in whioh h«« 
says the soionoe Is used fur the following 
purposos. (1) To osteblish friendship or 
oumity botweeo two persons. (2} To cause 
the oure, or tho sickness and deatn, of a per* 
son. (3) To securo the accomplishment of 
one's wishes, both temporal and spiritual. 
(4) To obtain defeat or victory In battle 

Digitized by 



This book is largely made up of Hindu 
customs whlob, in India, have become part of 
Mohammedanism: bat wo *hall endeavour 
to. confine ourselves to i» consideration of 
those sections which exhibit tho so-osllod 
science m it exists in its relation to I*lam. 

In order to explain thin occult science, we 
jdinll consider it under tho following divisions : 

1. The qualifications necessary for the •dmif, 
or the person who practices it. 

2. The tablea required by the teacher, and 
Iheir usee. 

8. An explanation of the tenna ftiiav, wmkdt , 
*ui*r, ew/f. eW, bajth khatm, and tarPu 7- 
ijdbak, i»nd their uses. 

4. The methods employed for commanding 
tho proatnoe of the genii. 

I. when anyone enters upon the* study of the 
icienoe, he most begin by paying the utmost 
attention to cleanliness. No dog, or eat, or 
any stranger, in allowed to enter his dwelling- 
.place, and he must purify his houso by burn- 
ing wood-aloes, pastilee, and other sweet- 
scented porfumes. He must take the utmost 
care that his body is in no way defiled, and he 
must bathe and perform the legal ablutions 
constantly. A moat important preparation 
for the exercise of the art ia a forty-days' fast 
(eaiTfo), when he must sleep on a mat spread 
on the ground, sleep aa little aa possible, and 
not enter into general conversation. Exor- 
eiata not unfrequently repair to some cave or 
retired spot In order to undergo complete 

The diet of the exorcist must depend upon 



the kind of anna, or names of God he intends 
to recite. If they are tho as me?« '1-jaUitlyaM, 
or •• terrible attributes * of the Almighty, then 
he muet refrain from the nse of meat, fish, 
eggs, honey, and musk. If they are the 
asmffu 'I'jamiliyah, or " amiable attributes.** 
he must abstain from buttor, curds, vinegar, 
salt, and amborgrise. If he Intends te recite 
both attributes, he must then abstain from 
such things as garlic, oniona, and assaffstlda. 

It is also of the utmost importance that the 
rvorcist should eat things which are lawful, 
alwaya apeak the truth, and not cherish a 
proud or haughty spirit. He should he care- 
ful not to make a display of his powers before 
the world, but treasure up in his bosom the 
knowledge of his acquirements. It is con- 
sidered very dangerous to his own life for a 
novloe to practice tho science ol exorcism. 

II. Previous to reciting any of the names 
or attribute* of God for the establishment of 
friendship or enmity in behalf of any peraon, 
it ia neeeaaary to ascertain* the initials of his 
or her name in the Arabic alphabet, whleh 
lettera are considered by exorcists to be con- 
nected with the twelve stoma of the aodlae, 
tho seven planets, and the four elements. 
The following tables, which are taken from the 
Jawihiru 7-ftfamsa*, occur, in a similar form, 
in all books on exorcism, give the above com- 
binations, together with the nature of the per- 
fume to be burnt, and the names of the presid- 
ing genius and guardian angel. These tables 
may be considered the key to tho whole 
science of exorcism. 

Letters of the Alphsbet arranged 
according to tho Ahptd [a map], 
with their respect* vo number. 

1 \ 

3 v 

• t 

4 a 

A • 

The Special Attributes or Names 
of God. 






The Number of the Attribute. 






The Meaning of the Attribute. 






The Olaaa of the Attribute. 



Terrible 4 



The Quality, Vice, or Virtue of 
the Letter. 






The Elements. (AreVaA «i4nd# ir.) 






The Perfume of the Letter. 

Black A loot 



Red Sandal 


The Signs of the Zodiac 






The Planets. 




Mirril h. 



Tho Genii. ( Jsan.) 






The Guardian Angela. (Mumkkil.) 







Digitized by 




Lettert of the Alphabet arranged 
aooording to the Abiad [abjadJ, 
with their respective number. 

6 > 

7 J 

* t 

9 L 

io u 

The Special Attributes or Names 
of God. 






The Number of the Attribute. 






The Meaning of the jyttribute. 






The Class of the Attribute. 






The Quality, Vice, or Virtue of 
the Letter. 






The Elements. 

(Arbtfah ^nastr.) 






The Perfume of the Letter. 






The Signs of the Zodiac. 








The Planets. 


l Utdrid 






The OeniL (Jinn.) 






The Guardian AngeL 







Letters of the Alphabet arranged 
according to the Abjud [abjad], 
with tbeir respective number. 

20 «*) 

80 J 

40 r 

«> o 

60 ^ 

The Speoial Attributes or Names 
of God. 






The Number of the Attribute. 






The Meaning of the Attribute. 






The Class of the Attribute. 






The Quality, Vice, or Virtue of 
the Letter. 






The Elements. 







The Perfume of the Letter. 

White rose 




kinds of 

Tho Signs of the Zodiac. 







Tho Planets. 







The Genii (Jinn.) 






The Guardian Angels. 






Digitized by 




Letters of the Alphabet arranged 
according to the Abfad [abjad], 
with their reepeotiye number. 

70 I 

80 u 

90 ^ 

100 j 

200 j 

Thu Speolal Attributo* or Names 
of God. 






The Number of tho Attribute. 






The Meaning of the Attribute. 






The Clara of the Attribute. 






The Quality, Vice, or Virtue of 
tho Letter. 






The Element*. 

(Arba*ak • Andfir.) 






The Perfume of the Letter. 






The Signs of tl>e Zodiac 



Mi tan. 



The Planet*. 







The Genii. 







The Guardian Angels. 


Sat hmali 





Letters of the Alphabet arranged 
according to the Abfad [abjad], 
with their reepectiTe number. 

900 ^ 

400 at> 

60(/ ia> 

600 t 

The Special Attributes or Namee 
of God. 





The Number of the Attribute. 





The Meaning of the Attribute. 





The Claei of the Attribute. 





The Quality, Vice, or Virtue of 
the Letter 





The Elements. 

(Arfrak <Ana$ir.) 





The Perfume of the Letter. 

White Aloes. 


White Aloes. 


The Signs of the Zodiac 


Watering Pot 



The Planete. 






The GeniL (Jinn.) 





The Guardian Angels. 





Digitized by 




Letters of the Alphabet arranged 
eeoording to the Abjad [abjad], 
with their respective number. 

700 J 

800 ^ 

900 1 

1000 i 

The Speoial Attributee or Names 
of God. 





The Number of the Attribute. 





The Meaning of the Attribute. 





The Glass of the Attribute. 





The Quality, Vioe, or Virtue of 
the Letter; 





The Elements. 

(Arbo'ah Mndf tr.) 





The Perfume of the Letter. 





The Signs of the Zodiac. 








The Planets. 





On mar 

The Genii. 






The Guardian AngeL 






The sex of the signs of the Zodiao (burij) has been determined as In the following table. 
Between males and females oxists friendship ; between males and hermaphrodites sometimes 
friendship sometimes enmity; between females and hermaphrodites the most inveterate 

Fish . 






BuU . 
Crab . 




Goats . 





Astrologists hero determined the relative dispositions of the planeta (kawakib) to be as 



















> Friendship. 



















) Mixed Friendship and 
> Enmity or Indiffer* 
) enoe. 













> Enmity. 

Digitized by 


The four elements (arbctah i <md§ir) stand in relation to each other as follows : 


Water and Water. Earth and Berth. 
Fire and Fire. Air and Air. 

{■ Friendship. 

Fire and Air. Air and Water. 

> Mixed Friendship and Enmity 
f or Indifference. 

Fire and Water. Berth and Water. 
Fire and Berth. 9 

\ Enmity. 

As an illustration of the nse of theso tables, 
two persons, Akram and Rahtmoh, contem- 
plate t% matrimonial alliance, and wish to 
know if it will be a happy union or other- 

The exorcist must first ascertain if the 
elements (ar6o<aA 'artottr), the signs of the 
sodieo (bvriy ), end the planets (kawikib), are 
amicably or inimieebly disposed to each other 
in the cases of these two individuals, and also 
if 'there is a combination expressed m the fan 
or name of God connected with their initial 

In the present instance the initial letter of 
Akram is al\f t and that of Rafeimah, re, and 
a reference to the foregoing tables will pro- 
duce the following results :— 

Akram. Ra&mah. 


Initial letter. 
The qoality 

the letter. 
The element 
The attribute. 
The quality of 

the attribute. 
The planet. 
The sign of the 

The perfume. 
The genius. 
The angel 






The ram. 
Black aloes. 






The virgin. 
Rose water. 

In considering this case, the exorcist will 
observe that there ie a combination In the 
attributes of God, both belonging to the asmffu 
'LjalShwah, or terrible attributes. There is elso 
a combination in the quality of the letters, 
both implying friendship. Their respectite 
planets, Saturn and Mercury, show a combi- 
nation of either mixed friendship and enmity, 
or, perhaps, indifference. The sign of the 
zodiac, the ram being a male, end that of the 
rirgin a hermaphrodite, show a possible alter- 
nation of friendship and enmity between the 
parties. The elements, fire* and earth, being 
opposed, imply enmity. It therefore appears 
that there will be nothing against these two per- 
sons, Akram and Ra^imah forming a matrimo- 
nial alliance,' end that they mey reasonably ex- 
pect as much happiness from their union as 
usually 'falls to the lot of the human race. 
Should tho good ofliooi of the exorelst be re* 

quested, he will, by incantation, according to 
the table givon, appeal to the Almighty ae 
Allah and Rabb, call in the eid of the genii 
Qayupush and Rehash, and of the guardian 
angels, Isr&ffl end AmwakIL The perfumes he 
will burn in his numerous recitals will be black 
aloes and rose-water, and so bring about a 
speedy increase in the happiness of the per- 
sons of Akram and Ra^imah ! 

m. As we haye already explained, the in- 
cantations used by exorcists consist in the 
recital of either, the names or. attributes of 
God, or of certain formula) which are given in 
books on tho subject In the JawShiru 7- 
&hamsaM t there were many forms of incanta- 
tion, but we seleet the following one to Illus- 
trate the subject : — 

Subhanaka ! IS ilaha Ma onto 1 Rabba; 
kuili'ihoCint wa wari§akul top ratiqahut wa 

Glory be to Thee I There is no dsity but 
Thee I The Lord of All] and the Inheritor 
thereof I and the Provider therefor I and tho 
Merciful thereon I 

This incantation consists 
letters, exolusive of vowel points, 
by the following table : — 

I «• 

2 *> 














its of 


mints, m is shown 





































Digitized by 
































































In reciting such an invocation, units aro 
reckoned as hundreds, tens as thousands, hun- 
dreds ss tens of thousand**, and thousands ss 
hundreds of thousands. 
In tho above formula — 
Its mfdb, or fixed estate, is tho 
number of letters (i.e. 46) put 
into thousands— . 
Its takdt, or aims, is the haif of 
the nifab added to itself, 
4,500 and 2,260 - . 
Its *wsAr, or tithes, is half of the 
abovo half added to the uikat, 
6,760 and 1,125* 
Its fa/, or lock, is half of 1,125: 
Its iter, or oirclo, is obtained by 
adding to its qufl the sum of 
the *u$kr and then doubling 
the total :— 







Its bail, or gift, is the filed 

Its £A*t*h or *°*h *■ t ne fixe<i 

Its mrVu '(-ijibah, or speedy 
answer, is the fixed number . 







After the exorcist has recited the formula 
the above number of times, he should, in 
order to make a roply more certain, treble 
the nifdb, making it 186,000, and then add 
2,613, the yalue of the combined number of 
letters, making a total of 187,618 rocitals. 
The number of theso recitals should bo divided 
as nearly as possible in equal part? for each 
day's reading, provided it boeoinploted within 
forty days. By a rehearsal of these, says our 
author, the mind of the exorcist becomes com- 
pletely transported, and, whether asleep or 
awake, he • finds himself ancompauied by 
spirits and genii Ijinn) to the highest heavens 
and the lowest depths of oartli. These spirits 
then reveal to him hidden mysteries, and 
render souls and spirits obedient to the will 
of the exorcist. 

IV. If the exorcist wish to command the 
presence of geuii in behalf of a certain person, 
it is generally supposed to be effocted in the 
following manner. Ho must, first of all, shut 
himself up in a room and fast for forty days. 
He should bosmear the chamber with red 
ochre, and, having puriAed himself, should sit 
on a small carpet, and proceed to call the 
genius or demon. He must, however, first 
find out what spocial genii are required to 
effect liia purpose If, for example, ho is 
about to call in tho aid of these spirits in be- 
lts If of u porsou uuioed Bulirem (*Uej) he will 
find out, first, the speeial geoii presiding over 
the name, the l«Uors of which ire, omitting 
the vowel points, BHRA If. Upon refer- 
ence to the table it will he seen that they are 
Danush, Hush, It* hush, Qayupush, and Maj- 
bus^. Ho must then lind out what are the 
special uame9 of God indicated by theso 
letters, whioh we And in the table are «/- Bdqi, 
" the Eternal,** of- Midi, " the Guide,**ar-2fa66, 
"the Lord,* Allah, "God," al- Malik, " the 
King." He must then ascertain the power of 
the Tetters, indicating the number of times for 
the rocital, which will be thus : — 

B, 2 equal to 200 

H, 6 „ 600 

K, 200 „ 20,000 

A, 1 „ 100 

M, 40 „ 4,000 

Total . 24,800 

The exorcist should then, in order to oall 
in the help of the genii, recite the following 
formula, not fewer than 24,800 times :— 

Ya Danushu 1 for the sake of the Sternal 
Ya Hushu ! for the sake of the Guide I 
Ya Rahushu! for the sake of the Lord 1 
Ya Qayupushu I for the sake of Allah I 
Ya Majbushu ! for the sake of the King I 
The exorcist will perform this roeital with 
his faoe turned towards the house of the 
object he wishes to affect, and burn the per- 
fumes indicated according to the table for the 
letters of Bahrain's name. 

Thore are very many other methods of 
performing this exorcism, but the foregoing 
will sunlee as a specimen of the kind of ser- 
vice, [maoic.] 

Digitized by 





DAY. The Muhatnmadan day 
commences at son-set ; our Thursday even- 
ing,, for example, being the beginning of the 
Muslim Friday. The Arabio Yaum denotes 
the day of twenty-four hours, and Nahdr, the 
day in contradistinction to the night (laity 
Tbo days of the week are as follows : — 

Yaumu 'i-abadf first-day, Sunday. 

Yaumu 7-if*atn, second d>y, Monday. 

Yaumu 'i-fa/atd*, third day, Tuesday. 

Yaumu 7-aroc?, fourth day, Wodnosday. 

Yaumu 7-£Aamif, Thursday. 

Yaumu 7-ynM'aA, Day of Assembly, Friday. 

Yaumu 'f-*a6f, Sabbath-day, Saturday. 

Of the days of the week, Monday, Wednes- 
day, Thursday, and Friday, are esteemed 
good add auspicious; the other* evil. 
(Qa**W-/f£sjit, p. 408.) Friday U tho sp<$- 
cial day appointed by Muhammad for meet- 
ing in the chief mosque for public worship, 




DEATH. Arabic Ma*t; Wafdt. 
It is distinctly taught in the Qurtti that 
the hour of death is fixed for every living 

Surah xvi. 68 : M If God were to punish men 
for their wrong-doing, He would not leave on 
the earth a single bring creature; but He 

nitee them until a stated time : and when 
r time oomes they cannot delay it an 
hour, nor can they hasten it." 

Sarah iiL 182: "Every soul must taste 
death, and ye shall only be paid your hiro on 
the day of resurrection." 

Sarah L 17 : M Tho agony of death shad 
come in truth, that is what thou didst shun." 

In the Traditions, Muhammad has taught 
that it is sinful to wish for death : M Wish not 
for death, not even if thou art a doer of good 
Works, for peradventure thou mayest increase 
them with an increase of life. Nor even if 
thou art 'a sinner, for with increase of life 
thou mayest obtain God's pardon." 

One day the Prophet said: M Whosoever 
loves to meet God, God will love to meet him, 
and whoevor dislikes to meet God, God will 
dislike to meet him." Then 'Ayishah said, 
" Truly we all dislike death and consider it a 
greet affliction." The Prophet replied, •• Thou 
dost not understand me. Wbon death comes 
near a believer, then God gWes him a spirit of 
resignation, and so it is that there is nothing 
which a believer likes so much as death." 

Al-Bars? ibn 'Asib, one of the Companions, 

** I came out with the Prophet at tho 
(nnerai of ono of the assistants, and we arrived 
fast at the grave, before they had iuterrod 
the body, and the Prophet sat down, and we 
tat around him with our heads down, and 
were so silent, that you might say that birds 
were sitting upon our heads. And there was 
a stick in the Prophet's hand with which he 
kept striking the ground. Then he raised his 
head and said twice or thrice to his compa- 
nions, ' Seek the protection of God from the 

punishments of the grave.* After that he 
said : ' Verily, when a Muslim separateth 
from tho world end bringoth his soul to futu- 
rity, angels doscend to him from the celestial 
regions, whose facos are white. You might 
say their facos are the inn, and they have a 
shroud of the shrouds of paradise, and per- 
fumes therefrom. So they sit apart from the 
docoasod, as far as the eyes, can see. After 
which tho Angel of Death (Mataku U-Afaut) 
oomes to tho deoeasod and sits at his head, 
and says, " pure soul, come forth to God's 
pardon and pleasure." Then the soul oomes 
out, issuing like water from a bag, and the 
Angel of Death takes it ; and when he takes 
it, the angels do not allow it to remain in his 
hands for the twinkling of an eye. But when 
the Angel of Death has taken the soul of a 
servant of God, he resigns it to his assistsnts, 
in whose hands is a shrond, and they put it 
into the shroud and with the perfumes, when 
a fragrance issues from tho soul liko the smell 
of the best musk that is to be found on tho 
fade of the earth* Then the angels carry it 
upwards, and they do not pass by any con- 
course of angels who do not say, " What is 
this pure soul, snd who is owner of it f " And 
they say, <* Such a one, tho son of such a one," 
calling him by the best names by which he 
was known In the world, till they reach the 
lowest region of heaven with him. And the 
angels ask tho door to be opened for him, 
whieh is done. Then angels follow it through 
each heaven, the angel of one region to those 
of the next, and so on till it reaches the 
seventh heaven, when God says, " Write the 
name of My servant in •Illlynn, and return 
him towards the earth, that is, to his body 
whloh Is buried in the esrth, because 1 have 
created man from oarth and return him to it, 
and will bring him out from it again as I 
brought him out at first." Then tho souls are 
returned into their bodion, whon two angele 
[muhxab and WAKfrn] oome to the dead man 
and cause him to sit up, and say to him, 
" Who is thy Lord t " He replies, " My Lord 
is God." Then they say, " What is thy reli- 
gion?" He says, " Islam." Then they say, 
" What is this man who is sent to you? " (t.e. 
the Prophets He says, " He is the Prophet 
of God/ Then they say, M What is your proof 
of his mission f" He says, M I read the book 
of God, and believed in it, and I proved it to 
be true." Then a voice calls out from the 
celestial regions, "My servant hath spoken 
true, therefore throw for him a bed from 
Paradise, and dress him in clothes from Para- 
dise, and open a door for him towards Para- 
dise." Then peano and perfumes oomo for 
him from Paradise, and his grave is enlarged 
for him as far as the eye can see. Then a 
man with a beautiful face comes to him, 
ologantly dressed, and .perfumed, and he says, 
•• Be joyful in that which hsth made thee so, 
this is the day which was promised thee." 
Then the dead person says to him, " Who art 
thoa, for thy face is perfectly beautiful ? " And 
the nian replies, "I am thy good deeds." 
Then the dead person cries out, " Lord, 
hsaton tho resurrection for my seko ! * * 

Digitized by 




44 « But,' continued the Prophet, « when en 
Infidel diet, end ie about to pass from the 
world end bring hie eonl to futurity, blaok- 
feeed angele come down to him and with 
them teokolothi. Then they eit from the 
deed ee far ee the eye cen see, after which 
the Angol of Death comee in order to sit at 
his head, and says, " O impure soul ! come 
forth to the wrath of God." Then the soul is 
disturbed in the infidel's body. Then the 
Angel of Death draws it out as a hot spit is 
drawn out of wet wooL 

"' Then the Angel of Death takes the soul 
of the infidel, and having taken it, the angels 
do not allow it to remain with him the twink- 
ling of an eye, but they take it in the saok- 
eloth, and a disagreeable smell issues from 
the soul, like that of the most fetid carcass 
that can be met with upon the face of the 
earth. Thon tho angels carry it upwards and 
do pot peas by any assembly of augels who 
do not ask whose filthr soul is this. They 
answer such an one, the son of such an one, 
end they mention him by the worst names 
that he bore in the world, till they arrive 
with it at the lowest heaven, and call the door 
to be opened, but it cannot be done.' Then 
the Prophet repeated this verse : * The doore of 
the celestial reatone $hall not 6s opened for them, 
nor ehall they inter into paradise till a camel 
paue* through the eye of a needle? Then God 
says, ' Write his history in Sijjtn,' which is the 
lowest earth; then his soul is thrown down 
with violence. Afterwards the Prophet re- 
peated this verse : * Unite no partner with 
God, for whoever uniteth gode with Qod u lik)e 
that which falhthfrom high, and the hirde 
snatch t/ away, or the wind wafteth it to a die- 
tant plac** Then his soul is replaced in his 
body, end two angels [muwkab and vaxiB| 
oome to hb.i and eet him up, and eay, * Who 
is thy Lord ir' He says, 'Alas! alee! I do 
not know.' Thon they sey, 'What is thy 
religion ?' lie says, 'Alas! alas! I do 
not know.' And they say to him, ' What is 
the condition of the man who ie sent down to 
you t ' He says, • Alas I alas ! I do not know.* 
Then a voice comes from above, saying, ' He 
lleth ; therefore snresd a bod of fire for hjm 
and open a door for biin towards hell.' Then 
the heat and hot winds of hell come to him, 
and his grave is mads tight upon him, ho as to 
squeeze his ribs. And a man with a hideoue 
countenance comos to him shockingly dressed, 
of a vile smell, and he nays, ' Be joyful in 
that which maketh thee mieerable ; this Is 
the day that was promised thee.' Then the 
dead man says. • Who art thou t Thy face 
it hideous, and brings wickedness.' He eays, 
I am thy impure Actions.' Then the dead 
person seys, ' Lord, delay the resurrection 
on my account ! ' " 

The ceremonies attending tho death of a 
Muslim are described ae follows by Jifir 
Sharif in He vk lot'* Qa»iin-i-Ixlam, as fol- 

Pour or five days previous to a sick man's 
approaching bis dissolution, he makes his will 
in favour of hie son or any other person, in the 
pretence of two or more witnesses, and either 


delivers it to others or retains it by him. In 
it he likewise appoints his executor. When 
about to expire, any learned reader of the 
Qur'ftn ia sent for, and reqneeted to repeat 
with a loud voice the Surah Ya Sin (or chap, 
xxxvi.), in order that the spirit of the man, 
by the hearing of its sound, may experience 
an easy concentration. • It is said that when 
the spirit was commanded to enter the body 
of Adam, the sou] having looked into it once, 
obsorved that it was a bad and dark place, 
and unworthy of its presence I Then the 
Just and Most Holy God illuminated the body 
of Adam with " lamps of light," and com- 
manded the spirit to re-enter. It went in a 
second time, beheld the light, and eaw the 
whole dwelling, and said, " There is no pleas- 
ing sound here for me to listen to." It is 
generally underetood from the best works of 
the myotics of the East, that it was owing to 
this ofroumstanoe that the Almighty created 
music. The holy spirit, on hearing the sound 
of this musio became eo delighted that it 
entered Adam's body. Commentators on the 
Quran, expositors of the Traditions and 
divines have written, that that sound re- 
sembled that produoed by the repeating of 
theSftratu YiBin; it is therefore advisable 
to read at the hour of dearth thie ohapter 
for tranouilliaing the soul. 

The Kelimetu 'sh-shshadsh [obbm»1 Is 
also read with an audiblo veioe by those 
present. They do not require the patient 
to read it himself, ae at such a time he is 
in a distressing situation, and not in a fit 
state of mind to repeat the Kalimah. 

Most people lie insensible, and oennot even 
apeak, but the pious retain their mental facul- 
ties and converse till the very last. The fol- 
lowing ie a most serious religious rule amongst 
us, viz. that if a person desire the patient to 
repeat tho Kalimah, and the eiok man ex- 
pire without being able to do eo, his faith is 
considered dubious; whilst the man who 
directed him so to do thereby incurs guilt. 
It is therefore best that the sitters-by read 
it, in anticipation of the hope thai the sick 
man, by hearing the sound of it, may bring 
it to his recollection, and repeat it either aloud 
or in his own mind. In general, when a per- 
sou is on the point of death, they pour shar- 
but t made of sugar and water, down his throat, 
to facilitate the exit of the vital epark, and 
some procure the holy water of the Zaxncam 
well at Makkah. The moment the spirit has 
fled, the mouth ie closed; because, if left 
open, it would present a disagreeable spec- 
tacle. The two great toes are brought In 
contact and fastened together with a thin slip 
of cloth, to prevent the lege remaining apart. 
They burn perfumes near the oorpse. Should 
the individual have died in the evening, the 
shrouding and burial take place before mid- 
night; if ho die at a' later hour, or should 
the articles required not he procurable at 
that late hour, he is buried early on tho fol- 
lowing morning. The sooner the sepulchral 
rites are performed the better, for it is not 
proper to Keep a corpse long in the bouse, 
and for thitt reason the Prophet said that 

Digitized by 





If ha wm a good man, the sooner he is buried 
the more aulckly hi will reach heaven ; if a 
bad man, he should be speedily buried, in. 
order that his unhappy lot may not fall upon 
others in the house ; as also that the relatives 
of the deeeased may not, by holding the 
corpse, weep too mneh or go without food. 
There are male and female washers, whose 
•province H is to wash and shroud the corpse 
for payment Sometimes, however, the rela- 
tives do it themselves. In undertaking the 
operation of washing, they dig a hole in the 
earth to receive the water used in the. pro- 
cess, and prevent its spreading over 1 a large 
surface, as some men and women oonsidar it 
bad to tread on such water. Then they place 
the corpse on a bed, country-cot, plank, or 
straw. Some women, who are particular in 
these matters, are afraid even to venture near 
the place where the body has been washed. 
Having strip p ed the corpse and laid it on its 
beck, with its head to the east and feet to the 
west, they cover it with a cloth— reaching, if it 
be a man, from the navel to the oalves of the 
legs, if a woman, extending from the chest to 
the feet — and wash it with warm or with oold 
water. They raise the body gently and rub 
the abdomen four or five times, then pour 

Slenty of water, and wash off all the dirt and 
lth with soap, Ac., by means of flooks of 
cotton or cloth ; after which, laving the body 
on the sides, they wash them ; then the back, 
and the rest of the body ; but gently, because, 
life having but Just departed, the body is 
still warm and not insensible to pain. After 
this they wish and clean it well, so that no 
offensive smell may remain. They nover 
throw water into the nostrils or mouth* but 
clean them with wicks of oloth or cotton. 
After that they perform urns a* for him, i.e. 
they wash his month, the two upper extremi- 
ties up to the elbows, make maiab [maiah] 
on his head, and throw water on his feet ; 
these latter constituting the four parts of the 
vftt a oeremony [ablutions]. Thoy then put 
some camphor with water into a new large 
earthen pot, and with a new earthen pot 
they take out water and pour it three times, 
first from the head to the feet, then from the 
right shoulder to the ieet, lastly from the left 
shoulder to the feet. Every time that a pot 
of water is poured the Kalimatu 'th-nhdhadak 
is repeated, either by tho person washing or 
another. Having bathed the body and wiped 
it dry with a new piece of cloth, they put on 
the shroud. The shroud eonnists of three 
pieces of cloth, if for a man, and flvo if for a 

Those for men comprise, 1st, a lungi, or 
tsar, reaching from the navel down to the 
knees or ankle-joints; 2nd, a camit, or 
btrta, or alfa; its length is from the nock to 
the knees or ankles; 8rd, a Ufafah, or sheet, 
from above tho head to below tho feet. 
Women have two additional pieces of cloth: 
one a tiaah-btmd, or breast-band, extending 
from the arm-pits to shove the ankle-joints ; 
the other a dSomnf, which enoircles the hoad 
once and has its two ends dangling on each 
*iilc. The ni5ir.*»r «f trending in a* follow* : 

having placed the shrouds on a new mat and 
fumigated them with the smoke of perfumes, 
the hjafak is spread first on the mat, over it 
the Juajff or ttor, and above that the fastis ; 
and on the latter the «inaA-6and, if it be a 
woman ; the daatni is kept separate and tied 
on afterwards. The corpse must be oare- 
fnlly brought by itself from the place where 
it was bathed, and laid in the shrouds. Sur- 
mah is to be applied to the eyes with a tont 
made of paper rolled up, with a ring, or with 
a pice, and camphor to seven places, vis. on 
the forehead, including the nose, on the palms 
of the hands, on the knees' . nd great toes, 
after which the different shrouds are to be 
properly put on one after another as they lay. 
The colour of the shroud is to be white ; no 
other is admissible. It is of no consequence, 
however, If a coloured oloth is s p rea d 
over the bier; which, after the funeral, or 
after the fortieth day, is given away to the 
ftuftr who resides in the burying-gronnd, or 
to any other person, in charity. Previous to 
shrouding the body, they tear shreds from 
the cloths for the purpose of tying them on; 
and after shrouding the body, they tie one 
band above the head, a second below the feet, 
and a third about the chest, leaving about six 
or seven fingers* breadth of oloth above the 
head and below the feet, to admit of the ends 
being fastened. Should the relict of the 
deoeased be present, they undo the cloth of 
the head and show her his face, and get her, 
in presence of two witnesses, to remit the 
dowry which he had settled upon her ; but it 
is preferable that she remit it while he is still 
alive. Should the wife, owing to journeying, 
be at a distance from him, she is to remit it 
on receiving the intelligence of his demise. 

Should his mother be present, she likewise 
says, " The milk with whioh I suckled thee I 
freely bestow on thee " ; but this is merely a 
custom in India ; it is neither enjoined in 
books of theology noT by the law of Islam. 
Then thoy place on the corpse a flower -sheet 
or merely wreaths of flowers. [grave, 


Mulpunmadan law admits of the ovidence of 
death given in a court of justice being merely 
by report or hoarsay. The reason of this is 
that death is an event of suoh a nature as to 
admit the privacy only of a few.- But some 
have advanced that, in cases of death, the 
information of one man or woman is suf- 
ficient, " because death is not seen by many, 
since, as it oooaslons horror, the sight of it is 
avoided. " 

If a person say he was present at the burial 
of another, this amounts to the same as an 
actual sight of his death. (Hidayah, vol. iv. 
p. 67a) 

DEBT. In Muframmadan law 
there are two words used for debt. Data 
((£***)> or mon6T borrowed with some fixed 
term of payment, and qar? (jbJ), or money 
lent without any doflnitr understanding as to 


Digitized by 




1U repayment. Imprisonment for debt is 
allowod. (HidogtiA, vol ii. p. (124.) 

Upon the decease of a debtor, tho law 
demands that after the payment of the 
funeral expensos, his' just debts must be paid 
before payment of legacies. 

To engage in a Jihad or religions war, is 
said bv MuljLSuimad to remit every sin except 
that of being in debt. Tjuiad, i>ajm, qajuvj 

DECOBUM, or modenty of demea- 
nour botween the sexes, is stristly enjoined in 
Muslim law. and a special chapter is devoted 
to it in the ihnru H-Mu^htdr and other works 
on Muframmadan law. 

A man is not allowed to look at a woman 
except at her hands and face, nor is he allowed 
to tonoh her. But a physician in permitted to 
exorcise tho duties of his profession without 

A judge in the exorcise of his offiee may 
look in the face of a woman , and witnesses 
are under the umo necessity. 

Qfldar or Tai/dir. [FUBDMinrATiOK.] 

DEEDS. Written deeds are, ac- 
cording to Mu^ammadon law, of throe kinds : 
L Mustabin-i-marsuik, or regular documents, 
suoh as aro exooutod on paper, and have a 
regular title, superscription, &o., which are 
equl/alont to oral ilocloratlon, whether, tho 
person be present or absent. II. Aftutubin-i- 
gkair-i-martuM, or irregular documents, 
suoh as are not written on paper, but upon a 
wall or the leaf of a tree, or unon paper with- 
out anr title or superscription or signature, 
m. Gh(rir~i-mu$tabln t writings which are 
not documents 1 in any sense, such as are de- 
lineated in the air or in the water by the 
motions of a dumb person. 

DEFENDANT. Arabic mudda'a 
'alaihi (o*U ^x*) Lit, " A claim 
upon bun." 

The author of tho Hiddpih (vol. iii. p. C8J 
says a defendant is a person who, if he should 
wish to avoid the litigation,- is compellable to 
sustain it Some have defined a plaintiff, wil h 
respect to any article of property, to be a 
person who, from his being dissoutod of tho 
said article, has no right to it but by the 
establishment of proof; and a defendant to 
be a person who has a ploa of right to 'that 
article from his seizing or possession of it 

The Imam Muhammad hss said' that a 
defendant is a person who denies. This is 
oorrect ; but it requires A skill and knowledge 
of Jurisprudence to distinguish tho denier in 
a suit, as the reality and not the appcaranoo 
is offloient, and it frequently happens that a 
parson is in appearance the plaintiff, whilst in 
reality he is tne defends nt. Thus a trustee, 
when he says to ths owner of the deposit, " I 
have restored to you your deposit," appears 
to bo plaintiff, inasmuch as he pleads the re- 
turn of the deposit; yet in reality he is the 
defendant, since he deniee the obligation of 
responsibility* and henoe his assertion, oorro- 
ln>rated by an oath, must be credited. 


ta'anvi jVi) is enjoined by ..Mu- 
hammad in the Traditions. Ho, is related to 
have said. ** Deliberation in your tinder- 
takings is pleasing to God, and hurry (•uiafoA) 
is ptessing to the devil" " Dolibcr&Uoh is 
best in e? ervthing except in the things' con- 
cerning eternity." (/Yoaij-i-TrW/fisi.) 

DELUGE, The. Arabic T*f<m 
(qUjL). The story of tho deluge is 
given by Muhammad in his Qur*an, to the 
Arabians as a " *e&*t kUtury, revealed to 
thein (Surah xi 51). The following are tho 
allusions to it in the Qur'au:— 

Sarah lxix. 11 :— 

M When the Flood rose high, we haro you in 
the Ark, 

"Tihat wo might make that event a warn- 
ing to you. aud that the retaining ear might 
retain it." 

SOrah 1W. 9:— 

**Bofore them the people of Noah treated 
the truth as a lie, Our servant did they charge 
with falsehood, and said, ' Demoniac I ' aud be 
was rejected. 

" Thon criod he to his Lord, < Verily, tbey 
prevail against me ; come thou therefore to 
my succour.' 

»' So we opened the gates of Heaven with 
wator which fell in torrents, 

" And wo caused the earth to break forth 
with springs, and their waters met by settled 

" Aud we bare him on a vwel made with 
planks and nails. 

" Under ear eyes it floated on : a recom- 
pense to him who had been rejected with un- 

"And we left it a sign: but, is there any 
one who receive* tho warning? 

" And bow great wis my vongeauoe and my 
menu ce 1 * 

Surah xi. $8:— 

u And it was revealed unto Noah : * Verily, 
none of thy pooplo shall believe, save tbey 
who havo heUevod alroady ; therefore bo not 
thou grieved at their doings. 

•'But build the Ark , under our eye and 
after our revelation ; and plead- not with me 
for the evil-doers, for tbey are to be 

" So he built the Ark ; and whenever tho 
chiefs of his people paissd by they laughed 
him to scorn : said he, ' Though - ye laugh at 
us, we truly shall laugh at yon, even as ye 
laugh St us; and in tho end ye shall know 

"Oh whom a punishment shall oomo that 
shall shame him; and on whom shall light a 
lasting punishment/ 

" Thus tooM t* until our sentonoo csnie io 
pass, and the earth's surfaoe boiled up. We 
said, ' Garry into it one pair of evory kind, and 
thy family, except him on whom senteuco 
bath before been passed, aud those who havo 
believed.' But there believed not with him 
except a few. 

" And he said, < Embark ye therein. In 
tho name of God be its course and ita riding 

Digitized by 



»l anchor! Truly my Lord is right Ora- 
cioos, Merciful.' 

'• And the £rjt moved on witn them amid 
waves like mountains: and Noah called to 
his tea— for he was apart— 1 Embark with 
at, O mr child 1 and he not with the un- 

M He sajd, ' I will betake me to a mountain 
that shall secure me from the water.' Ho 
said, ' None shall bo secure this day from the 
decree of God,, save him on whom He, shall 
hate merer* And a wave passed between 
them, and be was among the drowned. 

u And it was said, * Berth I swallow up 
thy water ' ; and ' oeaso, O Beaten I • And the 
water abated, and the decree was fulfilled, 
and the Ark rested upon al-Judl; and ?t was 
said, • Aveunt ! ye tribe of the wicked ! ' 

" And Noah called on his Lord and said, 
1 Lord ! verily my son is of my family t and 
thy promise is true, and thou art the most 
just of judges.' 

" He said, * O Noah ! verjly, ho is not of thy 
family : in this thou actent not aright. Ask 
not of me that whereof thou kuowost nought : 
T warn thee that thou become not of the igno- 

* He said, • To thee verily, my Lord, do I 
repair lest I ask that of thee wherein I here 
no knowledge: unless thou forgive me and 
be merciful to me I shall be one of the 

" It was said to him, * Noah I debark with 
peace from Us, and with blessings on thee 
and on peoples from those who are with thee ; 
but as for pert, we will suffer them to enjoy 
themselves, but afterwards they shall suffer 
a grievous punishment from us to be inflicted.' 

* This is a secret history which we reveal 
to thee. Thou didst not know them, thou uor 
thy people^eforc this." 

DEMONS, [devils, «inii.] 

DEPORTMENT. Arabic l Umu 
U-mu'd$harah (1/>U*H J*Y Persian 
nitka$t u barkAdst. The Traditionists take 
tome pains to explain the precise manner In 
which their Prophet walked, sat, slept, and 
rose, but their accounts are not always uni- 
form and oonsistent. For example, whilst 
'Abbed retttes that he saw the Prophet 
sleeping on his back with one leg over the. 
other, Jebir ssys the Prophet distinctly for- 
bade H. 

Modesty of deportment is enjoined in the 
QuVan, Surah xvti. 89 : «• Walk not proudly 
on the earth." which the commentators say 
means that the believer is not to tots his head 
or hia arms as he walks. Surah xxv.- 04 : 
" The servants of the Merciful One are those 
who walk upon the earth lowly, and when 
the Ignorant address them say* < Peace 1 " 

Faqlr Jani Muhammad Ae*ad, the author 
of the celebrated ethical work, the A&tiq i- 
Jaiifly gives the following advice as regards 
general deportment: — 

"He should not hurry as he walks, for 
that is a sign of levity ; neither should he be 
enreaeonably tardy, for that is a token of dul- 



ness. Lot him neither stalk like the over- 
bearing, nor agitate himself in the way of 
women and eunuchs ; but constantly otfserve 
tho middle course. Let him avoid going 
often backwards and forwards, for that be- 
tokorn bewilderment ; and holding his head 
downwards, for that indtcatos a miod over- 
come .by sorrow and anxiety, in riding, no 
less, the same medium is to be observed. 
Whon he sits, let him not extend hie feet, nor 
put one upon another. Ho must never kneel 
except in deference to his king, hit preceptor, 
and his father, or other such person. Let 
him not rest his head on his knee or his hand, 
for that is a mark of dejection and Indolence. 
Neither let him hold his neck awry, nor in- 
dulge in foolish trioks, such as playing with 
his fingers or ether joints. Let him avoid 
twisting round or stretching himself. Jn spit- 
ting and blowing his nose, let him oe careful 
that no one seea or hears him ; that he blow 
it not towards the Qiblah,nor upon his hand, 
his skirt, or sleeve-lappet* 

•• Whon he enters an assembly, let him sit 
neither lower nor higher than his proper sta- 
tion. If he be himself the head of the party, 
he can sit as he likes, for his place must be 
the highost whorevcr it may be. If he has 
Inadvertently taken a wrong place, let bim 
exchange it for his own as soon as he dis- 
covers his mistake \. should hit own be occu- 
pied, he must return without disturbing others 
or annoying niniftelf. 

"In the presence of bis male or female 
domestics, let him never bare anything but 
his hands and his face: the parts from his 
knee to his nave) let him never expose at all ; 
neither in public nor private, except on occa- 
sions of necessity for ^ablation and the like. 
( Kids Geu. ix. 20 ; Lot. xvii. 8, xjl 11 ; Deut. 
xxii. 80.) 

*' He must not sleep in the preeenee of other 
persons, or He on his back, particularly as 
the habit of snoring is thereby encouraged. 

u Should sleep ovorpower him in the midst 
of a party, lot him got up, if possible, or else 
dispel the drowsiness by relating seme story, 
entering on *bmt debate, and the like. But 
if ho is with a set of persons who slsep them- 
selves, let him either bear thorn company or 
lea Ye them. 

M The upshot of the whole is this : Let him 
so behave as not to incommode or disgust 
others ; and should any of these observances 
appear troublesome, let him reflect, that to 
be formed to their contraries would be still 
more odious and still more unpleasant than 
any pains which their acquirement may coat 
him.* Akhlaq.i-Jal&R, Thompson's Transla- 
tion, p. 202.) 

DEPOSIT (Arabic mad V ah 
JUt«>«, pi. wad&i'), in the languago 6f 
the taw, signifies, a thing entrusted to the 
care of another. The proprietor of the thing 
is called stfieV . or depositor ; tho person en- 
trusted with it is imtda?, or trust to, end the 
property deposited is toocVo^, which lite- 
rally means the leaving ef a thing with 

Digitized by 





According to. the Hiddyah, the following 
are the ruloi of Islam regarding deposits. 

A trustee is not responsible for deposit 
unless he transgress with respect to it. If 
therefore it be lost whilst il is in his care, and 
the loss has not been ocoaaioned by any fault 
of his, the trustee has not to make good the 
loss, because the Prophet said, "an honest 
trustee is not responsible" 

A trustee may also keep the deposit him- 
self or he may entrust it to another, provided 
the person it a member of his own family, 
but if he gives it to a stranger he renders 
himself responsible. 

If the deposit, is demanded by the depo- 
sitor, and the trustee neglects to give it up, 
it is a transgression, and the trustee beoomss 

If tho trustee mix the deposit (as of grain, 
oil, Ac.) with his own property, in suoh a 
manner that the property cannot bo soparatod, 
the depositor oan claim to share equally in 
the whole property. But if the mixture be 
the result of accident, the proprietor becomes 
a proportionate sharer in the whole. 

If the trustee deny the deposit upon de- 
mand, he is responsible in case of the loss of 
it. But not if the denial bo made to a 
stranger, because (says Abu Yusuf)tho denial 
may be made for the sako of preserving jt. 

In the case of a doposit by two persons, 
the trusteo cannot deliver to either his share, 
except it be in the presence of the other. And 
when two persons receive a divisible article in 
trust, each must keep one half, although these 
restrictions are not regarded when they are 
held to be inconvenient, or contrary to custom. 

DEVIL, The. The devil is believed 
to be descended from Jinn, tho progenitor of 
the evil genii. He is said to have been named 
'Azaxfl, and to have possessed authority oyw 
the animal and spirit kingdom. But when God 
created Adam, the devil refused to prostrate 
before him, and he was therefore expelled 
from Eden. The sentence of death was then 
pronounced upon Satan ; but upon seeking a 
respite, he obtained it until tho Day of 
Judgment, when he will be destroyed. (Vide 
Qur*en, Surah vii 18.) Acoording to the 
Qu'ran, tho devil was created of flro, whilst 
Adam was created of clay. There are two 
words used in the Qur'an to denote this groat 
spirit of evil: (1) Shaitdn (gU**, )£&), 

an Arabic word derived from shatn,." opposi- 
tion," i.«.. "one who opposes; (2) Iblis 
(u-»M» Sio^oXos), "devil," fromiafc*, "a 
wicked or profligate person," i.e. M the wicked 
one." The former expression occurs in the 
Qur'an flfty-two times, and the lattor only 
nine* whilst in some verses («.o/. Surah it 32- 
84) the two words SAuitdn and Iblis occur 
for tho same personality. According to tho 
Aftyma'u f-£i£or, skaitan denotes one who is 
far from the truth, and ibtis one who is with- 
out hope. 

The following is the teaching of Muhammad 
n the Traditions concerning the machinations 
of the devil (Miskkat, book i c. hi.):— 

" 4 Verily, the devil enters into man as tho 
blood into his body. 

" * There is not one amongst you but has an 
angel and a devil appointed over him.' The 
Companions said, ' Do you inolude yourself in 
this ? ' He said, « Yes, for me also ; but God 
has given me victory over the devil, and he 
does not direot me oxcept in what is good.' 

u There is not one of the children of Adam, 
oxcept Mary and her son (Jesus), but is 
touchod by the devil at the time of its birth, 
hence the child makes * loud noise from tho 

" Devil rests his throne upon the waters, 
and sends his armies to excite oontontion and 
strife amongst mankind; and those in his 
armios who are nearest to him in power and 
rank, are those who do tho most mischiof. 
One of them returns to tho devil and sayu, 
* I have doue so and so. 1 aud bo say*, * You 
huve done nothing ' ; af tor that another comes, 
and says. * I did not quit him till I made a 
division between him and his wife' ; then the 
devil appoints him a plaoe near himself, and 
says, ' You aro a good assistant.' 

14 The devil sticks close to the sons of 
Adam, and sn angel also ; the business of the 
dovil is to do evil, and that of tho angel to 
teach him the trutb ; and ho who meets with 
truth and goodness in his mind, lot him know 
it proceeds from God, and lot him praise Qod ; 
and ho who finds the other, lot him seek for 
an asylum from tho devil in God. 

" Then the Prophet read this verse of the 
Qur'an: 'The devil threatens you with 
poverty if ye bestow in charity ; and orders 
you to pursue avarice ; but God promises you 
graco and abundance from oharity.' 

"'Usman said, *0 Prophet of God! indeed 
the devil intrudes himsolf between me and 
my prayers, and my reading perplexes me.' 
Then the Prophet said, * This is a demon 
called gfeanzsb, who casts doubt into prayer : 
when you are aware of it, take protection 
with God, and spit over your left arm three 
times.' 'Utman said, *Be it so'; and all 
doubt and perplexity was dispelled." 

DEVIL, The Machinations of the. 


DIBAGHAH (U*4*). "Tanning." 
According to the Traditions, tho skins ' of 
animals are unclean until they are tanned. 
Muhammad said, "Take nothing for any 
animals that shall have died until you tan 
their skins." And again, " Tanning purifies.* 
(Miskkat, book iii c. xi. 2.) 

DIMASHQ (<>**•*>). [dama3CU3.] 

DIN ((#*>). The Arabic word for 
° religion." It is used ©specially for the reli- 
gion of the Prophets and their inspired books, 
but St i« also used for idolatrous religion. 

DINAR (jWO* <*"** Ot/koVhov. 
A gold coin of one mitqdl weight, or ninety- 
six barley grains, worth about ten shillings 

Digitized by 



According to Mr. Hussey (Ancient Weights, 
p. 142), the average weight of the Roman 
denarii, at the end of the Commonwealth wan 
sixty grain*, whilst the English •hilling con- 
tains eighty grains. Mr. Lane, in his Arabio 
dictionary, says, "its woiglit is eoventy-ono 
barley-corns and a half, nearly, rookoniiig tho 
daniq as eight grains of wheat and two-fifths ; 


but if it be said that the daniq is eight grains 
of whoat, then the dinar is sixty-eight grains 
of wheat and f our-sevenths. It is the same 
a* the miiqaC The dinar is only mentioned 
onco in thoQur'in, Surah ii. 66 : "And some of 
them if thon entrust them with a dinar, he 
will tint give it hack. 1 * It frequently oocurs 
in books of law. 



DffiHAM (f*j*). Greek o>aW. 
A. alitor ooin, the shape of which resomblod 
that of a date stone. During tho oaliphate of 
'Ulnar, if was changed into a eireular form : 
and m the time of Zubair, it was impressed 
with the words Allah, " God," barakah " bless- 
ing." ?ajjij stamped upon it the ohapter of 
the Qur'in called IUtfa* (exii.), and others 
say he imprinted It with his own name. 
Various accounts are given of their weights ; 
some saying that they were of ten, or nino, or 
six, or five mitqalt; whilst others give the 
weights of twenty, twelve, and ten oird|*, 
asserting at tho same time that 'Umar had 
taken a dirham of each kind, and formed a 
ooin of fourteen qhrat$, being the third part 
of the aggregate sum. (Blochmann's Ain-i- 
Akbari, p. 66.) 

Tho durham, although it is frequently men- 
tioned in books of law, only occurs once in 
the Qur'in, Surah xii. 20, "And they sold 

him (Joseph) for a mean price, dirkams 
counted out, and thoy parted with him 

DIRRAH (*». Vulg. durrah. 
A soourgo made either of a flat piece of 
leather or of twisted thongs, and used by the 
public censor of morals and religion, called 
the muktarib. This soourgo is inflicted either 
for the omission of the daily prayer, or for 
the committal of sins, whioh are punishable 
by the law with the infliction of stripes, such 
as fornication, scandal, and drunkenness. It is 
related that the ghalifah 'Umar punished his 
son with the dxrrah for drunkenness, and that 
he died from its effects. (Tarikh-i-KkamU. 
vol. ii. p. 262.) 

The word used in the Qur'in and Qadis. for 
this soourgo is joldah, and in theological 
works, taut ; but dirrah is now the word 
generally used amongst modern Muslims. 


3Ka 3g3S&ag ~' 


DITCH, Battle of the. Arabic 
Ohaewaiu 9 UKhanduq (,3*uaiH S.t£). 
The defence of al-Mudioah against the Bonu 
Quraisah, a.h. 6, when a trench was dug by 
the advice of Salman, and the army of al- 

Madinah was posted within it. After a 
month's siege, the enemy retired, and the 
almost bloodless victory Is ascribed by Mo- 
bam mad in Ihe Qur'in to the interposition of 
Providence. Surah xxxiii. 0: " Remember 
God's favours to you when hosts came to you 

Digitized by 




and we tent against tbeni a wind and boats (of 
angels), that yo conH not see, bat God know 
what ye were doing." (Moire La ft of JfaAo- 
mer, voL Ui. p. S680 

DIVINATION. Kahanah, or for- 
tolling future evonts, ia unlawful in Islam. 

Mu'awiyah ibn Hakim relates: "I said -Jo 
the Prophet, ' Messonger of God, we lined 
to do seme thing» in tbo time o! ignorance of 
which we are not aura now. For example, 
wo used to oou8ult diviners about future 
events • ' The Prophet said, « Now that you 
Sato omhraced Islam yon must not consult 
them.' Then I said, 'And wo uaod to take 
bad omens t * The Prophet said, ' If from a 
bad omen you are thrown into perplexity, let 
It oot hinder you from doing tbo work you 
bad intended to do.' Then I said, * And we 
need to draw lines on tbo ground f ' Aud the 
Prophet said, * There was one of the Prophet u 
who uaod to draw Jinea on tbo ground, there- 
fore if you can draw a line like him it is 
good, otherwise it is Tain.' " 

'Ayialiah aaya " the people asked tbo Pro- 
phet about diviners, whether they apoke true 
or not And he said, * You must not believe 
anything thoy any.' The people then said, 
'But, Prophet I they sometimes tell what 
is true?' The Prophet repliod, 'Because 
one of the genii steals away the truth and 
carries it into the divinor's ear; and the 
diviners mix a hundred lies to one train.'" 

DIVOBCE. Arabic lalda (j*U). 
In its primitive sense the word taldq means 
dismission, hot in law. it signifies a releaae 
from the marriage tie. 

The Maframmadan law of divorce it 
foundod unon express injunctions contained 
in the Quran, aa well as in the Traditions, 
and its rules occupy a very, large section in 
a)) Mohammedan works on jurisprudence. 

L The teaching of fas Qur'un on the subject 
is aa follows : — 

Surah ii. 226 j— 

♦' They who intend to abstain from their 
wives shall wait four months ; but if thoy go 
back from their purpose, then vorUy God is 
Gracious, Merciful : 

" And if they resolve on a divorce, then 
verily God ia He who Hearoth, Kneweth. 

" The divorced shall Wait the result, until 
they nave had their courses thrice, nor ought 
thsy to conceal what God bath ' created in 
their wombs, if they believe in God and the 
last day; and it will be more just in their 
husbands to bring them beck when in this 
state, if they desire what is right. And it is 
for tbo women to act aa they (the husbands) 
act by them, in all fairness ; but the men are 
a step above Ihem. God is Mighty, Wise. 

''Ye may givo sontonceof divorce to your 
wives twice : Keep* them honourably, or put 
them away with kindness. But it is oot allowed 
you to appropriate to yourselves augbt of 
what ye have given to them, unless both fear 
that they cannot keep within the bounds set 
up by God. And if ye faa. that they can- 


not observe the ordinances of God, no blame 
shall attach to either o$ you for what the 
wife shall herself give for her redemption. 
These are the bounds of God : therefore over- 
step taem not; for whoever overstoppeth the 
bounds of God, thoy are evil doers. 

M But if the husband give sentence of divorce 
to her a third i{me t it is not lawful for him to 
take her again, until sho shall have married 
another husbsnd ; and if he also divorce ber 
then shall no blame attach to them if they 
return to each other, thinking that they can 
keep within the bounds fined by God. Ami 
thetre are tbo bounds of God; Jle niakotb 
them cloar to those who have knowledge. 

" But when ye divorco women, and the time 
for sending them away ia ooine, either retain 
tbom with genoroeity, or put ihem away with 
generosity : but retain them not bj constraint 
so as to be unjust towards them. Ue wbo 
doth so, doth in fact injure hiniaolf. And 
make not tbo eigne of God a jeat ; but lemem- 
ber God's favour towards you, and the Bock 
and the Wisdom which He hath sent' down 
to you for your warning, and fear God, and 
know that God's knowledge embracetb every- 

"And when ye divorce your wives, snd 
they have waited the prescribed timo. hinder 
tbom not from marrying the huabaudo when 
they have agreed among themselves iu an 
honourable way. Thia warning ia' for him 
among you who belioveth in Goo} and in the 
last day. Thia ia moat nure for you, and most 
decent. God knoweth, but yo know not. 

44 Mothers, when divorced, shall give suck 
to their children two full years, if the father 
desire that the euokiing he oompletedi and 
sueh maintenance am} clothing aa ia fair for 
them, shall devolve on the father. No per- 
son shall be charged beyond hie means. A 
mother shall not be pressed unfairly for her 
child, nor a father for his child: And tu+ 
sstno with the father's heir. But if they 
choose to wean the ohild by consent and by 
bargain, it shall be no fault in them. And if 

ve ohooao to have a nurse for your children, 
it shall be no fault in you, in eaae ye pay 
what ye promised her according to that whioh 

is fair. Fear God, and know that God seeth 
what ye do. 

" It shall bo no crime in you if ye divorce 
your wives so long as ye have not consum- 
mated the marriage, nor settled any dowry on 
them. Aud provide what- is needful for them 
— he who is in ample circumstances s coord* 
teg to his meana, and he who ia straitened, 
according to his meana— with fairness i This 
is binding on those who do what is right. 

" But if ye divorce them before consum- 
mation, and have already settled a dowry* on 
thorn, ye ehaUgive them hah 4 of what yo have 
settled, unless thoy make a release, or he 
make a release in whose hand ie the marriage 
tie. But if ye make. a releaae, it will be 
nearer to piety." 

Surah Ixv. 1:— 

M Prophet! when ye divorce) women, 

Digitized by 





divorce them at their special time*. And 
reckon those timet exactly, and fear God your 
Lord. Put thein not forth from their houses, 
nor allow them to depart, unlet* they have 
eemmitted a proven adultery. This if the 
precept of- God ; and whoso transgroaseth 
tho precept of God, assuredly Imperijleth his 
own self, Thou knowaat not whether, after 
this, dod may not cause something now to 
occur which may bring you together again. 

"And when they hato reached their set 
time, then either keep them -with kindness, er 
in kindness part from them. And tako up- 
right witnesses from among you, and bear 
witness as unto God. This is' a caution for 
him who believeth In God and in tho latter 
day. And whoso feareth God, to him will He 
grant a prosperous issue, and will provide for 
him whonoe no reckoned not upon it. 

"Ami for him who puttelh. hit trust in 
Him will God be all-sufficient. God trulv will 
attain his purpose. For everything hath God 
assigned a period. 

M As to each of you* wires as hays no hope 
of the recurrence of their times, If ye have 
doubts in regard to them, thon reckon three 
months, and let the same be the term of 
those who have not yet had them. And as 
to those who are with child, their period shall 
be until thoy ate delivered of their burden. 
God will make His command easy to Him who 
feareth Him. 

u Lodge the divorced wherever ye lodge, ac- 
cording to your means ; and distress them 
not by ptstting them to straits. And if the* 
are pregnant, then bo at charges, for them till 
they er© deliver**! of their burden; tnd If 
they Mtckle your children, then pay them 
their hire end consult among yourselves, and 
act generously : And if herein ye meet with 
obstacles, then let another female suejclt.for 

II. The tmrkinq of Muhammad on the 
general tnbjwt of Divorce ii expressed in the 
Tradition* a* follow* : — 

<« The thing which is lawful hut disliked by 
God is divorce." 

''The woman who asks her husband to 
divorce her wKhdut a cause, the smell of 
Paradise Is forbidden ber. H 

•'There are three things which, whethor 
done in joke or in earnest, shnll he consi- 
dered serious and effectual; namely, marriage, 
dlvoroo, and taking a wife back." 

"Every divorce in lawful except a mad- 

*' Cursed be tho second liuNlmnd wbo mskos 
the wife (divorced) lawful for her llvst hus- 
band, and cursed bo the Bret husband for 
whom the is made lawful." — (Mithkal, xiii. 
e. *v.) 

HX Sunnl, Mubammadan Doctor* art not 
agreed em to the Moral Statu* of .Divorce. 

The Imam ash-Shtfil,' referring, to the 
three kinds of divorce (which will be after- 
wards explained), says » " They art unexcep- 
tionable end legal because divorce la in. itself 
a lawful act, whence it is that oertaln laws 

have been instituted respecting it ; and this 
legality prevents any. idea ,of danger being 
annexed to it. But, on the other hand, the 
ImAm Abn Hanifah and his disciples say 
that divoroo is in itself a daogerous and dis- 
approved procedure, as it dissolves marriago, 
an institution which involves many circum- 
stances both of a spiritual at well as of a 
temporal nature* Nor is its propriety at all 
admitted, but on the ground of urgency of 
release from an unsuitable wife. And in reply 
to ash-Shift'i, they say that the*, legality of 
divorce does not prevont its being considered 
dangerous, beoauseit involves matters of both 
a spiritual and temporal character. 

The author of tho Sharfiu 7- Wiqayah, p. 108, 
aaytt — "Divorce is an abominable transac- 
tion in the sight of God, therefore such an 
act should only take place from necessity, 
and it it best to only make the one sentenco 
of divorce (i.e.. iMtdqn'l-abmanX 

IV. The Sunnl Law of Divorce j— -Divorce 
may be given either in the present time or 
may be referred .to some future period. It 
may be pronounced by the husband either 
before or after the consummation of the mar- 
riage. It may be either given in writing or 

The words by which divoroe can be given 
are of two kinds : -SoriA, or "express," as 
when tho husband says, " Thou art divorced " ; 
and Idnayah, or " metaphorical," as when he 
says, 4t Thou art free : then art out off ; veil 
yourself I Arise ! seek for a mate," Ac. em. ' 

Divoroe is divided Into taldqu VatrnnoA, or 
that whioh Is according to the Qur'an and the 
Traditions, and taldqu 'l-badi\ or a novel or 
heterodox divorce, which, although it Is con- 
sidered lawful, is not considered religious. 

Tolaqu f $~*wmah is either the ahian, or " the 
most laudable," or ha*an. the •♦ laudablo n me- 
thod. TalSay *L-ab*an % or the •* most laudable * 
method ef divorce, is when the husband once 
expresslv pronounces to his enjoyed but un- 
pregnenl wife the sentence, "Thou art di- 
vorced ! * when she is in fuhr or a state of 
purity, during which he has had no carnal 
connection with her, and then leaves her to 
complete the proscribed *iddah 9 or *• period of 
three months." Until the expiration of the 
'iddnh, tho divorce is revocable, but after the 
period is complete, it is irreversible, and if 
the husband wishos to take his wife back, 
they must go through tho ceremony of mar- 
riage. But ii must be observed that after 
tho tflloqu 'f-afaan, tho woman is not, at in 
the other kituls of divorce, compelled to msrry 
another man, and be divorced before she can 
return to her former husband* All that is 
required Is a re-marriago. Tho author of tho 
Hidnyah say* this modo of divorce is called 
rtason, or "most laudable." bees rise it was 
usually Adopted by the Companions of the 
Prophet, and also hncatiss it leaves it in the 
power of tho h unhand to take his wife back, 
and ahe thus remains a lawful subject for re- 
marriage to him. Some Kuropean writers on 
Mohammedanism have overlooked this fact 
in condemning the Muslim system of divoroe. 

The taldqu '/-Jtasaft, or "laudable divorce," 

Digitized by 





If when lh« husband repudiates an enjoyed 
wife bj three sentences of divorce, either ex- 
press or metaphorical, giving one sentenoe in 
eaoh (uar, or M period of parity." Imam 
Malik condemns this kind of divorce, and 
says H is irregnlar. Bnt Abo Qanif ah holds 
it to be Jason, or "good." 

The talaqu 7-oojoV, or " irregnlar form of 
diYoree," is when the husband repudiates his 
wife by throe sentences, either express or 
motaphorioal, given them ono at a time: 
'♦Thou art divorced I Thou art dlroroed! 
Thou art divorced I " Or, "Thou art free! 
Thou art free I Thou art free I N Bven 
-holding up three fingers, or dropping three 
stones, is held to be a sufficiently Implied 
diroroe to take legal effect. The Muslim 
who thus divorces his wife is held, in the 
Hidauak, to be an offender against the law, 
but the diroroe, howerer irregular, takes 
legal effect. 

In both these kinds of diroroe, badi 1 and 
Anson, the dirorce is rerocable (raft) after the 
first and second sentences, but it is irrerocable 
(6d*tn) after the third sentence. After both 
lasan and badi* dirorces, tne dirorced wife 
cannot, under any circumstances, return to 
her husband until she has been married, and 
enjoyed, and dirorced by another husband. 
Mohammedan doctors say the law has insti- 
tuted this (somewhat disgraceful) arrange- 
ment in order to. prevent dirorces other than 
talaqu H-absan. 

A husband may diroroe his wife without 
any misbeheriour on her part, or without 
assigning any oause. The diroroe of Orery 
husband is effeotire if he be of a sound un- 
derstanding and of mature age ; but that of 
a boy, or a lunatic, or one talking in his sleep, 
is not effeotire. 

If a man pronounce a diroroo whilst in a 
state of inebriety from drinking fomented 
liquor, suoh as wine, the dirorce takos place. 
Repudiation by any husband who is sane and 
adult, is effeotire, whether he be free or a 
slare, willing, or acting under compulsion ; 
and eren though it were uttered in sport or 
iect, or by a mere slip of the tonrue, 
Instead of some other word. (Fatawa-i-'Alam- 
oirf, roL L p. 497.) 

A siok man may diroroe his wife, eren 
though, he be on his death-bed. 

An agent or agents may be appointed by a 
husband to diroroe his wife. 

In addition to the will and caprice of the 
husband, there are also certain conditions 
which require a diroroe. 

The following are causes for diroroe. but 
generally require to be ratified by a decree 
from the Qae I or " Judge ":-— 

(1.) Jubb. That' is, when the husband has 
been by any cause deprived of his organ of 
generation. This oondition is called tmjbuo. 
In this ease the wife can obtain instent diroroe 
if the dof ect occurred before marriage. Oases 
of erident madness and leprosy arc treatod in 
the same way. Dirorce can bo obtainod at 

(2.) 'Lfanak, or "impotence." (This in- 
cludes raff, "vulva impervia caunti"; and 

com, u vulva anterior* parts snasce n *. *) In 
eases of impotency in either husband or wife,' 
a year of probation oan be granted by the 

(8.) Inequality of race or tribe. A woman 
cannot be compelled to nierrr a man who be- 
longs to an inferior tribe, and, In ease of suoh 
a marriage, the elders of the superior tribe 
oan demand a diroroe ; but if the diroroe Is 
not demanded, the marriage oontraot remains. 

(4.) Ineufficient dower. If the stipulated 
dowry is not giren when demanded, diroroe 
takes place. 

(6.) JUJueal of Islam, If One of the par- 
ties embrace IsUm, the judge must offer R 
to the other three distinct times, and if he or 
she ref use to embrace the faith, diroroe takes 

(6.) Lorn, or "imprecation." That is, 
when a husband oharges bis wife. with adul- 
tery, the charge is investigated, but if there 
is no proof, and the man swears his wife is 
guilty, and the wife swears she is innocent, a 
dirorce must be decreed. 

S.) 113, or "row." When a husband 
es a row not to hare carnal intercourse 
with his wife for no loss than four months, 
and keeps the row inriolatc, an irreversible 
diroroe takes plaoe.. 

(8.) Reason of property. If a husband be- 
come the proprietor of his wife (a slare), or 
the wife the proprietor of her husband (a 
slare), diroroe takes place. 

(9.) An invalid marriaae of any klne% arising 
from incomplete nikif, or "marriage cere- 
mony," or from affinity, or from consanguinity. 

(10.) Difference of country For example, 
if a husband (lee from a dim *l-barb, or * land 
of enmity," •'.«." a non-Muslim oountry," to a 
darn H~ Islam, or "country of Islam," and his 
wife refuse to perform hjjrak (flight) and to 
acoompany him, she is dirorced. 

(11.) Apostasy from Islam. The author of 
the Haddu 'I -Unfair (roL ii. p. 648) eays : 
"When a man or woman apostatises from 
Islam, then en immediate dissolution (J**Uj 
of the marriage takes plaoe, whether the 
apostasy be of the man or of the woman, 
without a decree from the QnzV And again, 
(p. 646), " If both husband and wife aposta- 
tise at the same time, their marriage bond 
remains ; and if at any future time the parties 
again return to Islam, no re-marriage is 
necessary to constitute them man and wife; 
but if one of the parties should apostatise 
before the other, a dissolution of the marriage 
takes plaoe ipso facto." 

Mr.. J. B. 8. Boyle, of Lahore, says : " As 
relersnt to this subject, I giro a quotation 
from Mr. Ourrie's excellent work on the 
Indian Criminal Codes, p. 446. The question 
is as to the effect of apostasy from Islam upon 
tho marriage rotation, and whether soxual 
intercourse with the apostate renders a per- 
(ton liable to be eonricted for adultery under 
Section 407 of the Indian Penal Oode. A. and 
B., Mahomtnedans, married under the Ma- 
nommedan law, are oonvorted to Christianity. 
The wife, B. r is first converted, but continues 
to live with her husband ; subsequently the: 

Digitized by 





husband, A., is contorted. Subsequent to 
the conversion of B., A. and B., stilt living to- 
gether as husband and wife, both professing 
Christiaiifty, B. hat sexual Intercourse with 
0. Will a conviction hold against 0. under 
Section 497 ? Both Macnaffhten and BailJie 
say the marriage becomes dissolved by apos- 
tasy of either pert?, and Grady, in bis version 
of Hamilton's HitiyttA, p. 60, says i « If 
either husband or wife apostatise from the 
faith, a separation takes plaoo, without 
divorce ; according to Abu Haneef a and AbO 
Yoosnf. Imam Mahommed alleges if the 
apostasy is on the part of the husband. 

M Apostasy annuls marriage in Haneef a'e 
opinion, and in apostasy separation takes 
place without any decree of the magistrate. 
Cases whioh might decide this point have 
been lately tried both, at Lucknow. and Allah> 
abad : at the former place in re Afml Ho$*in r. 
Hade* Bymm, and at the latter Zmburduwt 
Khan v. Wif: But from certain remarks to 
be found in thejudgm'ent of the High Court, 
N. W. P., the Courts of Oudh and N. W. P., 
appear to differ on the most essential point 
The point before the Oudh Court was (Hadee 
Begum's plea) that her marriage contract was 
dissolved by reason of her own apostasy, a 
sufficient answer to a suit brought by her 
Mahommedan husband for restitution of eon- 

ingal rights ; i\c. Does the apostasy of a Ma- 
tommeaan wife dissolve a marriage contract 
against the express wish of a Mahommedan 
husband in dor-ool-harb (land of war)? for 
India, H is contended, is not, under its present 
administration, dar-ooJ-Idcm (land of safety). 
The Oudh Court held (admitting that epos* 
tasy by the husband dissolved the marriage 
and freed the wife) that apostasy by the wife 
did not free her if her husband sued for resti- 
tution of conjugal rights* They argued that 
apostasy by the wife, without the wish of the 
husband, could not be entertained; in fact, 
that as regards her husband's volition, the 
apostasy could not exist, and would not be 
recognised. That a suit for restitution of 
conjugal rights before the competent court of 
the time, seemed to them to be equivalent of 
the suit before the Oasee (Judge). The Oudh 
judges, in the absence of distinct preoedent, 
say they fell back on the customs of the 
people amongst whom they lived. The Oudh 
Court evidently considered there was an 
essential difference between apostasy of a 
man and apostasy of a woman, of the hus- 
band or the wife ; also between apostasy to* a 
fsith in a book and apostasy to the idol wor- 
ship Mahommed and his followers renounce. 
Boas such sn essential difference exist ? The 

£olnt before tho High Court N. W. P. was : 
an a Mahommedan professing Christianity 
subsequent to his marrisgo with a Mussul- 
man!, according to the Mahoinmodan law, 
obtain a decree for dissolution of that mar- 
riage under Act IV. of i860, bis wife having 
subsequently to him professed Christianity, 
and they under their new faith having lived 
together as man and wife t or whether the 
wife's contention is sound, that her marriage 
wss csncelled by ber husband's apostasy? 

They held the apostasy of the husband dis- 
solved the marriage tie. This the Oudh 
Court sdmits, but the point before the 
Oudh Court was not before the' High 
Court, N. W. P. ; nevertheless from comments 
made by the High Court, N. W. P., on the 
Oudh decision, they evidently did not agree 
with the finding come to by the latter Court, 
on. the point before it 

" Now, Mr. Carrie asks in the above extract, 
does such an essential difference exist be- 
tween apostasy to a book — that is, to afctaeee 
faith — and apostasy to idol worship ? Answer- 
ing this question necessitates a few remarks 
upon the judgments above mentioned. Ac- 
cording to Mahommedan law, a man may 
lawfully marry a kitabeeaA, but marriage 
With a Pagan or polytheist is unlawful. But 
the principle in Mahommedan lsw is, that 
when one of the parties turns to a state of 
religion that would render the marrisge con- 
tract Illegal if it were- still to be enterod into, 
what was legal before is made void. A Ma- 
hommedan noraan, becoming a kOfabetaA, 
does not render the marriage told, for there 
is nothing to render the marriage contract 
illegal if it were still to be^ entered into ; but 
if the Mahommedan woman becomes an idol- 
atress, the marriage is void, for the woman 
has turned to a state of religion that would 
render the marriage contract illegal if it were 
still to be entered into ; a Mahommedan Woman, 
becoming a Christian, consequently* would not 
be separated from her husband, because she 
belongs to the religion of the book, that is, 
a kitabce faith. If a kitah*kah becomes an 
idolatress, the marriage is dissolved, but if 
she change from one religion to another, and 
still, remain a kt'Otbeenh, the marriage is not 
vitiated. Ho far the Oudh Court is correct in 
its docision, that the Mahommedan wife's con- 
version to Christianity did not render the mar- 
riage null and void, but that a suit for resti- 
tution of oonjugal rights would lie; ami 
taking the case of C. having eoXUal inter- 
course with B. the wife of A. converted to 
Christianity, a conviction under Section 407, 
Indian Penal Code, would -hold good. But 
with all deference, I do not think that the 
Oudh Court is correct when it states that 
* apostasy by the wife without the wish of the 
husband could not be enlertsined} in fact, 
that as regards her husband's volition, tho 
apostasy could not exist, and would not be 

** So fsr ss regards a woman's apostatising 
to a kitabe* faith, this holds pood; but if a 
woman turns to Pagatilam, iptofdeto the mar- 
riage it void, and does not depend upon the 
volition of the hnsband (having regard to the 
principle we have adverted to above), so that 
the husband under such elrcumstanoos could 
not maintain a suit for conjugal rights, nor 
would a conviotion hold good against C, 
under Section 497, Indian Penal Code for 
sexual Intercourse with B., the wife of A., who 
has apostatised to Paganism. The decisions 
of the two Courts, however, seem oorrect, on 
the principles of Mahommedan law, as to the 
offeet of a husband apostatising from Islam. 


Digitized by 





By Mahommedan law, a ins triage by ft female 
Moslem with a man not of tho Mahoramedan 
faith is unlawful: applying tbo principle 
quoted before, the man having turned to a 
etate of religion that would render the con- 
tract illegal if it were still to be entered into, 
tho marriage is roid. The apostasy of tho 
husband dissolves the marriago tie; oonso- 
quontly there does exist an essential dif- 
ference between apostasy of a man and of a 
woman, of the spostasy of the husband or tho 
wife ; also betwoen apostasy to a faith in a 
book, thst is, a revealed religion having a 
book of faith, and apostasy to the idol wor- 
ship Mahommed and his followers renounce. 
The law allows a person the right to ceaso to 
be a Mahominedan in the fullest senso of the 
word, and to become a Christian, and to 
claim for himself and his descendants all the 
rights and obligations of a British subject." 
(J*°99 ▼• Greonwag, Ac. 2, Hyde's Report*, 
8. ' Manual of f situs relating to Muhamna- 
dans arut their Relations of Life,) 

V. In addition to tho forms of divorce 
already explained, there are three others of a 
peculiar nature, celled Quia', mub&ra'ah, and 

The form of divorce known as khu(a\ie wbon, 
a husband and wife disagreeing, or for any other 
cause, the wife, on payment of a compensation 
or ransom to her husband, is permittod by 
the law to obtain from him a release from tho 
marriage tie. The f^u/a* it gonerally effected 
by tho husband giving back the dower or part 
thereof. When the aversion is on the part of 
the husband, it is generally held that he 
should grant his wife's request without com- 
pensation ; but this is purely a matter of con- 
science, and not of law. 

Mubara\th is a divorce which is ©fleeted by 
a mutual release. 

£iAar, from guAr, "back." is a kind of 
divorce which is effected by a husband liken- 
ing his wife to sny part or member of the 
body of any of his kinswomon within the pro- 
hibited degree. As for oxample, if he were 
to say to his wife, '* Thou art to me like tho 
back of my mother." The motive of Iho 
husband in saying so must be oxamined, end 
if it appear that he meant divorce, his wife is 
not lawful to him until he have made expia- 
tion by freeing a slave, or by fasting two 
months, or by feeding sixty poor men. (See 
Qur an, Surah Iviii. 4.) 

(For the Sunni Law of Divorce, see the 
Hidagah and its Commentary, the Kxfayah ; 
Durru H-Mukktar and its Commentary, the 
Raddu P'Muthtar; the Fatawdi-' Alamgiri ; 
Hamilton's English Edition, Hidagah \ Tagore 
Law Lectures, 1673.) 

VI. TheShVah law of Divorce differs only 
ia s f sw particulars from that of the Bunnls. 
According to Shi'ah law, a man must be an 
adult ef understanding, of free ohoice and 
will, and of design and intention, when he 
divorcee his wife. A marked contra it to the 
licence and liberty allowed by the Sunni 
law. Nor can tho Bhiah divorce be effoctcd 
in any language of a metaphorical kind. It 
must be express and be pronounced in Arabic 

(if the husband understsud that language) 
and it must be spoken and not written. A 
divorce amongst the ShFahs does not take 
effect if. given implioatlvely or ambiguously, 
whether intended or not. It is also absolutely 
necessary that the sentence should be pro- 
nounced by the husband in the presence of 
two just persons as witnesses, who shall hear 
and testify to the wording of the divoroe. 

(For the Shi'ah law of divorce, see Shir*atu 
%/tltm\ Tahriru 'tcAhkuin\ Mafatih\ Mr 
Neil BaiUio's Divest of Mubammadun Law ; 
Imamiah Code ; Tagore Law Lectures, 1874.) 
VII Compared with the Mosaic Law. 
When compared with the Mosaic law, it will 
be seen that by tho latter, divorce was only 
sanctioned when there was '* some uncteanness " 
in the wife, and that whilst in Islam a husband 
can take back his divorced wife, in the law of 
God it was not permitted. See Dout. xxiv. 1-4. 
'* When a man bath taken a wife, and mar- 
ried her, and it eome to pass that she nnd no 
favour in his eyes, because he hath found 
some uncleanness in her ; then let him write 
her a bill of divorcement, and give it in her 
hand, and send her out of his house. 

" And when she is departed out of his house, 
she may go and he another man's wife. 

•'And %f the latter husband hate her, and 
write nor a bill of divorcement, and giveth it 
in her hand, and sondeth her out of his 
house; or if the latter husband die, which 
took her to be his wife ; 

" Her former husband, which sent her 
away, may not take her again to be his wife, 
after that she is defiled; for that is abomina- 
tion before the Lord: and thou shalt not 
cause the land to .sin, which the Lord thy 
God giveth thee for an inheritance." 

The ground of divorce in the Mosaic law 
was " some uncleanness in her." There were 
two interpretations of this by the Jewish 
doctors of the period of the New Testament. 
The School of Shaminai seemed to limit it to 
a moral delinquency in the woman, whilst 
that of Hillbl extended it to trifling causes. 
Our Lord appears to have regarded all the 
lesser causes than fornication as standing on 
1 oo weak a ground. 

Matt. v. 82: "But I say unto you, that 
whosoever shall put away his wife, saving for 
the cause of fornication, causeth her to com- 
mit adultery : and whosoever shall marry her 
that is divorced committeth adultery." 

It will be seen that Muhammad adopted 
the teaching of the School of Hillol, omitting 
the bill of divorcement, which was enjoined in 
Deut. xxiv. 8, thereby placing the woman 
entirely at the will end caprice of her husband. 
Burkhardt tells us of an Arab, forty-five 
years old, who had had fifty wives, so 
that he must have divorced two wives and 
married two fresh ones on the average every 
year. Wo have cases of Muhainmad'a own 
'* Companions " not much better. This is the 
natural and legitimate offoot of the law. 

Sir William Muir {Life of Mahomet, vol iii. 
p. 806) says : " The idea of conjugal unity is 
Utterly un Known to Mahometans, except- 
ing when the Christian exsmple is by chance 

Digitized by 



followed ; and even there, the continuance of 
the bond is purely dependent on the -will of 
the husband. ... I believe the morale of 
Hindu society, where polygamy is less encou- 
raged, to be sounder, in a vory marked 
degree, than that of Mahometan society." 

DlWAN (wV )- (1) I" Mufcwn- 
madan law, the word signifies an account or 
record book, and also the bags in which tho 
QJlxVs records are kepi. (2) It is also a 
court of justioe, a royal court. (8) Also a 
minister of state ; the chief officer in a Mu- 
b*mmadan state ; a finance minister. (4) In 
British courts a law -suit is called diwant, when 
it refers to a civil suit, in contrsdistinction to 
faujdari, or "criminal suit." (6) A collec- 
tion of odes is called a diw<in % e.g. Diwan-i- 
jft/?*, " the Poems of flans." 

D1YAH (***>). A pecuniary com- 
pensation for any offence upon the person, 
[rims.] i 

DOGS (Arabic kalb, pi. kildb; Heb. 

Q*J3) * r « unclean animals ; for according to 

a tradition by AbQ Hurairah, Muhammnd said 
that when a dog drinks in a vessel, it must 
be washed seven times, and that the first clean- 
sing should be with earth. (Muhkat, book 
hi. c. ii. pt. 1.) 

" Most people believe that when a dog howls 
near a house it forebodes death, for, it is 
ssid, a dog can distinguish the awful form of 
Axre'il, the Angel of Death.** (Burton's 
Artibi« % voL i. p. 290.) 

Ibn 'Umr says that dogs used to come into 
the Masjid at Makkah in the time of tho 
Prophot, but the Companions never purified 
the mosque when the dog was dry. 

The Imam Aba YQsuf holds that the sale 
of a dog that bites is unlawful, whilst the Imam 
ash-Shafl«f has said that the sale of a dog 
is absolutely illegal, because the Prophet said 
the wages of whoredom and the price of a dog 
are forbidden. Abu rjanifah holds that dogs 
which are trained to hunt or watch may be 
lawfully sold. (Hamilton's Hidayak, vol ii. 

It is lawful tb hunt with a trained dog, 
and tho sign of a dog being trained Is that he 
catches game three times without killing it. 
The dog must be let slip with the ejaculation: 
BitmiUaXi 'Uahi Akbar 1 " In the name of Odd , 
the great God 1 " when all game seized by him 
beeomee lawful food. This custom is founded 
upon a. verse in the Qur'an, SQrah v. Gi 
" Lawful for von are all good thrage and what 
ve have taught beasts of prej te catch, train- 
ing them like dogs ; ye teach them as Ood 
taught* you. And mention the name 6f God 
over it. 

Rules for hunting with dogs will be found 
in Hamilton's HidayaA, vol iv. p. 170. 

DOG STAR. Sinus, or the dog 
star, was an object of worship amongst the 
ancient Arabs, and is mentioned in the (Win, 
under the name of a*k-Shi l ra f Sarah MH. 50 : 
" He (God) is the Lord of the Dog Star.'' 



DOWER. Arabic, (?+"), 

Heb. (info)* Dower is considered by 

some lawyers to be an effeot of the marriage 
contract, imposed on tho husband by the law 
as a mark of respect for the subject of the 
contract — the wife; while othors consider 
that it is in oxchange for the .usufruct of the 
wife, and its payment is necossarv, as upon 
the provision of a support to the wife depends 
the permanency of the matrimonial connec- 
tion. Thus, it is indispensable a fortiori, so 
much so, that if it were not mentioned in the 
marriage contract, it would be still incumbent 
on the husband, as the law will presume it by 
virtue of the contract itself, and award it 
upon demand being made by the wifo. In 
such case, the amount of dower will be te the 
extent of the dowers of the women of her 
rank and of the ladies of her father's family. 
Special beauty or accomplishments may, how. 
ever, be plead od for' recovering a larger 
award than the customary dower, where the 
amount of dower is not mentioned in the con- 
tfaet. There is no limit to the Amount of 
dower; it may be to a very largo amount, 
considering the position anil circumstance of 
the bridegroom, but its minimum is nover less 
than ten dirhams ; so where it is fixed at a 
lesser amount, the law will augment it up to 
ten dirhams. Tho dower need not invariably 
bo in currency, or even in metal ; everything, 
except carrion, blood, wine, and hog. Also 
tho bridegroom's own labour, if he is a free 
man, being held by the law to be a good dower. 
Dower is generally divided into two parte, 
termed mu'ema/, " prompt," and mu rami/, 
M dof erred." The mrfajjal portion is exigible 
on entering into the contract, while the mh'«/- 
jal part of the dower is payable upon dissolu- 
tion of the contract. Although the first part 
is payable, snd is sometimes paid, at the 
time the contract is entered into, yet it has 
been the general practice (at least in India^ 
te leave it unpaid, and so like sn on-demand 
obligation it remains due at all times — the 
wife's right to the same not being extinguished 
by lapse of time. The wifo's (or her guaN 
dtan's) object in leaving the exigible part of 
the dower unrealised, seems to be that there 
may Always exist a valid guarantee for tho 
good treatment of hor by her husband. The 
women of the respectable classes reservetheir 
right and power to demand their exigible 
dowers till such time as occasion should re- 

3uire the exorcise thereof. The custom -of 
xing heavy dowers, generally beyond the 
husband's means, especially in India, fceems 
to be baaed upon the intention of cheeking 
the husband from lll-treatlng his wife, and, 
above all, from his marrying another woman* 
at also from wrongfully or causelessly di- 
vorcing the former. For in the case of divorce 
the woman can demand the full payment of 
the dower. In tho event of the death of the 
husband, the payment of the dower has the 
first claim on the estate after funetal .ex- 
penees ; the* law regarding It as a just debt. 
(Taport Law Lectures, 1873 , p. 341; ZTtWayoA, 
vol'i. p. 122.) 

Digitized by 



DREAMS. Arabio hult* 0~L-*) ; 
man&m (fV*.) ; ruya* Ok»). The term 
used tor a bad dream is hulm, and for an ordi- 
nary dream manom t rmyd? being used to express 
a heavenly vision, [aura.] 

Acoording io tbe traditions, tbe Prophet is 
related to have said , " A good dream is of Ood's 
favour and a bad dream is of the devil ; there- 
fore, when any of you dreams a dream which 
U §ucn as he is pleased with, then he must net 
tell ii to any but a beloved friend ; and when 
be dreams a bad dream, then lot him sees 
protection from God both from its evil and 
from the wickedness of Satan ; and let him 
spit throe times ever his left shoulder, and 
not mention the dream to anyone; then, 
verily, no evil shall come nigh him.** " The 
truest dreem is the one whioh you have about 
day- break." " Good dreams are one of the 
parts of prophecy." (Mishkat t xxi. o. it.) 

DRESS. Arabic lib&$ (g-WJ), 
Decent apparel at the time of public worship 
is enjoined in the Quran, Sfirah vii. 89 : u 
children of Adam ! wear your goodly apparel 
when ye repair to any mosque." Excess in 
apparel and extravagance in dress are re- 
proved, Sfirah vii. 2ft: '•We (God) have sent 
down raiment to hide your nakedness, and 
spiel id id garments j but the raiment of pi*ty, 
this is the best." 

Acoordintf to the' Hidayah (vol. iv. p. 92), a 
dress of silk is not lawful for men, but 
women are permitted to wear it, Men are 
prohibited from wearing gold ornaments, and 
also ernamente of silver, otherwise than a 
silver signet ring. The custom of keeping 
handkerohiofs in the hand, except for neces- 
sary use,' is slso forbidden. 

The following are some of the sayings of 
the Prophet with rogard to dress, as recorded 
in the Tradition* Mishkat, xx. c.i.: »• God 
wili not '106k at him on the Day of Resurrec- 
tion wlu> shall wear long garments from 
pride.* " Whoever wears a silken garment 
in this world shall not woar it in the neat. 1 * 
" God will not have compassion upon him 
who wears long trousers (i.e. below the 
ankle) from pride." " It is lawful for the 
women of my people to wear silks and gold 
ornaments, but it* is unlawful lor the men.** 
" Wear white clothes, because they are the 
cloanest, find the' most agreeable; and bury 
yenr dead in white clothes. 1 * 

According to the Traditions, the dress of 
Muhammad was exceedingly" simple. It ft 
said he used to wear only two garments, the 
tror, or "under garment * which hung down 
thrde or four inches below his knees, and a 
mantle thrown oter his shoulders. These 
two robes, with the turban, and white cotton 
drawer*, completed tho Prophet's 'wardrobe. 
Hie dress was generally of white, but he also 
wore j(retm, red, and yellow, and sometimes a 
black woollen dress. It is said by some tra- 
ditionists thai in the taking of Makkah he 
wore a black turban. The end of his turban 
used to hang between his shoulders. And he 
used to. wrap it many times round hie head. 


It is said, "tbe edge of it appeared below 
like tbe soiled clothes of an oil dealer." 

He was especially fond of white-striped 
yamani cloth. He once prayed in a silken 
dross, but he oast it aside afterwards, saying, 
"it doth not become the faithful to woar 
silk." Hs once prayed In a spotted inautle, 
but the spots diverted his attention, and the 
garment was never again worn. 

His sleeves, unlike those of the Eastern 
ckogu or f^aftan, ended at the wrist, and he 
never wore long roboe reaching to his aiiklee. 

At first, he wore a gold ring with tbe stone 
inwards on his right hand, but it distracted 
his attention when preaching, and he changed 
it for a silver one. His shoos, whioh were 
often old and cobbled, were -of the ^asramaut 
pattern, with two thongs. And he was in the 
habit of praying with his shoes on. [shoe*.] 

The example of Muhammad has doubtless 
influenod Ihe customs of hfs followers in the 
msttor of dress, the fashion of which' has re- 
mained almost the same in eastern Muharo-. 
madap-conntrios centuries past ; for although 
there are vsrieties of dress in Eastornus well 
aa in Kuropean countries, still there aro one 
or two characteristics of dress whioh are 
common to all orieutal nations whioh have 
embraced Islam, namely, the turban foldod 
round the head, tho white cotton drawers, or 
full trousers, tied round the waist by a run- 
ning string ; the aatni$ 9 or " shirt.'' the tiflf- 
tun, or " coat/ and tho /kiwi, or " scarf." Tho 
yanits is the same as the Icetoneth of the He- 
brows, and the xcrw of the Greeks, a kind of 
long shirt with short sleeves, the ends of 
whioh eatond over the trousore or drawers, 
reaching below tho knees. The. kh.aj\in 

answers to the liobrow V^PQ ■»«# ( l Saxn * 

aviii 4), a tunic worn as an outer garment. 

Tbe Jewish "j;fl begtd y or JTTOto «*»»&*• 

must havo boon similar, to the quadrangular 
piece of cloth still worn as a scarf in Coulral 
Asia, and called a lungi, and similar to the 
'nee* of tho Egypt fans. It is worn in various 
ways, either wrapped round the body, or worn 
over the shoulders, aud sometimes folded as 
a covering for the bead. 

The dress of Muhsmmadans in Egynt is 
very minutely described by Mr. Lane in his 
Modern Egyptians, vol. i. p. 36. 

The dress of the men of the middle and 
higher classes of Kgypt consists of tho fol- 
lowing articles. First a pair n( f nil drawers 
of linon or cotton tied round tho body by a 
running string or band,, the ends of which are 
embroidered with, coloured silks, though con- 
cealed by the outer dress, Tho drawers 
doftcend a little bolow tho knees or to tho 
anklos ; but many of the Arabs will not wear 
long drawers, because prohibited by the Pjo- 
phot. Next is worn a ootid* or u shirt," with 
very full sleeves, reaching to the wrist j it is 
made of tiuen of a loose open texture* ok of 
cotton stuff, or of muslin, or eilk, or of a 
mixture of silk and. cotton in strips, but 
all white. Over this, in winter, or in oool 
woather, most persons wear a fuaeyrse, which 

Digitized by 





U a abort vest of cloth, or of striped coloured 
at Ik, or cotton, without sleeves. Over the 
shirt and the sudeyrce, or tho former alone, it 
"worn a .long vest of ntriped tilk or cotton 
(called kaftan) descending to the anklee, with 
long sleeves extending a few inches beyond 
the finger*' ends, but divided from a point a 
Utile abore the wrist, or abou* the middle of 
the fore-arm, so that the hand is generally ex- 
posed, though it may bo concealed by tho 
sleeve when necessary, for it Is customary to 
covor the hands in the presence of a person of 
high rank. Round this Test is wound the 
girdle, which is s coloured shawl, or a long 
piece of white-figured munlin. 

The ordinary outer robe in a long eloth 
coat,- of any colour, called by the Turks 
jvbbtUk, but by the Egyptians gibheh, the 
stars* of which reach not quite to the wrist. 
Some persons also wear a oeneesA, which is a 
robe of oloth with long sleeves, like those of 
the kqftdn\ but more ample ; it is properly a 
robe of ceremony, and should be worn over 
the other cloth cent, but many persons wnar 
it instead of the <fibb*h. 

Another robe, called farageeytk^ nearly re- 
semble* the benttth ; it has very long sleeves, 
lint these are not slit, and it in ohioHy worn 
by men of tho learned professions. In oold or 
oool weather, a kind of blaok woollen cloak, 
called aooyea, is oommonly worn. Somotimes 
this is drawn orer the head. 

In winter, also, many persons wrap a muslin 
or other shawl (such as they use for a tur- 
ban) about the head and shoulders. The 
head-dress consists, first, ol a small close- 
fitting cotton cap, which is often changod; 
neat a tarboosh, which is a red cloth cap, also 
fitting close to the head with a tasaol of dark- 
bloo silk at the crown ; lastly, a long pioce 
of white muslin, generally figured, or a kash- 
mere shawl, which is wound round the tar- 
Tbus is formed the turban. Tho 

oold weather wear woollen or cotton seeks. 
The shoes aro of thick red morocco, pointed, 
and turning up at the toes. Some persons 
also wear inner shoes of soft yellow morocco, 
end with soles of the same ; the outer shoes 
are taken off on stepping npon a carpet or 
mat, but not the Inner ; for this reason the 
former aro often worn turned dov.n at tho 

The cesturoo of the mon of the lowor 
orders Is very simple. Those, if not of the 
very poorest class, wear a pair of drawers, 
and a long and full shirt or gown of blue 
linen or cotton, or of brown woollen stuff, 
open from the neck noarly to the waist, and 
having wide alcove*. Over this some wear a 
white or red woollen girdle ; for which ser- 
vants often substitute a broad red belt of 
woollen stuff or of leather, generally contain- 
ing a receptacle for money. Their turban is 
generally composed of n white* red, or yellow 


kashmere shawl is seldom worn except in cool 
weather. Some persons wear two or three 
tarbooshes one over another, k thereof (or 
descendant of the Prophet) wesrs a green 
turban, -or is privileged to do so, but no other 
end it ie mot ootnmou far any but a 

shcreel to wear a bright green dress. Stock- 
ings are not in use, but some fow persons. in 

an Barman peasant (lame). 

woollen shawl, or of a piece of coarse cotton 
or muslin wound round a tnrboosh, under 
which is s while or brown fell rep; but many 
are ho poor, ss to hsvo no other cap thsn the 
loiter, no turban, nor oven Hrewert, nor shoes, 
but only tho blue or brown shirt, or merely k 
few rags, while many, on the other hand, wear 
a jtioVyree under the blue shirt, and some, par- 
ticularly servants in tho houses of great men. 
wear a white shirt, a sudeyroe, and a kaftan, 
or gibboh, or both, and tho blue ohirt ov«r 
■ 11. The full sleeves of thin shirt are some- 
times drawn up by means of a cord,, which 

Digitized by 





passes round each shouldor Mud crosses be- 
hind, where it it tied in a knot. This cm torn 
is adopted by sorvants (particularly grooms), 
who have cords of crimson or dark blue silk 
for this purpose 

In eold weather, many persons of the lower 
classes wear an a bay oh, like that before de- 
scribed, but coarser and sometimes (instead 
of being black) having broad stripes, brown 
and white, or blue and white, but the lattor 
rarely. , Another kind of eloak, more full than 
the absjeh, of black qr doep blue woollon 
stuff, is also very commonly worn, it is called 
diffeeyeh. The shoes are of red or yellow 
morocco, or of sheep-skin. Those of the 
groom are of dark red morocco. Those of the 
door-keeper and the water-carrier of a private 
house, generally yellow. 

The Muslims are distinguished by the 
colours of their turbans from the Copts und 
the Jews, who (us well as other subjects of 
the Turkish Sultan who arc not Muslims) 
wear black, blue, gray, or light-brown tur- 
bans, and generally dull-coloured dresses. 

The distinction of soots, families, dynasties, 
&c, among the Muslim Arabs by the colour 
of the turban and other articles of dress, is of 
very early origin. There are not many dif- 
ferent forms of turbans now worn in Egypt ; 
that worn by most of the servants is pecu- 
liarly formal, consisting of several spiral 
twists one above another like the (breads of 
a screw. The kind common among tho 
middle and higher classes of the tradosmen 
and other citiaons of the metropolis and large 
towns is also very formal, but less so than 
that just before alluded to. 

The Turkish turban worn in Egypt is of a 
more elogant fashion. The Syrian is diutin- 
tinguished by its width. The Ulaina and meu 
of religion and letters in general used to wear, 
as somo do still, one particularly wide and 
formal called a mukleh. The turban is much 
respeclod. in tho houses of the more wealthy 
classes, thore is usually a chair on which it 
is placed at night. Thia in often sent with 
the furniture of a bride ; as it is common for 
a lady to have one upon which to place her 
head-dress. It is nover used for any other 

The dress of the women of tho middle and 
higher orders is handsome and elegant 
Their shirt is very full, like that of tlio men, 
but shorter, not reaching to the knees; it is 
also, generally, of tho sauio kind of material 
as tho men's shirt, or of coloured crape, 
sometimes black. A pair of very wide trou- 
sers (called thintitfdn) of a coloured striped 
stuff, of silk and cotton, or of printed or 
plain white muslin, is tied round the hips 
under the shirt, with a dikkeh ; its lowor ex- 
tremities are drawn up and tied just below 
the knee with running strings, but it is suf- 
ficiently long to hang down to the feet, or 
almost to the ground, when attached in bis 
manner. Over the shirt and shintiyan is om 
a long vest (called yeAUr), of tho same mate- 
rial a* the latter; it nearly resembles the 
kaftan of the men, but is more tight to the 
body and arms ; the sleeves also are longer, 

and It is made to button down the front from 
the bosom to a little below the girdle, instead 
of lapping over ; it is open, likewise on oach 
side, from the height of the hip downwards. 

In general, the Yelek is cut in such a man- 
ner as to leave half of the bosom uncovered, 
except by the shirt, but many ladies have it 
made more ample at that part, and according 
to tho most approved fashion it should be of 
suftioiont length to reach to the ground, or 
should exceed that length by two or throe 
inches or more. A short vest (called anleret) 
reaching only a little below tho waist, and 
exactly resembling a yclek of which the 
lowor part has boon cut off, is sometimes 
worn instead of the latter. A square shawl, 
or an embroidered kerchief, doubled diago- 
nally, is put loosely round the waist as a 
girdle, the two corners that are folded to- 
gether hanging down l»ehind ; or sometimes 
tho lady's girdle is folded after the ordinary 
Turkish fashion, like that of tho men, but 
more loosely. 

Over the yelek is worn a gibbeh of cloth or 
velvet or silk, usually embroidered with gold 
or with coloured silk ; it differs in form from 
the gibbeh of the men, chiefly in Doing not §o 
wide, particularly in the fore part, and is of 
the same length as the yelek. Instead of this, 
a jacket (called udtah), generally of cloth or 
velvet, and embroidered in tho same manner 
as tho gibboh, is often worn. 

The hoad-dress cousists of a takoeyeh and 
tarboosh, with a square kerchief (oallod 
faroodttyth) of printed or painted muslin or 
one of crape, wouud tightly round, composing 
what is called a rabtah. Two or more such 
kerchiefs were commonly used a short time 
since, and still are sometimes to form the ladies' 


turban, but always wound In a high flat 
shape, very different from that of the turban 
of tho men. A kind of crown, called kms, 
and other ornaments, arc attachod to. the ladies' 
head-dress. A long piroe of white muslin, 
embroidered at each and with coloured silks 

Digitized by 





and gold, or of coloured crap* ornamented 
with gold thread, Ac, and spangles, rests 
upon the head, and hangs down behind, 
nearly or quite to thn gronnd ; this is called 
tarhnh, it is tho head -Toil ; the fsco-veil 1 
•hall presently describe. The hair, except 
otcr the forehead and temples, is divided into 
numerona braids or plaits, generally from 
eleven to twenty-fir* in number, but always 
of an uneven number ; these hang down the 
back. To each braid of hair are usually 
added three black silk cords with little orna- 
ments' of gold, &f., attachod to them. Over 
the forehead the hair is cut rather short, but 
two full lock* hang down on each side of the 
face ; those are often curled in ringlets and 
sometimes plaited. 

Few of tne ladies of Egypt wear atockings 
or socks, but many of them wear moss {or 
inner shoes) of yellow or red morocco, some- 
times embroidered with gold. Over these, 
whenever they stop off the matted or carpeted 
pari of the floor, they put on baboog (or 
slippers) of yellow morocco, with. high-pointed 
toes, or use high wooden clogs or pattens, 
generally from four to nine inches in height, 
and usually ornamented with mother-of-pearl 
or silver, ie. 

The riding or walking attire is called fes- 
jeereh. Whenever a lady leavea the bouse, 
she wears, in addition to what has been above 


described, first,* a large, loose gown (called 
tob or gebieh\ the sleeves of which are nearly 
equal in width to the wholo length of the 

gown; it is of silk, generally of a pink or 
rone or violet colour. Next is put on the 
burka' or face-veil, which is a long strip of 
white mushn concealing the whole of the face 
except the eyes, and reaching nearly to the 
feet It is sue ponded at tho top by a narrow 
band, which passos up tho forehead, and 
which is sewed, as are also the two upper 
comers of the veil, to a band that is tied round 
the head. The lady then covers herself with 
a habarah, which, for a married lady, is com- 
posed of two breadths of glossy, black silk, 
each ell- wide, and threo yards long ; those 
are sewed together, at or near the selvages 
(according to tho height of the person) the 
seam running horizontally, with respect to the 
manner in which it is worn ; a piece of narrow 
black ribbon is sewod inside the upper part, 
about sii inches from the edge, to tie round 


the bead. But some of thsm imitate the 
Turkish ladies of Eftypt in holding the front 
part so as to conceal all but that portion of 
tho veil thst is sbove the hands The un- 
married ladles wear a habnrah of white silk, 
of a shawl. Some females of tho middle 
classes, who cannot afford to purchase a ha- 
barah, wear instead of it an eetar or tz/rr, 
which is a piece of white calico, of the same 
form and size ss the former, and is worn in 
the same msnner. On the feet are worn short 
boots or socks (called khuff), of yellow no- 
rOcco, and over tbeso the baboog. Tho dress 
of a large proportion of those women of the 
lower orders who are not of the poorest class, 
consists of a psir of trousers or drawers 

Digitized by 





(aimiUr inform to the shintiyan of the ladies, 
but generally of plain white cotton or linen), 
* blue linen or cotton shirt (not quite so full 
as that of the men), reaching to the feet, a 
burka' of a kind of ooarae black crape, and a 
dark blue tarhah of muslin or linen. Some 
-wear, over the long shirt, or instead of the 
latter, a linen tob, of the same forui as that 
of the ladles ; and within the long shirt, some 
wear a short white shirt ; and some, a sudey- 
ree also, or an anteroe. The uleoves of tho 
tob are often t nruud up over the head ; either 
to prevent their being iuooin in odious, or to 
supply the plaoe of a tarhah. In addition to 
these articles of dress, many women who are 
not of the very poor classes wear, as a cover- 
ing, a kind of plaid, similar in form to the 
habarah* composed of two pieces of cotton, 
woven in small chequers of blue and white, 
or cross stripes, with * mixture of red at each 
eud It is called milayck) in general it is 


worn in the same manner as the habarah, but 
sometimes like the tarhah. The upper part 
of the blaok' burka* is often ornamented with 
false pearls, small gold coins, and other little 
flat ornaments of the same metal foalled bark); 
sometimes with a coral bead, and a gold ooin 
beneath ; also with some coins of base ailver 
and more commonly with a pair of chain 
tassels of braas or si Ivor (called oyoon) 
attaened to the corpora. A square blaok silk 
kerohief (called ojocA), with a border of red 
and yellow, is bound round the head, doubled 
diagonally, and tied with a single knot behind ; 
or, instead of this, the tarboosh and faroodee- 

yen are worn, though by very few women ef 
the lower clauses, 

The best kind of shoes worn by the 
females of the lower orders are of red 
morocco, turned up, but generally round, at 
the toes. Tho burka' and shoes are most 
common in Cairo, and are also worn by many 
of tho women throughout lower Egypt ; but 
in Upper Egypt, the burka' is very seldom 
seen, and shoes are scarcely less uncommon 
To supply tho place of tho former, when neces- 
sary, a portion of the tarhah is drawn before 
the face, so as to conoeal nearly all the coun- 
tenance except one eye. 

Many of the women of the lower .orders, 
OTon in the metropolis, never conceal their 

Throughout the greater part of Egypt, the 
most common dress of the women merely eon- 
aists of the blue shirt or tob and tarhah. In 
the southern parts of Upper Egypt chiefly 
above Akhineem, most of the women envelop 
thoinselves in a large piece of dark-brown 
woollen stuff (called a*Wa/e*yeA), wrapping it 
round the body and atttfohing the upper parts 
together over each shouldor, and a piece of 
the same they use as a tarhah. This dull 
dress, though picturesque, is almost as dis- 
guising as the blue tinge which women in 
these parts of Egypt impart to their lips. 
Most of the women of tho lowor orders wear 
a variety of trumpery ornaments, such as 
oar-rings, uecklaces, bracelets, &c, and some- 
times a nose-ring. 

The women of Egypt deem It more incum- 
bent upon them to cover the upper and back 
part of the head than the face, and more 
requisite to conoeal the face than most other 
parts of the person, I have often seen 
women but half oovered with miserable rags, 
and several times females in the prime of 
womanhood, and others in more advanced 
age, with nothing on the body but a narrow 
strip of rag bound round the hips. 

Mr. Bnrekhart, in his Not** on the Bffbuina 
and Wahahy* (p. 47), thus describes the dress 
of the Badawis of the desert : — 

In summer the men wear a coarse cotton 
shirt, over whioh the wealthy put a kombar, 
or "long gown," as it is worn in Turkish 
towns, of silk or cotton stuff. Most of them, 
however, do not wear the kvmbar, but simply 
wear over their shirt a woollen mantle. 
There are different sorts of mantles, one very 
thin, light, and white woollen, manufactured 
at Baghdad, and oalled tsesotony. A coarser 
and heavier kind, striped white and brown 
(worn over the mesonmy), is called abba. 
The Baghdad abbas are most esteemed, those 
made at Hainan, with ahort wide sleeves, sre 
called bousk. (In the northern parts of 
Syria, every kind of woollen mantle, wh other 
white, black, or striped white and brown, or 
white and blue, are railed methlakh.) I have 
not seen sny black abbas among the Aeneces, 
but frequently amoug the sheikhs of AM el 
Shemal, sometimes raterwpven with gold, and 
worth as much as ten pounds sterling. The 
Aenesea do not wear drawers ; they walk and 
ride usually barefooted, oven the richest of 

Digitized by 





them, Although they generally esteem yellow 
hosts end red shoes. All the Bedouins wear 
on the head, instead of the red Turkish cap, 
a turban, or square kerchief, of cotton or 
cotton and silk mixed; the turban is called 
ktffi* ; this thft? fold about the head so that 
one corner falls backward, end two other 
corners hang over the foro part of the shoul- 
ders ; with these two corner* they cover their 
facts to protect them from the sun's rays, or 
hot wind, or rain, or to conoeal thoir featnrc* 
if they wish to be unknown. The htffit is 
Tallow or yellow mixed with green. Over the 
htffle the Aeneses tie, instead of a turban, a 
cord round the head ; this oord is of camel's 
hair, and called akal Some tie a handker- 
chief about the head, sod H is then called 
akut/e. A few rich sheikha wear shawls on 
their heads of Damaeou* or Baghdad manu- 
facture, striped red and whitoj they «some- 
trmos also use red caps or tokle (oelJod in 
Syria tarooasA), and nndor those thoy war a 
smaller cap of oameTe hnir called maaraJca 
(In fljvria arkje, where it is generally made of cotton stuff). 


The Aenezos are distinguished at first sight 
from all the Syrian Bedouins by the long 
trasses of their hsir. They never shave 
their black hair, but cherish it from infancy, 
till they can twist it in tresses, that hang 
over the cheek* down to the breast: these 

tressea.aro called keroun. Some few Aeneses 
wear girdles of leather, others tie a cord or 
a piece of rag o?er the shirt Men and women 
wear from infancy a leather girdle around the 
naked waist, it consists of four or Ave thongs 
twisted together into a cord as thiok as one's 
Anger. I heard that the women tie their 
thong* sopnrstod from each other, round the 
waist. Both mom and women adorn the 

5irdle* with pieces of ribands or amulets. The 
Lenexos called it hhalcou ; the Ahl el Rhemal 
call it herrim. In summor the boys, until the 
age of seven or eight years, go stark naked ; 
but I never saw any young girl in that state, 
although it was mentioned that in the interior 
of the desert tho girls, st that early age, were 
not more encumbered by clothing than thoir 
littlo brothers. In winter, the Bedouins wear 
over tho shirt a pelisse, made of several sheep* 
skins stitched togethor; many wear these 
skins even in summer, becsuse experience has 
taught them that the more warmly a person 
ia clothed, the less be suffers from the sun. 
The Arabs endure the inclemency of the 
rainy sesson in a wonderful manner. While 
everything around thorn suffers from the 
oold, they sleep barefooted in an open ent, 
where tho Are is not kept up beyond mid- 
night. Yet in the middle of summer an Arab 
sleeps wrspt in his mantle upon tho burning . 
land, and exposed to the rays of an Intensely 
hot sun. The ladies* dress is a wide cotton 
gr on of a dark colour, blue, brown, or black ; 
on their heads they wear a kerchief called 
nhitvbcr or mekroune, the young females having 
it of a rod colour, the old of black. AU the 
Rsnella ladios wear black silk kerchief a, two 
yards square, called whale kits ; these are made 
st Damascus. Silver rings are much worn 
by tbo Aenaze ladies, both in the ears and 
noses; tho ear-rings they call forfeit fpl <•- 
r "ty)t tho small nose-rings aAedrt , the larger 
(some of which are three inches and a half in 
din motor), khttain, All the womon puncture 
their lips and dye them blue ; this kind of 
tattooing thev call htrloum, and apply it like- 
wise in spotting their temples ana foreheads. 
The Ssrhhan women puncture their cheeks 
breasts, and arms, and the Ammour women 
their ankles. Sereral men also adorn then 
arms in the same manner. The Bedouin 
Is dies half cover their faces with a dark- 
coloured voil, called nekye, which is so tied 
as to eonoeal the chin and mouth. The 
Egyptian women's veil (berkoa) is" used by 
the Kebly Arabs. Round • their wrists the 
Aenczo ladies wear glass bracelets of various 
colours ; the rich alto have silver braoelets 
and some wear silver chain* about the neck 
Both in summer and winter the men and 
women go barefooted. 

Captain Burton, in his account of Zanzibar, 
(vol. i. p. 882), says :— 

The Arab's head-dress is a leummeh or ko- 
Jiyyah (red fes), a Surat calottt (q/tyy«A), or 
a white skull-cap, worn nndor a turban 
(kilemba) of Oman silk and cotton religiously 
mixed. Usually it is of fine blue nod white 
cotton oheok, embroidered and fringed with . 
broad red border, with the ends hanging in 


Digitized by 





unequal lengths over one shoulder. The 
coiffure is highly pioturesquo. The ruling 
family end grandees, however, hare modified 
its vulgar folds, wearing it peaked in front, 
and somewhat resembling a tiara. The essen- 
tial body-olothing, and the euceedaneum for 
trousers is an ixor {nguo yaku CAtni), or loin- 
cloth, tueked in at tne waist, six to seven feet 
long by. two to three broad. The colours are 
briokdust and white, or blue and white, with 
a silk border striped red, black, and yellow. 
The ?ery poor wear a dirty bit of cotton 
girdled by a hakai or kunddvi, a rope of 

Slsited thongs ; the rich prefer a fine embrol- 
ered stuff from Oman, supported at the waist 
by a silver ohain. None but the western 
Arabs admit the innovation of drawers (#s> n- 
wait). The jama or upper garment Is a collar- 
less ooai, of the best broad-cloth, leek-green 
or some tender colour being preferred. It is 
secured of sr the left breast by a silken loop, 
and the straight wide sleeves are gaily lined. 
The kitbic is a kind of waistcoat, covering 
only the bust; some wear it with sleeves, 
others without The di$hdathes fin Kisawa- 
hJU Khantu), a narrow-sleeved shirt buttoned 
at the throat, and extending to midahin, is 
made of calico (bafUh), American drill and 
other stuffs catted dorxymk, tarmbuam, and 
jamdami. Sailors are known by kkut$r*ngi. 
a coarse eotton, stained dingy red-yellow, 
with henns or pomegranate find, and rank 
with wars (bastard saffron) and shark's oil 

Respectable men guard the stomach with a 
Atslm, generally a Cashmere or Bombay 
shawl; others wear sashes of the dust- 
coloured raw silk, manufactured in Oman. 
The outer garment for ohilly weather is the 
long tight-sleeved Persian jubb*k t iokkak, or 
eq/fes, of European broad-cloth. Most men 
shave their heads, and the Shaleis trim or 
entirely remove the moustaches. 

The palms are reddened with henna, which 
is either brought from El Hejia, or gathered 
in the plantation*. The only ring is a plain 
oornelian seal and the sole other ornament is 
a talisman (sirs, in Kisawahili Hirisi). The 
eyes are blackened with kohl, or antimony of 
El Shim— here, not Syria, but the region 
about Mecoah — and the mouth crimsoned by 
betel, looks as if a tooth had just been knocked 

Dr. Eugene Schuyler, in his work on Turk- 
estan (voL i. p. 122), says :— 

The drees of the Central Asiatic is very 
simple. He wears loose baggy trousers, 
usually made of coarse white cotton stuff 
fastened tightly round the waist, with a cord 
and tassel ; this is a necessary article of drees, 
and is never or rarely token off, at all events 
not in the presence of snother. Frequently, 
when men are at work, this is the only gar- 
ment, and in that ease jt is gradually turned 
up under the cord, or rolled up on the legs, 
so that the person is almost naked. Over 
this is worn a long shirt, either white or of 
some ligbt-obloured print, reaching almost to 
the feet, and with a very narrow aperture for 
tho neck, which renders it somewhat dimoult 
to put the heed through. • Ths sleeves are 

long and loose. Beyond this there is nothing 
more but what is called the ohapcm, varying 
in number according to the weather, or the 
whim of the person* The ohapa* is a loose 
gown, cut very sloping in the neck, with 
strings to tie it together in front ; and inor- 
dinately large sleeves, made with an immense 
gore, and about twice as long as is necessary ; 
exceedingly inconvenient, but useful to con- 
ceal the hands, as Asiatic politeness dictates. 
In summer, these are usually made of Rus- 
sian prints, or of the native alatoha, a striped, 
ootton material, or of silk, sither striped or 
with moot gorgeous eastern patterns, in bright 
colours, especially red, yellow, and green. I 
hare sometimes seen men with as many as 
four or five of these gowns, even in summer ; 
they say that it keepe out the heat In 
winter, one gown will frequently be made of 
oloth, and lined with fine lamb-skin or fur. 
The usual girdle is a large handkerohief, or a 


small shawl; at times, a long scarf wound 
several times tightly round the waist The 
Jews in places under native rule are allowed 
no girdle, but a oh- of rope or cord, as a mark 
of ignominy. From ths girdle hang the acces- 
sory knives and several small bags and 
pouches, often prettily embroidered, for 
combs, money. Ac. On the head there is a 
sknll-eap : thess in Tashkent are alwaye em- 
broidered with silk; in Bukhara they are 
usually worked with silk, or wonted in cross 
stitoh in gay patterns. Ths turban, called 
tchtipctck, or "forty turns,'' is very long ; and 
if the wearer has any prstenoe to elegance, it 
should be of fine thin material, which k 
ohiefiy imported from England, ft requires 
considerable experience to wind ene properly 
round the head, so that the folds will he well 
made and the appearanoe fashionable. One 
extremity is left to fall over the left shoulder, 
but is usually, except at prayer time, tucked 
in over the top. Should this end be on the 
rifht shoulder, it is said to be in the Aighen 
style. The majority of turbans are white 
particulsrly so in Tsshksnt, though white is 

Digitized by 





eepccislry the colour of the mullahs and reli- 
gloat people, whose learning it fudged by the 
size of their turbans. In general, merchant* 
prefer blue, • tripod, or oheqnered material. 


At home tho men usually go barefooted, 
but on going oat wear either a sort of slippers 
with pointed toes and very email high heels, 
or long eoft boots, the eole and nppex being 
made of the tame material. In the street, 
one most in addition pmt on either a slipper or 
golosh, or wear riding&bootf made Of bright 
green horse bide, with turned up pointed 
toes and ?ery email high heels. 

The dress of the women, in shape and 
fashion, differs but little from that of the 
men, as they wear similar trousets and shirts, 
though, in addition, they have Ions gowns, 
usually of bright-coloured sift, whioh extend 
from tho neck to the ground. • They wear 
an innumerable quantity of necklaces, and 
little amulets, pendents in their hair, and 
ear-rings, and oooasionalhr area a nose-ring 
This Is by no means so ugly as is supposed : a 
pretty girl with a torquotsoring In one nostril 
is not at all unsightly. On the contrary, there 
is something piquant in it. Usually, when 
outside of the houses, all respectable women 
wear a heavy black rail, reaching to their 
waists, made of woven horse-hair, and over 
that is thrown a dark olue, or green khalat, 
the sleeves of wbish r tied together at the 
ends, dantle behind. The theory of this dull 
drees is. thst the women desire to esoap* ob- 
servation, and certainly for that purpose they 
have devised the most ugly and unseemly 

costume that could be imagined. They are, 
however, very inquisitive, and occasionally in 
bye-streets one is able to get a good glance 
at them before they pull down their veils. 

The dress of the citizens of Porsia has been 
often described, both by anciont and modern 
travellers. That of the men has changed 
verr materially within the last century. The 
turban, as a hoad-dress, is now worn by none 
but the Arabian inhabitants of that oountry. 
The Persians wear a long cap covered with 
lamb's wool, tho appearance of which is 
sometimes improved bv being encircled with 
a cashmere shawl. The inhabitants of the 
principal towns are fond of dressing riohly. 
Their upper garments are either made of 
chlnta, silk, er cloth, and are often trimmed 
with gold or silver lace ; they also wear bro- 
cade; and in winter their clothes are lined 
with furs, of whioh they import a great 
van sty It is not customary for any person, 
except the king, to wear jewel* : but nothing 
oan exceed the profusion which he displaya 
of theee ornsmonts; snd his subjects seem 
peculiarly proud of this part of royal magni- 
ficence. They aaxcrtthat when tho monarch 
is dressed in his most splendid robes, and is 
seated In the sun, that the eye cannot gase on 
the daasling brilliancy of his attire. 

DRINKABLES. Arabic aahribdh 
fa*,*!). There is a chapter in the 
Traditions devoted to this snoject. and on- 
titM£fttf't4«Art*«*. The example of Mu- 
hammsd in his habit of drinking, having in- 
fluenced the Eastern world in its habits, the 
following traditions are noticeable. Anas 
•ays "the Prophet bss forbidden di inking 
water standing, and that he usod to take 
breath thiee times m drinking; ami would ssy 
drinking iu this wsy cools the stomach, 
guenehee the thirst, and gives health and 
vigour to the body. 

jbn Abbas says the Prophet forbade 
drinking water from the mouth of a leather 


Imm SaJimah says "the Prophet said, 
Hs who drinks out of a silver oup drinks of 
heO fire " (MinAkAt, book ids. c &1.) 


are four drinking vessels whioh Mm ims ware 
forbidden by their Prophet to driitk out of 
(Mhhkatybk l.,o.t) (tan lam t a •• green vessel w ; 
duhbd\ a large gourd hollowed out ; naov, a 
cup made from the hollowed root of a tree; 
mutaffbi, a Teasel covered with pitch, or with 
a glatinous substance. Theee four kinds o^ 
veseels seem to havo been used for drinking 
wine, henoe the prohibition. 

When a dog drinks from a vessel used by 
man, it should be washed seven times. 
(Niihk&l, book Hi. c ix. pt. L) 

BROWNING. Arabic gkaraq 
(Or*). It is a strange anomaly in 
Muhammadan law, according to the teaohing 
of Aba Qanlfah,thet if a person oause the 
death of another by immersing him under 
water until he dio. the offence does net 

Digitized by 





Amount to murder, end retaliation (ors a#)is not 
incurred. The arguments of the learned divine 
are as follows : First, water is analogous to 
a small stick or rod, as is seldom or ever 
used in murder. Now, it is said in the Tradi- 
tions that .death produced by a rod is only 
manslaughter, and aa in that a fine is merely 
incurred, so here likewise. Seooadly, retails- 
• tion requires the obsorvanoo of a perfect 
equality ; hut hetweon drowning and wound- 
ing there is no equality, tho foruior heing 
short of the latter with regard to damaging 
the hody. [murdbb.] 

DRUNKENNESS. Shurb (s>,*) 
denotes the state of a person who has taken in- 
toxioating liquor, whilst tukr UL) implies a 
state of drunkenness. Wine of any kind being 
striotly forbidden by the Muslim law, no dis- 
tinction is made in the punishment of a wine- 
drinker and a drunkard. If a Muslim drink 
wine, and two witnesses testify to his having 
done so, or if his breath smell of wine, or if 
he shall himself confess to having taken wine, 
or if he be found in a state of intoxication, he 
shall he beaten with eighty stripes, or, in the 
ease of a slave, with forty stripes. (Hidayah, 
voL ii p. 67 ; Mishkat, bk. xv. o iv.) [khamb.] 

DRUZES. A heretical mystic aect 
of Mu^ammadana, which arose about the bo- 
ginning of the eloventh century in the moun- 
tains of Syria. Thoy are now chiefly found 
in the districts of Lebanon, and in the neigh- 
bourhood of Damasous. They were founded 
by al-Qakim, the fanatical gfealifah of the 
Fatimite race, who reigned at Cairo, assisted 
by two Persians named Hamsah and el-Darasi, 
from the latter of whom the sect derivea its 

De Saov, in his Export de la Religion du 
Druus, gives the following summary of their 

"To acknowledge only one God, without 
seeking to penetrate the nature of His being 
and of HJs attributes ; to confess that He oan 
neither be comprehended by the senses nor 
defined by words ; to believe that the Divinity 
has shown itself to men at different epochs, 
under a human form, without participating in 
any of the weaknesses and imperfections of 
humanity ; that it haa shown itself at last, at 
the commencement of the fifth age of the 
Hejira, under the figure of Hakim Amr 
Allah ; that that was the last of His mani- 
festations, after which there is none other to 
be expected ; that Hakim disappeared in the 
year 411 of the Hejira, to try the faith of His 
servants, to give room for the apostasy of 
hypocrites, and of those who had only em- 
hraoed the true religion from the hope of 
worldly rewards; that in a short time be 
would appear again, full of glory and of 
majesty, to triumph over all his enemies, to 
extend His empire over all the earth, and to 
make His faithful worshippers happy for 
ever ; to believe that Universal Intelligence is 
the first of Ood's creatures, the only direct 
production of His omnipotence; that it has 
appeared upon the earth at the epooh of each 

of the manifestations of the Divinity, and haa 
finally appeared since the time of Hakim 
under the figure of Hamsa, son of Ahmad ; 
that it is by His ministry that all the other 
creatures 'have been produoed ; that Hamsa 
only possesses the knowledge of all truth, 
that he is the prime minister of the true reli- 
gion, and that he communicatee, directly or 
indirootly, with the other ministers and with 
the faithful, but in different proportions, the 
knowledge and the grace wliioh he rooelves 
dirootly from the Divinity, and of whieh he is 
the sole channel ; that he only has immediate 
access to God, and acta as a mediator to the 
other worshippers of the Supreme Being; 
acknowledging that Hamsa is he to whom 
Hakim will oonflde his sword, to make hie 
religion triumph, to oonquer ail his rivals, 
and to distribute rewards and punishments 
according to the merits of each one; to know 
the other ministers of religion, and tho rank 
which belongs to each of them; to givo to 
oach the obedience and submission which is 
their due; to oonfess that overy soul hss 
been created by the Universal Intelligence; 
that the number of men is always the same ; 
and that souls pass suooeasively into different 
bodies ; that they are raised by their attach- 
ment to truth to a superior degree of excel- 
lence, or are degraded by neglecting or giving 
up religious meditation ; to praotise the sevon 
commandments whioh the religion of Hamsa 
imposes upon its followers, and whioh prin- 
cipally exacts from them the observance of 
truth, charity towards their brethren, the 
renunciation of their former religion, the moat 
entire resignation and submission to the will 
of God; to oonfess that all preceding reli- 
gions have only been types more or leas per- 
fect of true religion, that all their ceremonial 
observances are' only allegories, and that the 
manifestation of true religion requires the 
abrogation of every other creed. Such is 
the abridgment of the religious system taught 
in the books of the Druses, of whioh Hamsa 
is the author, and whose followers are oalled 
Unitarians. w 

There Is a very mil and correct aooount of 
the religious behef of the Druses in the £U- 
seoreAes into the Riliaiont of Stria, by the 
Rev. J. Wortahet, MJD. In this work Dr. 
Wortahet givos the following Catechism of 
the Druses, whioh expreeses their belief with 
regard to Christianity :— 

" Q. What do ye say concerning the gospel 
whieh the Christians hold f 

"A. That it is true; for it ie the aayinge 
of the Lord Christ, who was Salman el Pha- 
risy during the life of Mohammed, and who is 
Hamseh the son of Ali— not the false Christ 
who was born of Mary, for he was the son of 

" Q. Where was the true Christ when the 
fake Christ was with the dieoiplee? 

** A. He was among the diaoiples. He uttered 
the truths of the gospel and taught Christ, 
the son of Joseph, the institutes of the Chris- 
tian religion ; but when Jesus disobeyed the 
true Christ, he put hatred into the hearts of 
the Jewe, so that they crucified him. 

Digitized by 



u What became of him after the oruciflxion T 

" A. They put him into a grave, and the 
true Ohriit came and stole him, and gave oat 
the report among men that Christ had risen 
out of the dead. 

" Q. Why did he act in this manner r 

M A. That be might establish tho Christian 
religion, and confirm its followers in what he 
had taught them. 

" Q. Why did he act in snoh a manner as to 
establish error t 

•• A. So that the Unitarians should be con- 
cealed in the religion of Jesus and none of 
them might be known. 

" Q. Who was it that came from the grave 
and entered among the disciples when the 
doors were shut ? 

"A. The living Christ, who is immortal, 
even Hamzeh, the son and slave of our Lord. 

" Q. Who brought the gospel to light, and 
preached it? 

" A. Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John." 

"Q. Why did not the Christians acknow- 
ledge the unity of God t 

" A. Because God had not so decreed. 

" Q. Why does Qod permit the introduction 
of evil and infidelity? 

M A. Because He chooses to mislead some 
from, and to guide others, to the truth. 

"Q. If infidelity and error proceed from 
Him, why does he punish those who follow 

" A. Because wh^ta He deceived them, they 
did not obey Him. 

" Q. How can a deluded man obey, when 
he is ignorant of the true state of the tfase ? 

•*A. We are not bound to answer this 
question, for God is not accountable to his 
creatures for his dealings with them." 

DU'i'^o). "Prayer." The word 
Afa* is generally used for supplication, as dis- 
tinguished from $aiat 9 or the liturgical form 
of prayer, e.o\ Qur'an, Surah xlv. 42 : u O my 
Lord I make me and my posterity to bo con- 
stant in prayer (satff). O our Lord! and 
accept my supplication (eVd*). [praters. J 

DU'A'-I-MA'SttR Gj-A-* .Ua.3). 
Lit. "Recorded prayer.** A term used for 
prayers which were offered up by the Pro- 
phet, and have been handed down in the 

DU'A'U 'L-QTJNttT (*>y*\ .Wo), 
called also the Qmmtu 7- Witr, " The prayer 
said standing." A form of prayer recited after 
the qarffah in the night prayer. Recited by 
some sects in the early morning. It is found 
in the Traditions. It is as follows :— 

M God, we seek help from Thee, and for- 
giveness of sins. 

" We believe in Thee and trust in Thee. 

"We praise Thee. We thank Thee. We 
are not unthankful. 

" We expel, and we dopart from him who 
does not obey Thee. 

M We serve Thee only, and to Theo do we 

" We seek Thee, we prostrate ourselves and 
we serve Thee. 



" We hope for Thy mercy. We fear Thy 

"Surely Thy judgments are upon the 

DUALISM. Professor Palmer, 
following the remarks of al-BaisftwI tho 
commentator, says there is a protest against 
the dualistic doctrine that Light and Dark- 
ness were two oo-eternal principles, in the 
Qur'an, Sarah vi. 1 : " Praised be God who 
created the heavens and the earth, and brought 
into being the Darkness and the Light." 
(Palmer's Qur>an, vol L p. 116 ; al-Bais awi t» 

ad-DUKBAN ( L^jlJ\). "The 
Smoke." The title of the xuvth chapter of 
the Qur'an, in which the words occur (9th 
verse): "Expect thou the day when the 
heaven shall bring a palpable ffsefe." 

DULDUL (J^o). The name of 

the Prophet's mule which he gave to 'AIL 

DUMB, The. Arabic abkam (+**\). 
pl.oii*m. ir ^ 

The intelligible signs of a dumb person 
suffioe to verify his bequests and render them 
valid ; he may also execute a marriage con- 
tract, or give a divorce, or execute a sale or 
purchase, or sue or incur punishment by signs, 
but bo cannot sue in a case of gt>6j, or reta- 
liation foe murder. This rule does not apply 
to a person who has been deprived^ of speech, 
but merely to one who has been born dumb. 
(Hidayah, voL iv. p. 568.) A dumb person can 
also acknowledge and deny the faith by a sign. 

•U**M). Lit. " The pearl of light/' A 
term used by gufi mystics to express the 
•aqlu 'l-awtral, the first intelligence which 
God is said to have created at the beginning 
of tho animate world. ('Abdu 'r-Razaio/s 
Dictionary of $2/1 Term*.) 

DURttD tapj; a Persian word. 
Arabic af-Saldt (IjlUN). A benedic- 
tion ; imploring mercy. A part of the stated 
prayer, recited immediately after the Tathah- 
hud, whilst in the same posture. It is as fol- 
lows : " O God, have mercy on Muhammad and 
on his descendants, as Thou didst have mercy 
on Abraham and on his descendants 1 Thou 
art to be praised, and Thou art great 1 O 
God, bless Muhammad and his descendants as 
Thou didst bless Abraham and his descen- 
dants. Thou art to bo praised and Thou art 
great." Tho merits of this form of prayer 
are said to be very groat ; for, aooordlng to 
Anas, the Prophet said, " He who recites it 
will have blessings on his head ten times, ten 
sins will bo forgiven, and be will be exalted 
ten steps." (Miihjcdt, book iv. c. xvii.) 


D0ZAEB (£)r0- The Persian 
word for hell, [hbll.] 

DYER. According to the Imam 
Aba Hantfah, a dyer of cloth is at liberty to 

Digitized by 




detain it until ho receive hit hire for dyeing it ; 
end if the cloth perish in his hands whilst it 
is detained, he is not responsible. (Hidayah, 
toL iii. 820.) v jr— . 

DYING, The. Very special in- 
structions are given in Muslim hooks as to 
the treatment of the dying. In the Dvrru 7- 
Mu&tar (p. 88), the friends of the dying are 
recommended, if possible, to turn the head of 
the dying person towards Makkah ; but if this 
be not convenient, his feet should he placed 


in that direction and his head slightly raised. 
The Kalxmatu f sh-Shahadah should then be 
recited, and the Surah Ya-Sin (xxxvi.) and 
Suratu 'r-Ra<d (xiii.) should be read from 
the Qurtn. When the spirit has departed 
from the body, the mouth should he tied up 
and the eyes olosed and the arms straight- 
ened, and the body should be perfumed, and 
no unclean person should he suffered to 
approach the corpse. Immediate stops should 
then bo takon fur the washing of the corpse. 


the East it is the universal custom of Mu- 
hammadan women to wear ear-rings, and they 
are not unfreauently worn by young men and 
children. Gold ear-rings are, however, for- 
bidden in ths Traditions ; for Abu Hurairah 
relates that the Prophet said, "Whoever 
wishes to put into the ear or tbo nose of a 
friend a ring of hell fire, let him put in the ear 
or the nose of his friend a gold ring . . . . 
let your ornament he of silver." And Asm*' 
bint Taaid relates the same tradition. (Mi$h- 
*»/, book xx. o. 11, part 2.) 


EABTfi, The. Arabic ar f (^\). 
Muhammad taught his followers that just as 
there are seven heavens [hbavbm] one above 
another, so there are seven earths one beneath 
another, the distance between each of these 
regions being five hundred years' journey. 
(Mishkit, book zxiv. o. i. part 8.) 

In the Qur'an the earth is said to be stretched 
out like a carpet or bed (BArah ii. 20; xiii. 8; 
lxxvili. 6), wnioh expression the ancient com- 
mentators understood to imply that the earth 
was a vast plane, but circular ; and (Surah 
xxxix. 67) to be but a handful in the sight 
of God, wnioh in the last day shall be changed 
into another earth (Surah xiv. 49). 

The earth is believed by Muhammadan 

writers to be surrounded by a great sea 
called al-Bakru 7- Af u£f/, or the circumambient 
ocean, which is bounded by the mountains of 
Qaf. The extent of the earth is said to be 
equal to a journey of five hundred years; 
two hundred years' journey being allotted to 
the sea, two hundred to the uninhabited 
desert, eighty to the country of Oog and 
Magog ( Yajui wa Majtf) and the rest to the 
civilised world. Certain terra incognita in the 
midst of the mountains of Qaf are said to he 
inhabited by the jinn, or genii. According to 
some, Makkah (or Jerusalem aocording to 
others) is situated in the oentre of the earth. 
On the Muhit is the 'Arshu '/-/*&, or " Throne 
of Satan." The western portion of the Mufrt 
is often called the Batru 'g-fylmit, or " Sea 
of Darkness," and in the south-west corner 
of the earth is the Fountain of Life of which 
al-Kfeitr drank, and in virtue of which he 
still lives, and will livo till the Day of Judg- 
ment The mountains of Qaf which bound 
the great sea Mufcit, form a circular barrier 
round the whole earth, and are said to be of 
green chrysolite, the colour of which the Pro- 
phet said imparts a greenish tint to the sky. 
The general opinion is that the mountains of 
Qaf bound our earth, but some say there are 
countries beyond, each country being a thou- 
sand years' journey. 

The seven earths, whioh are five hundred 
years' journey from each other, are situated 
one beneath the other, and each of theee 
seven regions has its special occupants. 
The occupants of the first are men, genii, 
and animals ; the second is ocoupied by the 
suffocating, wind which destroyed the infidel 
tribe of «Ad (Surah lxix. 6); the third is 
tilled with the stones of hell, mentioned in tho 
Qur'an (Surah ii. 22 ; lxvL 6) as " the fuel of 
whioh is men and stones "; the fourth by the 
sulphur of hell; the fifth by the serpents of 
hell ; tho sixth bj the scorpions of hell, whioh 
are in size and colour like black mules, and 
havo tails like spears ; and the swsnth by 
the devil and his angels. Our earth is said 
to be supported on the shoulders of an angel, 
who stands upon a rook of ruby, which rook 
is supported on a huge bull wish four thou- 

Digitized by 



sand eyai, and the umo number of ears, 
noses, months, tongues, and feet; between 
every one of eaoh is a distance of five hun- 
dred years' journey. The name of this bull 
is Kuptta; who is supported by an enormous 
fish, the name of which is Bahamut. 

The above is but a brief outline of the 
Mu^ammadan belief as regards the earth's 
formation; but the statements of Muham- 
madan commentators are so wild . on the 
subject, that it seems quite useless to quote 
them as authorities, for they contradict each 
other in endless variety. 

EARTHQUAKE, The. Arabic 
a*-Zal%alah (AAA). The title of the 
xcixth Surah of the Qur'an, in which it is 
stated that an earthquake will take place at 
the commencement of the signs of the last 

* When the Earth with her quaking shall 

" And the Earth shall cast forth her bur- 

M And man shall say, What aileth her ? 

"On that day shall she tell out her 

** Becauso thy Lord shall ha to inspired her. 

" On that d%y shall men oome forward in 
throngs to behold their works, 

••And whosoever shall have wrought an 
atom's weight of good shall behold it, 

M And whosoever shall have wrought an 
atom's weight of evil shall behold it" 

EATING. According to the Tra- 
ditions, Mnframmadans have been enjoined 
by their Prophet to eat in God's name, to 



setnrn thanks, to eat with their right hand, 
and with their shoes off, and to lick the 
plate when the meal is finished. The follow- 
ing are some of Muhammad's precepts on the 
subjeot : — 

••The Devil has power over that food 
whioh is eaten without remembering God." 

M Repeat the name of God. Eat with the 
right hand and eat from before you." 

*« When a man oomee into a house at meal- 
time, and remembers the name. of God, the 
devil says to his followers, • There is no place 
here for you and me to-night, nor is there any 
supper for us. H 

'•When anyone eats he must not wash his 
fingers until he has first licked them." 

•* Whoever eats a dish and licks it after- 
wards, the dish intercedes with God for 

•< When victuals are placed before you, eat 
them with your shoes off, because taking off 
your shoes will ease your feet." (•Abdu 1- 
Qaqq adds, <• and do it out of respect to the 

" Whoever eats from a plate and licks it 
afterwards, the dish says to him, • May God 
free you from boll as you have freed me 
from the devils licking me.' " 

Qatadah says that Anas said: "The 
Prophet did not eat off a table, as is the 
manner of proud men, who do it to avoid 
bending their backs." (Mishkat, Arabio ed. f 
Balm 'I-Afimah.) 

The following directions are given for eat- 
ing, by Faqir Muhammad As*ad, the author 
of the Afsfddq-i-Jalatl (Thompson's English 
Translation, p. 294):— 

•< First of all, he should wash his hands, 


Digitized by 



mouth, and note. Before beginning he should 
My, < In the name of God ' (Bitmlldh) ; end 
after ending he must say, * Glory to God ' 
(Al-bamdu lilidh). He is not to be in a hurry 
to begin, unless he is the master of the feast ; 
he must not dirty his hands, or olothes, or 
the tablo-linon ; he must not eat with more 
than throe Angers, nor open his mouth wido ; 
not take large mouthfuls, nor swallow them 
hastily, nor yet keep them too long un- 
s wallowed. Uo must not suck his fingers in 
tho oourso of eating ; but after he has eaten, 
he may, or rather ought, as there is scripture 
warrant for it. 

" Let him not look from dish to dish, nor 
smell the food, nor piok and ohoose it. If 
there should be one dish better than the rest, 
let him not be greedy on his own account, but 
let him offer it to others. He must not spill 
the grease upon his Angers, or so as to wet 
his bread and salt. He must not eye his oom- 
rades in the midst of his mouthfuls. Let him 
eat from what is next him, unless of fruit, 
which it is allowable to eat from every quarter. 
What he has onoe put into his mouth (such 
as bones, Ac), he must not replace upon his 
bread, nor upon the table-cloth; if a bone 
has found its way there, let him remove it 
unseen. Let him beware of revolting ges- 
tures, and of letting anything drop from his 
mouth Into the oup. Let him so behave, 
that, if anyone should wish to oat tho rolios of 
his repast, there may be nothing to rovolt him. 


" Where he is (a guest, he must stay his 
hand sooner than the master of the feast; 
and whenever the rest discontinue eating, he 
must act in concert with them, except he be 
in his own houso, or some other where he 
constitutes part of the family. Where he is 
himself the host, ho must not oontinue eat- 
ing when the rest have stayed thoir kands,so 
that something may be left for anyone who 
ohanoes to fancy it. 

•• If he has occasion to drink in the oourse 
of his meal, let him do it softly, that no noise 
in his throat or mouth may be audible to 
others. He must not piok his teeth in the 
view of the company, nor swallow what his 
tongue may extract from between them; and 
so of what may be extracted by the tooth- 
pick, let him throw it aside so as to disgust 
no one. 

" When the time comes for washing his 
hands, let him be exceedingly careful in 
cleansing his nails and fingers. Similar 
must be his particularity in washing his 
lips, mouth, and nostrils. Ho must not Toid 
his rheum into the basin ; even the water in 
which his mouth has been rinsed, let him 
cover with his hand as he throws it 

" Neither must he take yie turn from 
others in washing his hands, saving when he 
is master of the entertainment, and then ho 
should be tho first to wash." 



OHRISTIAN& In Mutjammaden oountries, 
where the people have not been brought in 
oontaot with Hindus, with caste projudioes, 
Muslims never hesitate to eat with Jews and 
Christians, provided the drink and viotuals 
are such as are lawful in Islim. Since the 
British occupation of India, the question has 
often been raised, and few Huhammadans will 
eat with Englishmen, Syud Ahmad Khan, 

G.S.L, has. written a book, in which he proves 
that it is lawful for Muhammadana to eat with 
both Christians and Jews, and his arguments 
would seem to be in aooordanoe with tho 
teaching of the Qur'an. Surah v. 7 : " Law- 
ful for you to-day are the good things, and 
the food of the people of the Book (s.e. Jews 
and Christians) is lawful for you, and your 
food is lawful for them. 1 * 

Al-Baizawi, commenting on this verse, 

Digitized by 





saysi u This titn includes all kinds of food, 
that which Is slain lawfully (gabh) or not, and 
ibif vena Is of common application to all 
the people of tho Book, whether Jews or 
Christians. Bat on one occasion Khalifah 
'AIT did not observe its injunctions with re- 
gard to the Band Taghllb, a Christian tribe, 
because he said these people wore not Chris- 
tians, for they had not embraced, anything of 
Christianity exoept wine-drinking. And he 
does not include amongst the people of the 
book, the Majflsis, although he included the 
Majusis with the people of the Book when 
he took the noil-tax from them, according to 
* tradition which Muhammad gave regarding 
the Majusis, Tie. ' Treat the Majusis as you 
would treat the people of the Book, but do 
not marry with them, nor eat what they 
slay.** (fnfltou 'l-Baizawi, p 216.) 

The commentators, al-KamaUn, say the 
only question raised was that of animals 
slain by. Jews and Christians, and the learned 
are all agreed that animals slain by them are 
lawful. (T<xf*iru H-Jalalain wa'l-Kmma/ai*, 
p. 98.) 

The following Qadis is given in the $afeih 
Muslim on the subject : Aba Sa'lsbah related, 
M I said, Prophet of God 1 Verily we lire in 
a land belonging to the people of the Book 
(ml Jews or Christiana); is it lawful for us 
to eat out of their dishes? The Prophet 
replied, The order for dishes is this : if you 
emu get other dishes, then eat of them ; but if 
ye cannot, then wash those of the peoplo of 
the Book and eat from them." 

The Imam Nawawi, the commentator on 
the 9eJ?ih Muslim, aays Aba DTud has 
given this Pedis in a somewhat different 
form to that in tho text. Ho says : * Abfl 
8a*1abah relates, we were passing through 
rho country of the people of the Book (i.e. 
Christians), and they were cooking pigs' 
flesh in their dishes, and drinking wine from 
their ▼easels." « For " (continues Nawawi), 
"the learned are all agreed that it ia lawful 
to oat with Jews and Christians unless their 
vessels 9rt polluted with wine or pork, in 
whloh case tier must be washed before they 
are used." ($akih Mutlim wa Shar^u Na- 
wawi, p. 146.) 

ECLIPSE. The Arabic khu$Qf 
(Uy~±) ig uted to denote either an 
eclipse of the sun or of the moon (WoV Muh- 
Ut. book It. o. 1L) ; but it is more specially 
applied to an eclipse of the moon ; and huif 
Ujf-f) for an eclipse of the sun (vide 
Richardson's Dictionary) 8peclal prayers, 
consisting of two rsk'shs, are enjoined In the 
Traditions (Mithkat, book if. c li.) at the 
time of an eclipse of either the sun or 

•Abdu Hlb ibn 'Abbas says : " There was 
an eelipee of the sun in the time of the Pro- 
phet, and he recited prayers, and the people 
recited after htm ; and he stood up for a long 
time, as long as anyone would be repeating the 
Chapter of the Ccw (i.e. Surah ill Then he 
performed a long rukfl' after which he raised 

up his head and stood a long time, which 
was under the first standing ; after which, he 
did the second ruku', which was the same as 
the first in point of time $ then he raised his 
head up from the second rukO* ; and per- 
formed two prostrstions,; as is customary 
Then he stood up a long time, in the second 
rak'ah, end this was shorter than the first 
standing, in the first rsk*ah; after which be 
did s long ruku 1 in the second rak*ah, and 
this was under the first ruku 1 , In the first 
rak'ah. After this, he raisod up his bead, 
and stood a long time ; and this was shorter 
than tb» first, in the second rak'sh 
Then he did a long rukd* ; and this was 
not so great as the first, in the second 
rak'ah. . Then ho rose up, and performed two 
prostrations ; and after repeating the creed, 
and giving the saltm. ho concluded his 
prayers. And the sun was bright. And the 
Prophet said, * Verily, the sun snd moon are 
two signs, smongst those which prove the 
oxHtenoe of God, and are not eclipsed on 
account of the life or doatb of any person ; 
and when ye see thia, remember God. The 
Companions said, <0 Prophet! We saw you 
about to take something in the place where 
you stood in prayer, aftor which we saw you 
draw back a little.' And the Prophet said, 
"T saw Paradise, and gathered a bunoh of 
grapes from it; and if 1 had taken it and 
given it to you, verily you would have eaten 
of it as long as the world lasts. I also saw 
hell, and never saw such a horrid sight till this 
dsy ; and 1 saw that they were mostly women 
there.' And the Companions said, *0 Pro- 
phet, whv are most of the people of hell 
women? 7 He ssid, 'On account of their 
infidelity: not on aooount of tbeii dii- 
obodionce to God, bnt that they are ungrate- 
ful to their husbands, and hide the good 
things done them ; and if you do good to one 
of them perpetually, after that, if tney see 
the least fault la you, they will sav, I never 
saw you perform a good work.'" (Mishkit, 
book Iv. c. ii.) 

EDEN. Arabic 'Adn {&**), which 
al-Baisiwi says means M a fixed abode." Tbe 

Hebrew YW Is generally understood by 

Hebrew scholars to mean * pleasure" or 

The word *Ad* is net used In the Our*** 
for the residence ef our first parents, the term 
used being al-jamtnh % " the garden " ; although 
the Muslim Commentators are agreed In 
calling it the Janmaht 'Ad*, or "Garden of 
Eden.* The expressions, .tamat * *A <ro, " the 
Garden of Edtn" and Jawta** 'Arm, "the 
Gardens of Eden," occur ten times In the 
Quran, but In eaoh oase they are ussd for 
the fourth heaven, or stage, of celestial bliss. 

According to the Qur'en, H seems clear 
that Jejunal* 'Adn Is considered to be a 
place in heaven, and not a terrestrial para- 
dise, and henoe a difficulty arises as to the 
locality of that Eden from which Adam f elL 
Is it the same place as the fourth abode of 


Digitized by 





celestial bliss ? or, was it * garden situated in 
some part of earth? Al-Bsisawl says that 
some people have thought this Eden was 
situated in the country of the Philistines, or 
between Paris and Kirtaan. But, he adds, 
the Garden of Eden is the Ddru 'f-£aioi6, or 
"the House of Recompense,** which is a 
stsge in the paradise of the heavens; and 
that when Adam and Eve were cast out of 
Paradise, Adam fell on the isle of Ceylon, or 
Saramlib t and Evo near Jiddah in Arabia; 
and after a separation of 200 years, Adam 
was, on his repentance, conducted by the 
Angel Gabriel to a mountain near Mekkeh, 
where he knew his wife Eve, the mountain 
being thence named 'Arafah (i.e. "the place 
of recognition); and that ho afterwards 
retired with her to Ceylon, whero they con* 
tinned to pronngato thoir specios. 

Muhammad 'fahir (jMu/jjktu H-lUfrar, p. 
226), in remarking upon tlio fact that in the 
Traditions the rivers Jaihun and Jaihan are 
said to be rivers in "the garden'' (ul-Jun- 
noA), says the terms are figurative, and mean 
that the faith extended to those regions and 
made them rivers of paradise. And in 
another place (tWcm, p. 164} the same author 
says the four rivers Sat'hun (Jaxartes), 
Jaihan (Jihon), Furnt (Euphrates), and Nil 
(Nile), are the rivers of Paradise, and that 
the rivers Satyan and Jaihan are not the 
same as Jaihun and Jaiban, but that those 
four rivers already mentioned originally came 
from Paradise to this earth of ours. 

EDUCATION. Education without 
religion is to the Muhammadan mind an 
anomaly. In all books of Traditions thore 
are seotfons specially devotod to the con- 
sideration of knowledge, but only so far as 
it relates to a know/edge of God, and of 
" God's Book. (See SaMhu H-Bul&arU Balm 7- 
'//jr.) The people who road the " Book of 
God" are, according to the aayings of the 
Prophet, described as " assembling together 
in mosques, with light and comfort descend- 
ing upon them, the grace of God covering 
them, and the angel* of God encompassing 
them round abojt." The chief aim and 
object of oduoation In Islam is, therefore, to 
obtain a knowledge of the religion of Mu- 
hammad, and anything beyond this is con- 
sidered superfluous, and even dangerous. 
Amongst Muhammadan religious leaders 
there have always been two classes' — those 
who affect the ascotic and strictly religious 
life of mortification, such as the Sufi mystics 
and the Faqirs [faqim] ; and those who, by a 
careful study of the Qur'an, the Traditions, 
and the numerous works on divinity, have 
attained to a high reputation for scholarship, 
and sro known in Turkey as the * U/aniff, or 
* learned," and iu India, as AfutUauri*. 

Amongst Mu1>ammadans generally, a know- 
ledge of science and various branches of 
secular learning is considered dangerous to 
the faith, and it is discouraged by the reli- 
gious, although some assert that Muhammad 
has encouraged learning of all kinds in the 
Qar'an, by the following verse. Surah ii. 272 ; — 

»« He glveth wisdom to whom He will, and 
He to whom wisdom is given hath had much 
good given him." 

Mr. Lane, in his Modern Egyptians, says ' 
" The parents seldom devote muoh of their 
time or attention to the intellectual education 
of their children ; generally contenting them- 
selves with instilling into their young minds a 
few prineiples of religion, and then submitting 
them, if tney can afford to do so, to the in- 
struction of a school. As early as possible, 
the ohild is taught to say, *I testify that 
there is no deity but God, and I testify that 
Muhammad is God's Apostle.' Hs receives 
also lessons of religious pride, and learns to 
hate the Christians, aud all other sects but 
his own, as thoroughly as does the Muslim in 
advanoed age." 

In connection with all mosques of impor- 
tance, iu all parts of Islam whether in Tur- 
ke , Egypt, Persia, or India, these are small 
schools, either for the education of children, 
or for the training of studsnts of divinity. 
The child who attends these seminaries is 
first taught his alphabet, which he learns 
from a small board, on which the letters are 
written by the toaoher. IIo then becomes 
acquainted with the numerical valuo of each 
letter. [abjad.J After this he learns to 
write down the ninety-nine names of God, and 
othor simple words taken from the Qur'an. 
[ood.] VS hen he has mastored the spelling 
of words, he proceeds to learn the first 
chapter of tho Qur'an, then the last ohapter, 
and gradually reads through the whole 
Qur'an in Arabic, which he usually does with- 
out understanding a word of it. Having 
finished the Qur'an, which is considered su 
incumbent religious duty, the pupil is in- 
structed in the elements of grammar, and 
perhaps a few simple rules of arithmetic. 
To this is sdded a knowledge of one Hindu- 
stani, or Persisn book. The ability to read 
a single Persian book like the GtJistdn or 
Boston* is considered in Central Asia to be 
the sign of a liberal education. The ordi- 
nary schoolmaster is generally a man of 
little learning, the learned Maulawi usually 
devoting himself to tho study of divinity, 
and not to the education of the young. 

Amongst students of divinity, who are called 
taiabatu (sing tihb) '/-'i&r, or •• seekers sf 
knowledge," the usual course of studv 
follows: at-sorf grammatical inflection; an- 
nahw, syntax ; al-mantiq, logic ; aLhisab, arith- 
metic ; al-iabr wa 'fanuqabalah. algebra ; al- 
mwna wa %bayan, rhetoric and versification ; 
«A/ty*. jurisprudence: olr % aqaid % scholastic 
theology; at -t afar, commentaries on the 
Qur'an; 'ilmu *f-usul, troatwes on exegesis, 
and the principles and rules of interpretation 
of the laws of Islam ; at-ahadii, the traditions 
and commentarios theroon. Those are usually 
regarded as different branchoa of leeiutng, 
and it is not often that a Maulawi, or Mavis, 
attains to the knowledge of each section. For 
example, a scholar will be celebrated as 
being well educated in ai-ahadln* but bo may 
be woak in al-Jiqh. The teacher, when in- 
structing his pupils, seats himself on the 

Digitized by 



ground with his hearers all seated round him 
in a ring. Instruction in mosques is usually 
given in the early morning, after the morning 
prayer, and continues some three or four 
hours. It is again renewed for a short time 
after the mid-day prayer. 

Students In mosques are genorally sup- 
ported by the people of the parish, (each 
moique having its seotion or parish), who 
can be called upon for food for all the in- 
mates of % mosque every morning and even- 
ing. Not onf requenfcly mosques are endowed 
with land, or rents or shops and houses, for 
the qayraent of proftssors. Mr. Lane speaks 
of a mosque in Cairo, which had an endow- 
ment for the support of three hundred blind 
students. The great mosque al-Azhar, in 
Cairo, is the largest and most influential seat 
of learning in Islsm. In 1875, when the 



present writer visited it, it had as many as 
5,000 students gathered from all parte of 
the Muhammadan world. 

In India almost every mosque of impor- 
tance has its class of students of divinity, but 
they are not established for the purposes of 
general oduoation, but for the training of 
students of divinity who will hi time become 
the Imams of mosques. Some of the Maula- 
wls are men held in great reputation as 
Arabio scholars, but they are, as a rule, very 
deficient in general knowledge and informa- 
tion. Whether we look to Inula, or Persia, or 
JCgypt, or Turkey, the attitude of Mu^am- 
madanism is undoubtodly one in direct anta- 
gonism to the spread of secular education. 

Much has been made by some writers of 
the liberal patronage extended to literature 
and science by 'Abdu Y-Ralpnan and his sue- 


eessors as Khattfahs of Oardova in the Middle 
Ages. But there was nothing original, or 
Islamic in the literature thus patronised, for, 
as Professor Uerberweg remarks in his His- 
tory of Philosophy, "the whole philosophy of 
the Arabians was a form of Aristotelianism, 
tempered more or less with Neo-Platonic con- 
ceptions." The philosophical works of the 
Greeks and their works of medical and phy- 
sical science, were translated from Greek 
into Arabio by Syrian Christians, and not by 
Arabian Muslims. Muhammadans cannot be 
altogether credited with these literary under- 

Al-Maqqari, in his History of the Dynasties 
of Stuitn, has sn interesting notice of educa- 
tion in that country, in which he writes :— 

•• Respecting the state of science among the 
Andalusians (Spaniards), we must own in 
justice that the people of that oountry were 
the most ardent lovers of knowledge, as well 
as those who best knew how to appreciate 
and distinguish a learned man and an igno- 
rant one; indeed, science was so muoh es- 
teemed by them, that whoever had not been 
endowed by God with the necessary qualifica- 
tions to acquire it, did everything in his 
power to distinguish himself, and eonoeal 
from the people his want of instruction ; for 
an ignorant man was at all times looked 
upon as an object of the greatest eontempt, 
while the learned man, on the contrary, was 
not only resnected bv all. nobles and plebeians, 
but was truetei and consulted on every oooa- 

Digitized by 




eion; his name was in every mouth, his 
power and influence had no limits, and he was 
preferred and distinguished in all the occa- 
sions of life. 

" Owing to this, rioh men in Cordova, how- 
ever illiterate they might he, encouraged 
letters, rewsrded with the greatest munifi- 
cence writers and poets, and spared neither 
troun le nor expense In forming large collec- 
tions of hooks ; so that, independently of the 
famous library founded by the g&alifah al- 
Hakim, and whioh is said by writers worthy 
of credit to have oontained no less than four 
hundred thousand volumes, there were in 
the capitsl many other libraries in the hands 
of wealthy individuals, where the studious 
could dive into the fathomless sea of know- 
ledge, and bring up its inestimable pearls. 
Cordova was indeed, in the opinion of every 
author, the city in Andalus where most 
books were to be found, and its inhabitants 
were renowned for their passion for forming 
libraries. To such an extent did this rage 
for collection increase, says lbn Sa<id, that 
any man in power, or holding a situation 
under Government, considered himself obliged 
to have a library of his own, and would spare 
no trouble or expense in collecting books, 
merely in order that people might lay.—- Such 
a one hat a very fine library, or, he possesses 
a unique copy of suoh a book, or, he has a 
uopy of such a work in tho hand-writing of 
such a one." 

EGGS. According to the Imam 
AbQ Hanifah, if a person purchase eggs and 
after opening them discover them to be of 
bad quality and unfit for use, he is entitled 
to a complete restitution of the prioefrom 
the seller. (JKofyoA, vol. it p. 415.) 

EGYPT. Arabic Mifr {yJ). The 
land of Egypt is mentioned several times in 
the Qur'an in connection with the history of 
Joseph and Moses. In the year ajl 7 (a.d. 
628), Muhammad sent an embassy to ol-Mu- 
qauqis, the Roman Governor of Egypt, who 
received the embassy kindly and presented 
the Prophet with two female Coptic slaves. 

ELEMENTS. Arabic al-'Andpru 
'l-arba'ah (1**4Ji\ y#U«i\). "The four 
elements * of firo (nar) t air (hawa) t water (mo'), 
snd earth (am), from which all creation 
mineral, animal, and vegetable is produced. 

The respective properties of these elements 
are said to be as follows : Fire, hot and dry ; 
air, hot and cold; water, cold and wet; 
earth, cold and dry. A knowledge of the 
properties of the four elements is required in 
the so-called science of Da'wah. [da'wul] 

ELEPHANT, The year of. Arabic 
• Imu 'IFil ( J*aH r U). The year in 
which Muhammad was born. Being the 
year in which Abrahstu 1- Ashram, an Abys- 
sinian Christian and Viceroy of the King of 
$an<a' in Yam an marched with a Urge army 
and a number of elephants upon Mskkah. 
with the intention of destroying the Ke'bsh. 
Be was defeated and his army destroyed in 


so sudden a manner, as to give rise to the 
legend embodied in the ovth Surah of the 
Qur'an, which is known as the Chapter of the 

Professor Palmer says it is oonjeotured 
that small-pox broke out amongst the army. 
[ashabu 'l-wl.] 

ELIJAH. Arabic Ilyae (u»Wn), 
MydHn ((*e~lott) ; Heb. Vt^ij J New 

Testament, 'HAia*. A prophet men- 
tioned in the following verses in the Qur'an : — 
Surah xxxvii. 128* " Verily Ityas (Eliae) 
was of the Apostles ; ana when he said to his 
people, « Will ye not fear, Do ye call upon 
Ba'l and leave tne best of Creators, God 
your Lord, and the Lord of your fathers in the 
old time? But they celled him a liar; 
verily, they shall surely be arrsigned, save 
God's sincere servants. And we loft him 
amongst posterity. Peace upon Hyisin 

SSliasl verily, thus do we reward those who 
o well ; verily he was of our servants who 

Surah vi 86: "And Zachariah and John, 
and Jesus, and Hyds, all righteous ones." 

Al-Baisawi says, " It has been said that this 
Ilvas, is the same as Idris, prefather of Noah, 
whilst others say he was the son of Yaein 
and descended from Aaron, tho brother of 
Moses." [iDAia.] 

ELISHA. Arabic oZ- Ya*a % (e-Jt). 
Heb. ytfi^M. Elisha is mentioned 

twice in the Qur'an, under the name a/- 

Surah xxxviiL 48: "And remember 
Iahmael and £litha t and Zu 1-kifl, for each 
was righteous." 

Sarah vi 86, 86: "And Zachariah, and John, 
and Jesus, and Ellas, all righteousness ; and 
Iahmael and Elisha and Jonah and Lot, each 
have We preferred above the worlds." 

The Commentators give no aocount of him 
except that he wae the son of &M*m6, 
although the Bible says he was the son of 
Shaphat Qusain ssys he was Ibnu 7-ty«s 
(the son of the old woman). 

ELOQUENCE. The Arabic word 
al-Bayan (mWI), which is defined in 
the Qniydiu H-Lughah as speaking fluently 
and eloquently, occurs once in the Quran, 
8urah lv. 8: "He created man: he hath 
taught him ditHnct speech." The word alto 
occurs in the Traditions, and it is remarkable 
that although the Qur'an is written in rhythm, 
and in a grandiloquent style, that in the Tra- 
ditions the Prophet seems to affect to despise 
eloquence, as will be seen from the following 
A^adis :— lbn 'Umar says the Prophet said, 
" May they go to hell who amplify their words." 
Abu Umamah relates that the Prophet said, 
M Eloquence (al-baywti) is a kind of magic" 
lbn Maa'ud relatoa that the Prophet said, 
" Vain talking and embellishing (ooyew) are 
two branches of hypocrisy." 'Amr iun al« 
•Asi relator that the Prophet said, "I have 

Digitized by 





been ordered to speak Utile, and verily it 
is best to speak little." (Miskkat, book 

Arabic Pt&q («jVxn\). The emancipa- 
tion of slares it recommended by tbe Pro- 
phet, bat tho recommendation applies exolo- 
sirely to slaves who are of the Muslim faith. 
He is related te hare said : " Whoever frees 
a Muslim slave God will redeem that person 
from hell-Are member for member." (Mish- 
kat t book xiE c xix.) It is therefore laud* 
able In a man to release his slave or for a 
woman to free her bond- woman, in order that 
they may secure freedom in the next world. 
(Hidawah, toL L p. 480.) 


orthodox Mu^ainmadan state, only those 
persons who have embraced the Muslim 
faith are enfraaohised ; all others are ealled 
upon to pay a poll tax (jseyoA), for which 
they obtain eeourity (cminy Those residents 
m a Muslim country who are not Mufeam- 
madans are expected to wear a distinctive 
dress and to reside in a epeoial part of the 
village or town in which they live. Slaves 
who msy embr»*e the Muslim faith do not 
become ipso facto enfranchised, unless their 
master be an unbeliever, in which ease their 
becoming Muslims secures their emancipation. 
jJtsanJs, or persons not Muslims in a Muslim 
state, cannot give evidence against a Muslim. 
(See Durru 'LMu&tir, in loco.) 



enter suddenly or abruptly into any person's 
home or apartment, is reckoned a great Inci- 
vility in au eastern countries. With Mufeam- 
madans H is a religious duty to give notice 
before you enter a house. The custom is 
founded upon an express Injunction -In the 
Quran, Surah xxiv. 67-61 :— 

"O ye who believe I let your slaves and 
those of you who have not come of age, aek 
leave of you, three times a day, ere they come 
into your presence; — before the morning 
prayer, and when ye lay aside your garments 
at mid-day, and after the evening prayer. 
These are vour three times of privacy. No 
blame shall attach to you or to them. Rafter 
theee tosses, when ye go your rounds of at- 
tendant* on one another, the* come in without 
perwu'omon. Thus doth God make clear to 
you His signs : and God Is Knowing, Wise I 

" And when your children oome of age, let 
them ask leave to come Into your presence, 
as they who were before them asked it. 
Thus doth God make clear to you his signs : 
and God is Knowing, Wise. 

* At to women who are past ohlldbesring, 
and havo no hope of marriage, no blame shall 
attach to them if they lay aside their outer 
garments, but so as not to shew their orna- 
ments. Tot If they abstain from this, H will 
be better for them: and God Hearcth, 

"No crime shall it be in the blind, or in the 

lame, or in the sick, to oat at your taJt.ln : or 
in yourselves, if ye eat In your own houses, or 
in the houses of your fathers, or of your 
mothers, or of your brothers, or of your 
sisters, or of your uncles on the father's side, 
or of your aunts on the father's side, or ot 
your unoles on the mother's side, or of your 
aunts on the mother's side, or In those of 
which ye possess the keys, or in the house of 
your friend. No blame shall attach to you 
whether ye eat together or span. 

"And wheu ye enter houses, salute one. 
another with a good and blessed greeting as 
from God. Thus doth God make dear to you 
His signs, that haply ye may comprehend 

The following are the traditions given in 
the Miikkat on the subject (book xxu. c iu) : 
Muhammad is related to have said. M Do not 
permit anyone to enter your home unless he 
gives a salam first." 'Abdu llah ibn Me*<ud 
says the Prophet said, " The signal for your 
permission to enter is that you lift op the 
curtain and enter until I prevent you." 'Abdu 
llah ibn Bust says, " Whenever the Prophet 
came to the door of a house, he would not 
stand in front of it, but on the side of the 
door, find say, 'The peace of God be with 
von. 1 * 'At? ibn Yasar says the Prophet told 
him to ask leave to enter even the room of his 

ENVT. Arabic ffa$ad (*—>). 
The word ocours twice in the Quran. 

8ureh ii. 108: ••Many of those who have 
the Book would fain turn you again into un- 
believers, even after ye have onoe believed, 
and that through enou* 

Surah oxlii. 1 " I seek refuge from 

the evil of the envious when he entries." 

EPHESUS, The Seren Sleepers of. 
[ashato 'l-kahv.] 

ESOP. The Luanian of the Qur'an 
is generally supposed by European Writers to 
be Rsop. Sale is of opinion that Maximus 
Planudes borrowed the greater part of his life 
of Seop from the traditions he met with In 
the East concerning Luqman. [luqmjji.] 

The Mu^ammadan religion teaches that all 
Muslims (t.e. those who bave embraced the 
religion of their Prophet) will be ultimately 
saved, although they will suffer for their 
actual sins In a purgatorial helL But those 
who bave not embreeed Islam wifl suffer a 
never-ending torment in M the fire** (an-nmr). 

8urah ii. 87: * Those who misbelieve and 
call our signs lies, they are the fellewe of 
hell, they shall dwell therein for ever" 

Surah xi. 106, 109 : " And as for those who 
are wretched— why in the lire shall they groan 
and sob I to dwell* therein for ever (t£iudin) 
as long ss the heavens end the earth endure.*' 

Al-Baif iwf says the expression M as long as 
the heavene and the earth endure," is an 
Arable Worn expressing that which is 

Digitized by 




Ibn «Arabi (died A.D. 688), in his book 
Fusutu 7-//ufca«, says the word l&alid in the 
verses quoted above doea not imply eternal 
duration, bot a period, or age, of long dura- 
tion. Al-Baizawi, the commentator, also 
admitf thai the literal meaning of the word 
only expressos a period of extended dura- 
tion; but the JalaUn and Husaiu both con- 
tend that ita meaning it that of aladl, or 
"never ending,*' in which no being will be 
annihilated, and which no one oan ever 

It ia also to be observed that this word 
kjeltid is that used for the eternity of bliss of 
those in Paradise : — 

8urah zi. 110: "As for those who are glad 
— why in Paradise ! to dwell therein for ever " 

SUPPER. It is a singular omission in the 
Qur'an, that there is no direct allusion to this 
Christian institution. 

Both Sale and Rodwell think that there is 
a reference to it in the following passages in 
the Qur'an, Surah t. 112-114:— 

"Remember when the Apostles said: — O 
Jesus, Son of Mary, is thy Lord able to send 
down a table (mffidah, < a table/ especially one 
corered with victuals) to us out of heaTen ? 
He said, Fesr God if ye be bolievera. They 
said: — We desire to eat therefrom, and to 
hare our hearts assured ; and to know that 
thou hast indeed spoken truth to us, and we 
be witnesses thereof. Jesus, Son of Mary, 
said ; — * Go<l» our Lord I send down a table 
to us out of hoa?en, that it may become a re- 
curring festival to us, to tho first of us, and 
to the last of us, and a sign from Thoo ; and 
do Thou nourish us, for Thou art the best of 
nourishers.' " 

Muslim ooroiuontetors are not agreed as to 
the meaning of thoso versos, but nono of thorn 
suggest the institution of the Lord's Supper 
as an explanation. The interpretations are 
as confused as the revelation. 

According to the Imam al-Baghawi, 'Am- 
mar ibn Tisir said that the Prophet said it 
was flesh and bread whioh was sent down 
from heaven ; bnt because the Christians to 
whom it was sent were unfaithful, it was 
taken away, and they became pigs and 
monkeys 1 

Ibn 'Abbas says that after a thirty days' 
fast, a table was sent down with seven loaves 
and seven fishes, and the wholo company of 
disciples ate and were filled (St. Matt. a?. 
84). The commentators el-Jalalan also 
give these two explanations, and the Sacra- 
ment of the Lord's Supper is never onco sug- 
gested by any Muslim doctor in explanation 
of tho above versos. 

BUNTJCH. Arabic iiofi (o-*>). 

Although in all Darts of the East it is usual 
for wealthy Muhacnmadans to keep an esta- 
blishment of eunuohs to guard the female 
members of the household, it has been strictly 
forbidden by Muhammad for any of his fol- 
lowers to make themselves suqh. or to make 


others. 'Usman ibn Ms? sun came to him and 
said, " Prophet I permit me to booome a 
eunuch." But Muhammed said, " He is not 
of my people who makes another a eunuch or 
becomes so himself. The' manner in which 
my jmople bocoiue eunuchs is to exercise 
fasting." (Alishkdt, book iv. c. viH.) 

EVE. Arabic ftawwa' (-V*-). 


EVIDENCE. Arabic Shah&dah 
(&j\e>). The law of evidence is very 
clearly laid down in all Muhsmmadan books 
of law, especially in the HidXyaK and the 
Durru H-Muf^tar, and it is interesting to 
observe the difference between the law of 
ovidence as provided for in the lew of Moses, 
and that laid down in Muhammadan books 
In the Pentateuch two witnesses at least 
were required to establish any charge (Num. 
xxxv. 30), and the witness who withheld the 
truth was censured (Lev.v: 1), whilst slan- 
derous reports and officious witnesses were 
discouraged (Bx. .xxiii. 1 ; Lev. xix 16), and 
false witnesssswers punished with the punish- 
ment due to the offence they sought to esta- 
blish (Deut xix. 16). According to Joaephus, 
women and slaves wero not admitted to give 
evidence. {Ant. iv. c 8. s 16.) 

Tho Sunn! law, as explained bv the author 
of tho JHidayah (vol. ill. p. 664), is in many 
respects the same as the Jewish and is as 
follows :— 

It is the duty of witnesses to bear testi- 
mony, and it is not lawful for them to coooeal 
it, when tho party concerned demands it from 
them. Beoause it is written in the Qur'an, 
Surah ii. 282, "Let not witnesses withhold 
their evidouce when it is demanded of them." 
And again, •' Conceal not your testimony, 
for whoever conooals his testimony is an 

The requisition of the party Is a condition, 
because the delivery of evidence is the right 
of tho party requiring it, and therefore rests 
upon his requisition of it, as is the oase with 
respect to all other lights. 

In cases inducing corporal pnmshmont, 
witnesses are st liberty either to give or 
withhold their testimony aa they please; 
becsuse in such case thoy are distracted be- 
tween two laudable actions; namely, the 
establishment of the punishment, and the 
preservation of the criminal's charaoter. The 
concoalment of vice is, moreover, preferahie ; 
boosuse the prophet said to a person that had 
borne testimony, " Verily, it would Kaoe been 
better for you, if you had concealed it"; and 
also becsuse he elsewhere said, ' Whoever 
coHceuU the vices of hie brother Muslim, shall 
hioo a veil drawn over his own crimes in both 
worlds by God." Besides, it has been incul- 
cated both by the Prophet and his Compa- 
nions as commendable to assist in the pre- 
vention of corporal punishment ; and this is 
an evident argument for the concealment of 
such evidence as tends to establish it. It is 
inoumbent. however, in the ease of theft, to 
bear evidence to the property, by testifying 

Digitized by 





that «' a certain person took such property," 
in order to preserve the right of the pro- 
prietor; but the word taken most be used 
instead of tfofai, to the end that the crime 
mev be kept oonoealed ; besides, if the word 
stolen were need, the thief wonld be rendered 
II Able to amputation ; and as, where amputa- 
tion is Incurred, there Is no responsibility for 
the property, the proprietors right would be 

The evidence required in a oase of whore- 
d&m is that of four men, as has been ruled in 
the Quran (Surah xxiv. 8) : and the testi- 
mony of a Woman in such a oase is not ad- 
mitted ; because, as-Zuhri says, " in the time 
of the Prophet and his two immodiate suc- 
cessors, it was an invariable rule to exclude 
the evidenoo of woioon in all cases inducing 
punishment Or retaliation,'* and slso because 
tho testimony of women involves a degree of 
doubt as it is merely a *ub*titute for evi- 
dence, being accepted only where the testi- 
mony of men csnnot be had ; and therefore 
it Is not admitted in sny matter liable to 
drop from the existence of a doubt. 

Tho evidenco required in other criminal 
oases is that of two men, according to the 
text of the Quran; and tho testimony of 
women is not admitted, on the strength of 
the tradition of ax-Zohri above quoted. In 
all other cases the evidence required Is that 
of two men, or of one man snd two women, 
whether the ease relate to property or to 
other rights, such as marriage, divorce, 
ageney, executorship, or the like. Ash-Shfifi'i 
has said that the evidence of one man and 
two women cannot be admitted, excepting in 
cases that relate to property, or its depen- 
dencies, suoh as Aire, 6at7, and so forth ; 
because the evidence of women is originally 
inadmissible on account of their defeot of 
understanding, their want of memory and 
iooapaeisy of governing, whenoe it is that 
their evidence is not admitted in criminal 

The evidenee of one woman is admitted in 
eases of birth (as where one woman, for 
instance, declares that a certain woman 
brought forth a Certain child). In the same 
maimer also, the evidence, of one woman is 
sufficient with respect to virginity, or with 
respect to the defects of that part of a 
woman which is oonoealed from man. The 
principle of the law in these eaeee Is derived 
from a traditional saying of the Prophet: 
"He evidence of women is valid with 
respect to sucb things as it is not fitting for 
man to behold." Aeh-ShafH holds the evi- 
dence of /our women to be a necessary con- 
dition in such cases. 

The evidence of a woman with respect to 
istihlal (the noise made by a child at its 
birth), is not admissible, in the opinion of 
Abu J^anifah, so far as relates to the esta- 
blishment of the right of heritage in the 
child ; because this noise is of a nature to be 
known or discovered by men ; but is admin - 
sible so far ns relates to the necessity of 
reading funeral prayers over the child: 
because these prayers are merely a matter of 

religion: in consequence of her evidence, 
therefore* the funeral prayers are to he 
repeated over It. The two disciples, Mu- 
hammad and AbH Yftsuf, maintain that the 
evidence of a woman is sufficient to establish 
the right of heritage also ; because the noise 
in qnostion being made at the birth, ,none but 
women oan be supposed to be present when 
it is made The evidence of a woman, there- 
fore, to this noise, is the same as her evidence 
to a living birth; and as the evidence of 
women in the one case is admissible, so also is 
it in tbe ether: 

In all rights, whether of property or other- 
wise, the probity of tbe witness, and the use 
of the word a*hhadu, "I bear witness," is 
absolutely requisite, even In the ase of the 
evidence of women with respect to birth and 
the like. If, therefore, a witness should say, 
"I know," or M I know with certeintv," with- 
out making use of the word aehhaem, in that 
case his evidence cannot he admitted. With 
respect to the probity of the witness, It is in- 
dispenssble, because it is written in the 
Quran, Surah lxv. 3, « Take the evidence of 
two just men " ; and also because the probity 
of the witnesses induoes a probability of the 

If the defendant throw a roproaoh on the 
witnesses, it is in that caao incumbent on the 
QAsi to institute an enquiry into fheir cha- 
racter ; because, in the name manner ss it is 
probable that a Muslim abstains from false- 
hood as being a thing prohibited in the reli- 
gion he professes, so also Is it probable that 
one Muslim will not unjustly reproach 

It is not lawful for a person to give evi- 
dence to such things as he has not actually 
seon, excepting in the oases of birth, death, 
marriage, and cohabitation. 

Dut If a person, in any of the above oases, 
gives evidence from creditable hearsay, it is 
requisite that he give it in an absolute 
manner, by saying, for instance, «* I bear tes- 
timony that A. is the son of B,* and not, " I 
bear testimony so and so, because I have 
heard it" for in that case the Qaai cannot 
accept it 

The testimony of any person who is pro- 
perty — that is to say, a slave, male or female 
— is not admissible ; because testimony is of 
an authoritative nature ; and as a slave has 
no authority over his own person, it follows 
that he can have no authority over others, a 

The testimony of a person that has been 
punished for slander is inadmissible, because 
It is said in the Qur'ita, Surah xxiv. 4, 
11 But as to those who aconse married per- 
sons of whoredom, and produce not four wit- 
nesses of the faot, scourge them with four- 
score stripes, and receive net their testimony 
for ever; for suoh are infamous prevari- 
cators,— excepting those who shall after- 
wards repent. 

If an infidel who has suffered punishment 
for slander should afterwards become a 
Muslim, his evidence is then admissible ; for 
a Ithough, on account of the said punishment, 

Digitized by 




he had lost the degree in which he wu before 
qualified to gyve evidence (that is, in ail 
matters that related to his own sect), yet by 
his conversion to the Muslim faith he 
aoquiret a new competency in regard to 
evidence (namely, competency to give evi- 
dence relative to Muslims), which he did not 
pcssesM before, and whiob is not affected by 
any matter that happened prior to the cir- 
cumstanoe which gave birth to it. 

Testimony in favour of a son or grandson, 
or in favour of a father or grandfather, is not 
admissible, because the Prophet has so or- 
dained. Besides, as there is a kind of oom- 
munion of benefits between these degrees of 
kindred, it follows that their testimony in 
matters relative to each other is in some 
degree a testimony In favour of themselves, 
and is therefore liable to suspicion. 

80 also the Prophet has said, " We are 
not to credit the evidence of a wife concern- 
ing her husband, or of a husband concerning 
bis wife ; or of a slave concerning bis master * 
or of a master concerning bis slave; or) 
lastly, of a hirer concerning his hireling." 

The testimony of one partner in favour of 
another, in a matter relative to their joint 
property, is not admissible : because it is in 
some degree in favour of hiwuelf. The tes- 
timony, however, of partners, fc favour of 
each other, in matters not relating to their 
Joint property, ia admissible, because in it 
there is no room for suspicion. The testi- 
mony of a person who has oommitted a great 
crime, such as induoes punishment, is not 
admissible, because in consequence of such 
crime he is wyiut. The testimony of a 
person who goes naked into the public bath 
is inadmissible, because of his committing a 
prohibited action in the exposure of his 

The testimony of a person who receives 
usury is inadmissible; and so, also, of one 
who plays for a stake at dice or chess. The 
evidence of a person guilty of base and low 
actions, such as making water or eating his 
victuals on the high road, is not admissible ; 
because where a man is not refrained, by a 
sense of shame, from such actions as these, 
he exposes himself to a suspicion that he 
will not refrain from falsehood. 

The evidenoe of a person who openly 
inveighs against the Companions of the Pro- 
phet and their disciples is not admissible, 
because of his apparent want of integrity. 
It is otherwise, however, where a person 
conceals his sentiments in regard to them, 
beoanse in such ease the want of integrity is 
not apparent. 

The testimony of g iststi* with respect to 
each other is admissible, notwithstanding 
they be of different religions, 

The Imam Abu Qanlfah is of opinion that 
a false witness must be stigmatised, but not 
chastised with blows. The two disciples are 
of opinion that he must be scourged and eon- 
fined; and this also is the opinion of ash- 

The mode of stigmatising a false witness is 
this:— If the witness be a sojourner in any 


publio street or market-plaoe, let him be 
sept to that street or market plaoe ; or, if 
otherwise, let him be sent to his own tribe or 
kindred, after the evening prayers (as they 
are generally assembled in greater numbers 
at that time than any othor) ; and let the 
stigmatiser inform the people that the Qasi 
salutes thsm, and informs them that he has 
detected this person in giving false evidence ; 
that thoy must, therefore, beware of him 
themselves, and likewise desire others to be- 
ware of him. 

If witnesses retract their testimony prior 
to the Qasi passing any decree, it becomes 
void; if, on the contrary, the Qasi pass a 
decree, and the witnesses afterwards retract 
their testimony, the decree is not thereby 
rendered void. 

The retraction of evidence is not valid, 
unless it be made in the presence of the 

EVIL EYE. Ifabaiu 'VAin (*M 
(£e*H), Mufcammad was a believer in 
the baneful influence of an evil eye. Asmi' 
bint 'Urnais relates that she said, " Pro- 
phet, the family of Jafar are affected by the 
panef ul influences of an evil eye ; may I use 
spells for them or not?" The Prophet said, 
" Yes, for if there were anything in the world 
which would overcome fate, it would be 
an evil eye." (Mishkat, book xzL 0. L 
part 2.) 

EXECUTION. The Muljamma- 
dan mode of exeoution is as follows:— The 
executioner (jallad) seises the condemned 
culprit by the right hand, while with a sharp 
sword or axe he aims a blow at the back of 
tbe neck, and the head is detached at the 
first stroke. This mode of exeoution is still, 
or was till lately, practised in Mubammadan 
states in India. 

if s Q&si say, I have sentenced such a 
person to be stoned, or to have his hand cut 
off, or to be killed, do you therefore do it ; it 
is lawful for that person to whom the Qasi 
has given the order to carry it out. 

And according to Abu Hanifah, if the Qasi 
order the excoutioner to out off the right 
bend, and the executioner wilfully out off the 
left, he is not liable to punishment. But 
other doctors do not agree with him. 

EXECUTOR. Arabic Wafi (,-,), 
a term also used for the testator; 
wabi Wlvaflyah (.Wt J* Je*,)! 
An executor having accepted his appointment 
in the preaenee of the testator, is not after- 
wards at liberty to withdraw, and any act 
indicative of his having accepted the position 
of executor binds him to fulfil his duties. 

A Muslim may not appoint a slave, or a 
reprobate (/wig) or an infidel as his executor, 
and iu the event of his doing so, the Qasi 
must nominate a proper substitute. But if 
none of the testator's heirs have attained 
tneir majority, a slave may be appointed as 
executor until they are of age. 

If Joint executors have been appointed and 

Digitized by 



one of them dlo, the QatI must appoint * 
substitute in office. 

Is the oases of infante or absent heirs, the 
executor is entitled to possess himself pro 
few. of their property, bat he cannot trade 
with his ward's portion. 

If a person die without appointing sn 
oxeoutor, .the next of kin administers the 
estate, and it is an arrangement of Muslim 
law that hie father is his executor and not 
his eldest son. ((Ao%oA, vol. iv. p. 664.) 

EXILES, The. [muhuibixh.] 

EXISTENCES. The Arabic word 
wtfud («>*%)), expreseee a subetanoe, 
or essence, or existence. According to Mu- 
hammadan writers (see OM yntu 'l-LrnqbahY 
existences are of three kinds: W&jtbu *U 
wujwd, M a necessary existence," e.g. Almighty 
God; mumh'nu H-vnqud* "a possible exist- 
ence" e.o\ the human kind; mumiani'u 7- 
wmjvd, "an impossible existence," e.g. a 
partner with the Divine Being. 

These terms are used by Muhsmmadan 
scholars when discussing the doctrine of the 
Eternal Trinity with Christian Evangelists. 

EXORCISM, [da'wah.] 

\ EXPIATION. The doctrine of, 
ft expiation or atonement for neglected duties, 
'* sins of omission and commission, is distin- 
guished in the Muslim, religion from the doe- 
' trine of sacrifice ; sacrifices being strictly 
confined to the *Idn 1-Aifca't or Feast of 
Sacrifice in the month of pilgrimage 

There are two words employed in the 
QoVan to express the doctrine of expiation . 
kaffirok (I ; UO, from **/r, "to hide"; and 
fidyah (||Ji), from jidff, * to exohange, or 



(1) KqffSrak occurs In the following 
versee :— 

Sersh v. 49*— 

" And therein fBx. xxi. 18) hare wo enacted 
for them, ' 14ft for life, aa eye for eye, and 
nose for noes, and ear for ear, and tooth for 
tooth, and ior wounds retaliation : '—Whoso 
shall co mp romise it as alms shall have there- 
in the eolation •/ his tin; and whoso will 
not Judge by what God hath sent down— Such 
are the tr ans gre ss ors.*. 

garth v. 91 .— 

"God will not punish vou for a mlsteken 
ward in wen * oaths : but he will punish yon 
m regard to an oath taken seriously. Its ex- 
nfetfo* shall he to feed ten poor persons with 
snbh middling food as ye feed your own 
families with, or to olothe them ; .or to set 
free a captive. But he who cannot And 
means, shall fact three days. This is the 
txplatton of your oaths when ye shall hare 

Surah t. 96 s— 

M O believers 1 kill no game while ye are on 
pilgrimage. Whosoever among. you shall 
purposely kill it, shall co m pe nsa te for it in 
domestic animals of equal Tamo (aecordiog 
to the judgment of two just persons among 

you V to be brought as aa offering to the 
ka'bah ; or in txptatitm thereof shall food the 
poor : or aa the equivalent of tbis shall fast, 
that ne may taste the ill consequence of his 
deed. God forgiveth what Is past ; hut wbo* 
ever doetb it again, God will take vengeance 
on bim | for God is mighty and Tengcanoe is 

(2) Fidyah occurs in the following verses : — 
Surah ii. 180:— 

" But he amongst yon whp is in, or on a 
Journey, them let him fast another number of 
days ; and those who are fit to fast and do uet, 
the expiation of this shaR be the maintenance 
of a poor man. And he who of his own 
accord performeth a good work, shall derive 
good from it : and good shall it be for you to 
fast— if yo knew it* 

8urah tt. 192 :— 

* Accomplish the Pilgrimage and Visitation 
of the holy places in honour of God : and if 
re be hemmed in by foes, send whatever offer- 
ing shall be tho easiest : and shavo not your 
heeds until the offering reach the place of 
sacrifice. Bnt whoever among yon is sick, or 
hath an aflmsnt of the head, must erntafs 
by fasting, or alms, or an offering.* 

Surah Ivit 18:— 

" On that day the hypocrites, both men and 
women, shall say to those who believe, 

• Tarry for as, that we may kindle our light 
at yours.' It shall be said, ' Return ye bsck, 
and seek light for youreelvee.* But between 
them ihall be set a wall with a gateway, within 
which shall he the Mercy, and in front, with- 
out it, the Torment They shall cry to them, 

• Were we not with yon ? They shall say, 
' Yeel but ye led youreelves into temptation, 
and ye de'aved, and ve doubted, and the 

Sood things ye craved deceived you, till the 
oomof God arrived .--and the deceiver de- 
ceived you in regard to God 

« On that dsy, therefore, no expiation shall 
he taken from you or from those who be- 
lieve not .-—your abode the Are t — This shall 
be your master I and wretched the journey 

(3) In theological books the term baffaraU 
Vfuaao, " tho atonement for sins," is used for 
the duties of prayer, fssting, almsgiving, and 
pilgrimage. There is also a popular saving that* 
uyirQtu Iqubur is kqffaratu t-$un*b, i.e. the 
visiting of shrines of the saints is an atone- 
ment for sins. 

• Theologians define tho forms kaffarah and 
fidynh as expressing that expiation which is 
due to God, whilst efyo* and ot>d* are that 
which Is duo to roan, runts,, sac ttirioxs.] 

For that expiation which is made by frso- 
ing a slsvo, the word, tahrxr is used, a word 
which implies setting a slavs free for God's 
sske, although the word does not In an? sense 
rosea a ransom or atonement for sin. It 
occurs in the Qur'au, 8ftrah Iv. 94, ** Whoso- 
ever kills a believer by mistake let him r&xn 
a belle ring nook * (i.e. a Muslim slave). 

(*y^2) An extravagant pernor* or 


Digitized by 




prodigal is musrjf, or muoaiiir, and ii oon- 
demnejd in the Qur'an: — 

Siirah xvu. 28, 29 : " Waste not wastef ally, 
for the wasteful were ever the brothers of 
the devil ; and the detil it ever ungrateful to 
hU Lord." 

Siirah vil 29 : M O tons of men, take your 
ornamonta to every mosque; and eat and 
drink, but be not extravagant, for He loves 
not the extravagant " 

EYES, Arabic 'Ayn (<$**) ; pi: 
Uyun, A*yun, A*gan. " If a person strike 
another in the eye, so as to foroe the member 
with its vessels out of the socket, there is no 
retaliation in this esse, it being impossible to 
preaervo' a perfect equality in extracting sn 
eye- But if the eye remain in its place, and 
the sight he destroyed, retaliation is to be 
inniotwl, is in this case equality may be 
effected by extinguishing the sight of the 
offender's corresponding eye with a hot iron." 
(Hidayah, iv. 294.) 

There is a tradition by Malik that the diyah 
or «* fine" for blinding one eye is Hfteen camois. 
(Mtshkat. book xiv. 167.) [bvil bte.] 

EZEKIEL. Arabic Hivfil. Not 
mentioned by name, but there is generally 
supposed to be an allusion to Esekiel's vision 
of the dry bones (Esek. xxxvU. 1) in the 
Qur'an, Surah li. 244:— 

" Dost thou not look at those who left 
their homes bv thousands, for fear of death ; 
and Ood said to them •Die/ and He then 
quiokened them again ? " 

Al-Baif&wi says that a number of Israelites 
fled from their villagee either to join in a 
religious war, or for fear of the plague, and 
*ere struok dead, but Esekiel raised thsm 
to lifer gain. 

The Kamalin say he is perhaps the same 
as Zn '1-Kifl. [zu 'l-kiix.] 

1ZRA. Arabic 'Uuair. The ton 
of 8harafeya', the aoribe. Mentioned only 


onoe by name in the Qur'an, Surah ix. 

" The Jews say 'Usair (Ezra) is a son of 
God." V 

Al-Baix&wi says that during the Babylonish 
captivity tin tuurot (the law) was lost, and 
that as there whs no one who remembered 
the law when the Jews returned from oap- 
tivity, God raised up Exra from the dead, 
although ho had been buried a hundred 
years. And that when the Jews saw him thus 
raised from the doad, they said he roust be 
the son of God. 

This story is supposed to have been ren- 
vealed in the Qur'an, Siirah it 261 :— 

'•[Hast thou not considered] him who 
pasted by a city (which was Jerusalem), 
riding upon an a$e t and having with him a 
basket of fig* and a vueelof the juice of grapes 
and he woe •6/toir, and it was falling down 
upon its roof 9, Nebuchadnezzar having ruined 
%i t He said, wandering at the power of (iW, 
How will God quicken this after its death ? 
— And God oauaed him to die for a hundred 
years. Then He raised him to life : and He 
said unto him. How long hast thou tarried 
here ' — He answered I have tarried a day, or 
part of a dav.— For he slept in the first part of 
the day, and was deprived of hie life, and was 
reanimated at sunset. Ue •aid" Nay, thou 
hast tarried a hundred years: but look at 
thy food and thy drink : they have not be- 
oome changed by time: and look at thine 
ass.— And he beheld it dead, and ite bones white 
and dining.— We have done thie that thou 
tnayest know, and that Ws may make thee a 
sign of the resurrection unto men. And look 
st the bones of thine ass, how We will raise 
them ; then We will olotbe them with flesh. 
So he looked at them, and they had become nut 
together, and were clothed with flesh, and lift 
was breathed into it, and it brayed. There- 
fore when it had been made manifest to him 
he said, I know that God is able to accom- 
plish, everything." 


FAT (J). Booty obtained from 
Infidels. According to Muhammad ibn Tihir, 
/if is booty taken from a country whioh sub- 
mits to Islam without resistance, aa distin- 
guished from ghunimah, or plunder. The 
jChaliiah 'Umar said it was the speoial pri- 
vilege ofuho Prophet to take booty as well as 
plucd* - ^privilege not permitted to any other 

•Auf ibn Malik says the Prophet used to 
divide booty on the same day he took it, and 
w«iuld give two shares to a man with a wife, 
and only one share to a man without one. 
(MishkeU, book xvii. o. xii.) 


FAI?-I-AQDAS (y*** u***, Per- 
sian). Communications of divine 
grace made to angels and prophets and other 
superior intelligences. 

al-FAJE (j**n), « The Daybreak." 

The title of the Lxxxixth Surah of the 
Qur'an, in the first verse of which the word 

FA'L ( JU). A good omen, as dis- 
tinguished from tiyarah, " a bad omen." 

Muhammad is related to have said, M Do 
not put faith in a had omen, hut rather take 
a good one," The people asked, " What is a 
good omen?" And he replied, "Any good 
word which any of you may bear." 

Ibn 'Abbas says, "The Prophet used to 
take good omens by mon's names, but he 
would not take bad omens." 

Qafin ibn Qabisah aays, "The Prophet 
forbade taking omens from the running of 
animate, the flight of birds, and from throw- 
ing pebblee, which were done by tho idolators 
of Arabia." (Mishkat, book xxi. c &) 

It is, however, very commonly practised 

Digitized by 



amongst the ntahsmmedans of India. For 
example, if a person start out on an impor- 
tant journey, and he meet a woman first, he 
will take it as t had omen, and if he meet a 
man he will regard it aa a good on*. 

al-FALAQ (<J^), "The Day- 
break" The titlo of the cxruth Sarah of the 
Qor'an. The word signifies cleaving, and de- 
notes tho breaking forth of the light from the 

PALL, The (of Adam). Is known 
amongst Muslim writers as tallatu Adam, 
" the U 11/ or $lip of A dam. The term Maltak, 
•'a slip" or •• error,** being applied to pro- 
phets, bat not jaroo, " a sin," wbioh they say 
rropbeta do not commit. 

The following is the seeount of Adam's 
«*«fy>, M as giveu in theQur'an, Sursh ii. 33 :— 

M And we said, *0 Adam ! dwell thou and 
thy wife in the Garden, sud eat ye plentifully 
therefrom wherever ycllst; bnt lo this tree 
come not mgu, lest ye boeoine of the trans- 

"Bat Satan made them slip (azaUaAuma) 
from it, and caused their banishment from 
the plant In which they were. And we said, 

• (Jet ye down, the one of you en enemy to the 
other: and there shall he for you in the 
earth a dwelling-place, and s provision for a 

Surah vii 18-34 :— 

«« And, Adam! dwell thou and thy wife 
in Paradise, and nat ye whenee ye will, bat to 
this tree approach not, lest ye become of the 
unjust doers.' 

"Then Satan whispered them to show 
them their nakodness, which had been" b»« Wen 
from them both. And he ssld, 'This In* 
hath your Lord forbidden you/ only lest re 
Should become angels, or lost ye sUoold be- 
come lm mortals.* 

M And bo sware to them both, * Verily 1 
am unto yon one who oounsolleth aright. 1 

"So he beguiled lb era by deceite: and 
when' they had Usiod of the tree, their naked- 
ness appeared to them, arid they began to 
sew together upon themselves the lea res of 
the garden. And their [«ord called to them, 

* Did I not forbid you this troe, and did I not 
nay to you," Verily. 8ntan is your declared 
enemy " ? ' 

u They said, * our Lord 1 With ourselves 
have wv den It unjustly: if thou forgive us 
not and hare pity on us, we shall surely be 
of those who parish.* 

** tie ssid. ' Get ye down, the one of you an 
enemy to the other; and on earth shall be 
your dwelling, and your provision for a 

" He said. • On it shall ye live, and on it 
shall y» die, and from It shall ye be taken 
forth.' " 

SOrabxx. 1 14- 120 I— 

"And of old We insdo a covenant with 
Adam • but ho forgot it ; and we found no 
firmness oj ytujHM* in him. 

« And when We said to the sngels, •* Fall 
down and worship Adam,' they worshipped 
all. savo EMis, **hn refut>od: sud Wo tiaid. 



* O Adam 1 this truly is a foe to thee and to 
thy wife. Let him not therefore drive you 
out of the garden, and ye become wretched ; 

" ' For to thee it t> granted that thou shalt 
not hunger therein, neither shalt thou be 

"« Aud that thou shalt not thirst therein,' 
neither shalt thou parch with heat ' ; 

"But Satan whispered him: said he, '0 
Adam f shsll I shew thee the tree of Eternity, 
and the Kingdom that failelh net t * 

"And they both ate thereof, and their 
nakednoss appeared to them, and they began 
to sew of the leaves of the Garden to cover 
them, and Adam disobeyed bis Lord and 
went astray 

44 Afterwards his Lord chose him for him- 
self, and was turned towards him. and guided 

The Muslim Commentators are much per- 
plex sd as to the scene of the fall of Adam. 
From the teat of the Qor'an it would appear 
that the Paradise spoken of was in heaven 
and not on earth ; and the tradition, that a hen 
Adam was oast forth he fell on the islsnd of 
Oerlon, would support this view. But el- 
Baiftswi says some ssjr the Garden of Rdon 
was situated either In the country of the 
Philistines or in Paris, snd that Adsm was 
east out of it snd sent In the direction oi 
Hindustan. But this view he rejects, and 
maintains thst the Garden of Eden was In the 
heavens, and that the fall occurred before 
Adorn and Eve inhabited this earth of ours. 

The Muhammadan commentators are silent 
as to the effects of Adam*s fall upon the 
hnman race. 


Abo Hantfah is of opinion that a false wit- 
ness mu»t bo publicly stigmatised, bnt not 
chastised with blows; but the Imams ash- 
ShaiH, Yusuf, and Mohammad are of opinion 
that he should be scourged and imprisoned. 

In the Law of Moses, a false witness was 
punished with the punishment of the offenoe 
it sought to establish. Deut xx. I9j •• Thou 
shah do nnto him ss hs had thought to do 
unto his brother." [avminoi.] 

FAN A' (»Ui). Extinction. The 
last stage in the $uflistic journey, [su- 

FAQIH (***»). A Muhammadan 
lawyer or theologian. The term is still re- 
tained in 8panisb as alfaqui, [tiQH.] 

FAQIB (jetf). Persian darwenh. 
The Arabic word foqir signifies " poor**; but 
it is used in the sense of being in need of 
mercy, and poor in the sight of God, rather 
than In need of worldly assistance. Darwah 
is a Persian word, derived from dor, "a 
door," i.e. those who beg from door to door. 
The terms are generally used for those who 
lead a religious life. Religious faqirs are 
divided into two great olasses, the oasAar* 
(with the law), or those who govern their 
oonduct according to the principles of Islim \ 

Digitized by 




end the 6c «W (without lb* law), or those 
who do not rale tLeir live* according to the 
principles of any religious creed, although 
they oaU themselves Mueulmane. The for- 
mer ere oalled ssVifc, or travellers on the 
pathway ((arioak) to heaven ; and the latter 
are either droV (free), or majzub (abstracted). 
The iolik emhraeo the various religious 
ordert who perform the u'sts, described in 
Ihe artiole six*. 

The Mcyiub faqirs are totally absorbed in 
religious reverie. The Azia shave their 
beards, wbiekers,mousteebios,eye-browo,*nd 
eye-lashes, and lead Uvee of celibaoy. 

The AM and Mqjguk faqirs can eoarocly 
be eaid to be Mulmmmadans, as they do not 
say the regular prayers or cbserre the ordi- 
nances of Islam, so that a description of their 
various seote doeenot fall within the bmite of 
this work. The Salik faqirs sre divided into 
very numerous orders ; but their chief differ- 
ence consists in their siUitaA, or chain of 
succession, from their greet teachers, the 
fthattfahs Abu Bakr and 'Ali, who are said 
to have been the founders of tbo religious 
ordor of faqirs. 

It is impossible to beoomo acquainted with 
all the rfclos end ceremonies of the numerous 
orders of faqirs ; for, like those of the Free' 
masons and other secret societies, they are 
not 'divulged to the uninitiated. 

The doctrines of the darwesb orders are 
those of the $ufi mystics, and their religious 
ceremonies consist of exereisee called tilers, or 
" recitals.** [six a, suwism ] 

M. D'Ohssoo, in his celebrated work on the 
Ottoman Empirt % tiacee the origin of the 
order of faqirs to the time of Muhammad 

. M In the first year of tho Hfjrah, forty-five 
ohixons of Makkah joined tbemselv ee to as 
many others of al-Madinah. They took an 
oath of fidelity to the doctrines of their Pro- 
phet, and formed a sect or fraternity, the 
objeot of which was to ostablish among 
themselves'* eommunity of property, and to 
perform every day certain religious practices 
in a spirit of peaitenoe and mottifioation. To 
distinguish tnemeeWes from otner Mu^am- 
madans, they took the name or Sufis. 
[sdfiism.] This name, which later was at- 
tributed to the meet aealous partisans of 
Islim, is the same still is use to Indicate any 
Musiumin who retires from the world to 
study, to lead a life of pious contemplation, 
and to follow the most painful exercises of an 
exaggerated devotion. To the name of Sufi 
they added also that of Caqir, because their 
maxim was to renouueo the goods of 'the 
earth, and to live in an entire abnegation of 
all worldly enjoyments, following thereby the 
words of the Prophet, ul-faqru faibri, or 
Poverty- is my pride.' Following their ex- 
ample, Abu Bakr and 'All established, even 
during the life-time of the Prophet and under 
his own eyes, religious orders, orer whioh 
each presided, with Zikrs or peculiar reli- 
gious esoroiscs, established by them sepa- 
rately » and a vow token by each of the volun- 
tary disciples forming them On his decease, 


Aba Bakr made over his offloe of president to 
one Salmanu 1-Pirisi, and *Ali to al-Hasanm 
l-Beeri, and each of these ehargee were con- 
secrated under the titie &nalitah, •* •on* 
oessor. The two first suooeseors followed 
the example of the Kbalifans of Islim, and 
transmitted it to their suocessora, and these 
In turn to others the most aged and Tenor- 
able of their fraternity Some among thsm, 
led by the delirium of the imagination, wan- 
dered away from the primitive rules of their 
society, 'end oonverted, from time to time 
these fraternities into a multitude of religious 

•' They were doubtlessly emboldened in 
this enterprise by that of a recluse who, In 
the thirty-seventh year of the Hljreh (e,D. 
657) formed the first order of anchorets of 
the greatest austerity, named U wais al-Kariai, 
a native of Kara, in Yemen, who one day 
announced that the arobtngel Gabriel had 
appeared to him in a dream, and in the 
name of the Eternal God commanded him to 
withdraw from the world, and to give himself 
up to a lifo of contemplation and penitence 
This visionary pretended also to have received 
from that beavouly visitor the plan of bis 
future conduct, and the rules of his institu- 
tion These oonsisied in a continual absti- 
nence, in retirement from society, m an aban* 
donatent of the. pleasures of innocent nsture, 
and A tho recital of an infinity of prayers 
day and sight (£*rs> Uwsis even added to 
these praotiooa. He went so far as to draw 
out his teeth, in hondur, it is said, of the 
Prophet, who hed lost two of his own in the 
celebrated battle of Uhnd. He required Ida 
ditoiples to make the same sacrifice. He 
pretended that all these who would be espe* 
dally favoured hy heaven, and really called 
to the exereisee of his Order, should loee 
their teeth ip a supernatural manner ; that an 
sngel should draw out their teeth whilst in 
the midst of a deep sleep ; and that on awaken- 
ing tttey should find tnom by their bedside. 
The experiences of euch a vocation were 
doubtless too severe to attract many prose- 
lytes to the order ; it only enjoyed a certain 
degreo of attraction for fanatics and credu- 
lously ignorant people during the first days 
of Islam Sinoe then it has remained in 
Yaman, where it originated, and where its 
partisans were slways but fsw in number.'* 

It was about a a 4t (a-©. 766), that the 
Sheikh Alwan, a mystio renowned lor hie* 
religious fervour, founded the first regular 
order of faqirs, now known as the A twa n iy m k , 
with its special rules and religious exerouee, 
although similar associations of men without 
strict rules had existed from the dajs of Abfi 
Bakr, the Ar»% l&alifah. And sHacugh 
there is the formal declaration of Muham- 
mad, ** Let there be no monastioism in Islim." 
still the inclinations of Eastern racoe to a 
solitary and a contemplative life, carried it 
even against the positive opposition of ortho- 
dox Islim, and now there is scarcely e 
msuliwi Or learned man of reputation in 
Islam who ia not a member of some religious 

Digitized by 



Bach century gave blrtb to new orders, 
named after their respective founders, but in 
the preeent day there is no means of ascer- 
taining the actual Bomber of theee assoeia- 



tions of myitio Muatim*. M. D*Ohsson, in 
the work already quoted, gives a list of 
thirty-two orders, but it is by no means com- 


Name of the 


Place of the 




Founder's Shrine. 




Alwanfrah . 
Adhamivah . 
BevtaWyth . 

Shaikh Ahran . 

Jeddah . 




Ibrahim ibn Adham 





Bayaaid Bastami 

Jabal Bastam 




Qadiriyah . 






Abdu 1-Qadir Jilani 






Saiyid Anmad Ruiai 
Shihahu 'd-Din 











Najmo 'd-Din . 






Abu 1-Heean . 






Jalalu 'd-Dm Rami . 

Oonyah . 




Badawiyab . 

Abo 1-Fitan Ahmad 

Tanta, Egypt 
Qasri Arifan 





Pir Muhammad 




SaduM-Din . 






Haji Bakhtash . 

Kir Sher 





Umar Khalweti 






Zainu M*Dln 

Kufah . 




Abdul Ohani. 





Bahrmmiyah • 

Ha]i Bahraml . 





AtbrSflvah . 

Aahraf Rumi 

Chin lanie 





Abu Bakr Wafai 

Aleppo . 




QunbuHyab . 

Sunbul Yusuf Bulawi 





Oulshaniyah . 

Ibrahim Qulshani 





Ighit Bajbjyah 
Umm Sunaniyeh . 

Shamsu 'd-Din . 





Shaikh Umm Sunan 





Jalwatiyah • 





Asbaqiyah • 

Hasanu 'd-Din . 





Shamstosh . 
Sunan UmmJyah . 

Shamsu M^Din . < 





A Km 8unan Ummi . 

Alwali . 




Nlyariyah . . 
Muredlveh . . 

Muhammad Nlyai . 





Morad Sham! . 






Nuru *d-Din . 





JamaHyah . 

Jamalu'd-Dra . 




Three e! tfceae orders, the Basfcamiyah, the 
Haqshbandiyah, and the Befchtashiyah, de- 


•send from the original order establiahed by 
the first Kbalifah, Abu Bakr. The fourth 

l&alifah, •All, gave birth to all the others. 
Each order has Its tt/stiriA, or ohain of auo- 
cession, from one of these two great 

The Hsashbandiyah, who are the followers 
of Shwajao Ffr Muhammad Naqshband, are 
a very numerous order. They usually per- 
form the Zikr-i-ghafi, or silent devotions, 
described in the account of stkjl 

The first duty of the members of this 
Order is to recite, daily, particular pravers, 
called the kAdtim kAdwjagan ; once, at losst, 
the fitlghfar (Prayer for Forgiveness); seven 
times the taiamat; seven times the Fatikah 
(first chapter of the Qur'un) ; nine times tbo 
chapter of the Qur an called tnthtrdh (Chapter 
xciv.); laetly, the Ikhtai (Chapter oxii). 
To these are added tho ceremonlea called 
gikr. [mk*.] 

For those recitals they meet together once 
a week. Ordinarily, this is on Thursday, 
and after the fifth prayer of the day, so 
that it occurs after night-fail. In each city, 
suburb, or quarter, tbe members of this 
association, divided into different bodies, 
assemble at tbe house of their respective pir 
or shaikh, where, seated, they perform their 

Digitized by 




pious exercises with the most perfect gra- 
Tity. The shaikh, or any other brother in 
his stead, ohants the prayers which constitute 
the association, and the assembly respond in 
chorus, •• Hu (He)," or " Allah \ n In some 
cities, the Naqshbandiyah have especial 
halls, consecrated wholly to this purpose, 
and then the shaikh, only is distinguished 
from the other brethren by a special turban. 
The BaKbta^htyub was ft.uodod by • 
native of Bukhnru, ami i* celebrated as 
being tho order which eventually gave birth 
to the fanatical order of Janissaries. The 
symbol of their order is the mystic girdlo, 
which they put off and on seven times, 

1. " I tie up greediness, and unbind gene- 

2. ** I tie up anger, snd unbind meekness." 
8. " I tie up avarice, and unbind piety.* 1 

4. •* I tie up ignorance, »nd unbind the feai 
ol Ood. w 

5. " I tie up passion, snd unbind the love 
of God." 

6. *• I tie up hungor, and unbind (spiritual) 
contentment. '* 

7. " I tie up Satanism and unbind Divine- 

The Maulawiyah arc the most popular reli- 
gious order of faqirt in ihe Turkish empire. 


with high round felt cape and brown mantles 
At a given signal th«»y all fall flat on their 
faces, and rise und walk cdowlv round and 
round with their arms f aided, bowing eud 
turning slowly several times. Tliejr then diet 


off their mantles und appoar in long bell- 
shaped petticoats and jackets, and then bow in 
to spin, revol ring, dnneing and turning with 
extraordinary vcloeily [zikb,] 


They are called by Europeans, who witness 
their aikrs and various religious perform- 
ances at Constantinople and Osiro, the 
•• dancing," or " whirling " darweshee. They 
wore founded by the Maulawi Jalelu 'd-din 
ar-RQmi, tho renowned author of the Afaitiawi, 
a took muoh read hi Persia, and, indeed, in 
all parts of Islam. 

They ha to service at their talc yah, or " con- 
vent," every Wednesday and Sunday at two 
oolock. Thero are HDoat twenty performen , 


The Qadiriyah sprang from the oelebrated 
Saiyid 'Abdu 'l-Qftdir, surnamed Pir-i-Daiia 
glr, whose shrine is at Bagdad. They prac- 
tise both the Zikr-i-Jati and the &kr i- 
Klaf'u Most of the Sunni Maulewis on the 
north-west frontier of India are members of 
this order. In Egypt it is moat popular among 

The Ohishtiyah axe followers of Mu'itiu 'd- 
din Banda Nawia, eurnamed the G'ise 
diu'dz, or the M long»ringlettecL" His shrine 
is at Calburgah. 

The ShI'aha generally beoome faqira of tbia 
order. They are partial to vocal musio, for 
the founder of the order remarked that 

Digitized by 



tinging wm the food and support of tho soul 
They perform the 2t*r-i-,/a/l, described in 
the Article on iikb. 

The Jalaliyah were founded by Saiyid 
JsIAlu 'd-din, of Bukhara, They are met 
with in Central Asia. Roligious mendicanta 
are often of thin order. 

The Suhrwardlyah are a popular order in 
Afghanistan, and comprise a number of learned 
men. They are the followers of Shihibu 'd- 
din of Suhrward. of al-'Iraq. These are the 
most noted orders of ba $har* faqirs. 

The be *har* faqirs are v*rj numerous. 

The' most popular order in India is that 
of the Murdirtyah, founded by Zinda 
Shah Murdar, of Syria, whose shrine is at 
Makanpur, in Oudh. From those hare sprung 
the Mnlang faqirs, who crdwd the bazaars of 
Tndis. They wear their hair matted and tied 
in a knot. The Ruf a'lyah order is also a name* 
reus one in some part* of Tndia. They prac- 
tice the most serere discipline, and mortify 
themselvAs by boating their bodies. They are 
known in Turkey and Kgypt as the " Howl, 
ing Darweshes.** 

Another well-known order of darwefthen is 
the QatanfiarivaA, or M Wandering DarweNhes.** 
founded by Qalandar YQsuf al-Andalusi. a 



A QALAWnAR. (7?re*«rw.) 

native of Spain. Ho wss for a llmo a member 
of the Bakmawhis ; but having W^n dismissed 
from the ordnr, he established one of his own, 
with the obligation of jterpctual travelling. 
The Qalsndsr faqir is s prominent character 
in Eastern romance. 

Bach order is established on difforent prin- 
ciples, and has its rules ami statutes and 
peeuHar doTotions. Those ohsraeteristicii ex- 
tend eren to the garments worn by their fol- 
lowers. Each order has, in fact, a particular 

dress, and amongst the greater part of them 
this is chosen so as to mark a difference in 
that of the shaikh from that of the ordinary 
members. It is perceived principally in the tur- 
bans, the shape of the ooat, the oolours, and the 
nature of the stuff of which the dresses are 
made. The shaikh" *<>ar robes of groen or 
white oloth ; and any of those who in winter 
line them with fur, use that kind called petit 
gris and sibaline martin. Few darweshes use 

▲ ftUKA'l IN ECSTATIC*. (Brown.) 

cloth for their dress. Dlnck or white folt dresses 
called «cW\ such as are made in some of the 
cities of Anatolia, are tbo moat usual. Those 


CAiao. (From a Photograph,) 

who wear black felt aro the Jalwattls and 
tbeQadiris. The latter hare adopted it for 
their boots, and muslin for their turbans, 

Digitized by 




Soma, snob M the Maulawis and ths Bakrio, 
wear tall cap* called tu/das, made alao of felt ; 
and. otbere. eooh at the Rufa'ie, uee snort 
cape called Jiqiysh, to which ie added a 
coaree cloth. The head-dress of almost all 
the darweshes is called taj, which signifies 
a "orown/ These turbans are of different 
form*, either from the manner in wbioh the 
mnolin .is folded, or by the ont of the cloth 
which covers the top of tho head. The cloth 

am ior?n>M fakir, (frost a Photograph,) 

is in several gores. 8oroe hare four, as the 
Adhamis; some six. an the Qtdirif and 
the Ba'dis ; foe Oulshanlo have eight ; the 
Ba^tashis twelve •, and the Jalwatis eighteen. 

4H aormAK raQia. (From a Photograph.) 

The darweshee cany abont with them one 
or other of the following articles : a small 


crooked stick or Iron, wbioh the devotee 
plaoes under bis arm-pit or forehead, to lean 
upon when he meditates, or an iron or brass 
bar on wbioh there is a little artificial hand 
wherewith to scratch his unwashed body a 
bag made of lamb -skin, a kashkul or beg- 
gar's wallet 

Generally, all tbe darweshes aHogii their 
beards and mustaohio* to grow. Some of tbe 
orders— -the Qadiris, Rufa*is, E&alwatjs, Oui- 
shanis, Jalwatis, and the Nuru 'd-<iini#-~ still 
wear long hair, in memory of the usage of the 
Prophet and aeveral of hie diooJplee, Some 
allow their hair to fall over their shoulders; 
others tie It up sod pat it under their turban. 
Whilst private If usulniins are in the habit 
of holding rosaries of beads as a pastime, the 
darweshes do the same, only in a spirit of 
religion and piety. Theee rosaries have 
thirty-three, sixty -six, or ninoty nine beads, 
which is the number of the attrlbuice of the 
Divinity [aonl Some have them always in 
their hands, others in their girdles ; and all 
ate required to recite, several times during 
the day, tbe particular prayers of their order. 

Tbe individual who dsejrss to enter an 
order k received U an assembly of the fra- 
ternity, presided over by tbe shaikh, who 
touches bis hand and breathes la his ear 
three times the words, " L* flaJkaitta'Uah" 
( u There is no god but GodV oonuni 
him to repeat them 101. 151, or 301 
each day This eeremonv is celled the 
Taiofn. The recipient, faithful to the orders 
of his enter, obligates himself to spend bis 
time in perfect retirement, and to report to 
the sheiah ties visions or dreams which he 
may haje auriog the course of his novitiais 
These dreams, besides characterising the 
sanctity of his vocation, and hi* spiritual 
advancement in the order, serve likewise as 
so many supernatural means to direct the 
•hfikh «t>rdlng the periods when ho may 
again breathe in the ear of tho neophyte the 
second words of tho initiation, ^Va Allah I 9 
('•OGod!") 9 and successively all tho others 
to the last,")* QoAMr/» ("O avengeful 
Ocd I "> Tho full oomplomont of this exor- 
cise U called CkUUh % or "forty days," a 
poriod sometimes even longer, aoeordmg to 
the dispositions, more or loss favourable, of 
the candidate. Arrived at the last grade of 
his novitiate, ho ia then' supposed to have 

5fflT. • n ^ led **■ cmpiar » •" J W roAmi/e »#- 
Sutuk, and acquired the decree of perfec- 
tion for his solemn admission into the corns 
to whioh he has devoted, himself. During 
all bis novitiate, the recipient bears the «»t? 
of if arid; or « Disciple," and tho shaikh who 
directs him in this pretended Celestial career 
takee the title of AfursAtVf, or " Spiritual 

The founder of the Alwanis laid out the 
drat rule* of this novitiate ; they wera sub- 
sequently perfected by tho institution of tbe 
Qadiris, and more so by the gfealwatie- 
The darweshes of these two last societies are. 
distinguished in some countriss by the deco- 
ration of their turban, on the top of which 

Digitized by 



are embroidered the words "La ilaha ilia 
'Oik n (There is no god hot God> 

The teste of the novice among the Mania- 
wis eeem to be still more severe, and the 
reception of these dervishes is attended with 
ceremonies peculiar to their order. The 
aspirant is required to labour in the convent 
or takyah 1,001 successive days in tho lowest 
grade, on whioh account he is callod the 
karra kolak (jackal> If he fails in this 
service only one day, or is absent one 
night, be is obliged to recommence his novi- 
tiate. The chief of the kitchen, or a$hji- 
bashi, one of the most notablo .of the dar- 
weehec, presents him to the shaikh, who, 
seated m an angle of the sofa, receives him 
amid a general assembly of all the darweshee 
of the eonvent. Tho candidate kisses the 
hand of the shaikh, and takes a seat before 
him on a mat, which covers the floor of the 
hslL Tho chief of the kitcbon places his 
right hand on the neck, and his left hand on 
the forehead of the novice, whilst the shaikh 
takes off his csp and holds it over his head, 
reciting the following Persian <tf*lrcA,the com- 
position of the founder of the order : — 

" It is true greatness and felicity to close 
the heart to all human passions ; the aban- 
donment of the vanities of this world is tho 
happy effect of the victorious strength given 
by the grace of our Holy Prophet." 

Theee verses are followed by the exor- 
dium of the Takblr, * Alliku akbar—Qod is 
great," after which the shaikh covers the 
head of the new darwesh, who now rises and 
places himself with the Ashjibash! in the 
middle of the hall, whero they assume the 
most humble posture, their hands erossod 
upon the breast, the loft foot over the right 
foot, and the head inclined towards the loft 
shoulder. Tho shaikh addressee theso words 
to the head of the kitchen :— 

"May the services of this darwesh, thy 
brother, be a g reeable to the throne of the 
Eternal, and in the eyes of our Kr (the 
founder of the order); may his satisfaction, 
bis felicity, and his glory grow in this nest 
of the bumble, in the cell of the poor; 
let ua exolaim i Hu! t in honour of our 

They answer u Hil n and tho accepted 
novice, arising from his place, kisses tho 
hand of the shaikh* who at this moment 
addressee to him somo paternal exhortations 
on the subject of the duties of his new condi- 
tion, and closes by ordering all the darweshes 
of the meeting to reoogniso and embrace their 
new brother. 

The following is said to bo the usual 
method of admitting a Moljsmmadan to tho 
order of t 6a shar* faqir in India. Having 
first performed the legal ablutions, the murid 

S disciple) seats himself before the mwthid 
spiritual guide! The murshid then takes 
the murid'e rignt hand, and requires of him 
a confession of sin according to the following 



•« I ask forgiveness of the great God than 
Whom there is no other deity, the Eternal, 
the Everlasting, the Living One: I turn to 

Him for repentance, and beg His grace and 

This, or a similar form of repentance, is 
repeated several times. The murid then 
repeats after tho mnrnhid : — 

"I beg for the favour of God and of the 
Prophet, and I take for my guide to God 
such a one (here naming tho murshid) not to 
ohango or to separate from him. God is our 
witness. By the great God. There is no 
deity but God. Anion." 

The murshid and the murid then recite 
the first chapter of the Qur'an, and the murid 
ooncludes tbe ceremony by kissing the 
murshid*s hand. 

After the initiatory rite, the murid under- 
goes a series of Instructions, including the 
it£rt, whioh he if required to repeat daily. 
The murid frequently visits his murshid, and 
semetimos the mufshid t proceed on a circuit 
of visitation to their disciples. The place 
where thoso M holy men " sit down to instruct 
the people is ever afterwards held saored, a 
small flag is hoisted on' a tree, and it is fenced 
in. Such plaoes are called " takyakf and are 
proteotod and kept free from pollution by 
somo faqir engaged for the purpose. 

Another account of the admission of a 
murid, or " disciplo," into the order of Qadi- 
riyah faqirs, is given, by Tawakkul Beg in the 
Journal Aiiatique : — 

" Having been introduced by Akhmnd 
Mulla Muhammad to Shaikh Mulla Shah, mv 
heart, through frequent intercourse with 
him, wss filled with such a burning desire 
to arrive it a true knowledge of the mystical 
science, that I found no sleep by night, nor 
rost by day. When the initiation commonced, 
I paused the whole night without sleep, and 
repeatod innumerable times tho 8uratu 1- 

1 Say : He is God alone ; 

God the eternal : 

Ho b*getteth not, and He is not be* 

gotten : 
And there is nono like unto Him.' 

(Surah exit.) 

'* Whosoever repeats this Surah one hundred 
times can accomplish all his vows. I desired 
that the shoikh should bestow on me his 
love. No sooner had I finished my task, 
than the heart of the shaikh became full of 
sympathy for me. On the following night I 
was conducted to his presence. During the 
whole of that night he concentrated his 
thoughts on me, whilst I gave mysolf up to 
inward meditation. Throe nights passed in 
this way.. On the fourth night tbe shaikh 
said:— ' Let Malls Sang^ra and $alife Beg, 
who are very susceptible to oostatic onto- 
tions, apply their spiritual energies to Ta- 
wakkul Beg.' 

" They did so, whilst I passed the whole 
night in moditation, with my face turned to- 
ward Hakkah. As the morning drew near, 
a little light oame into my mind, but I could 
not distinguish form or colour. After the 
morning prayers, I was taken to the shaikh 
who bade me inform him of my mental 
state. I repliod that I had seen a light with 


Digitized by 




my inward eye. On hearing this, the shaikh 
became animated and said: *Thy heart is 
dark, bat the time is come when I will show 
myself clearly to thee.' lie then ordered 
me to sit down in front of him, and io im- 
press his features on my mind. Then having 
blindfolded me, he ordered me to coue'entrato 
all my thoughts upon him. I did so, and in 
an instant, by the spiritual help of the shaikh* 
my. heart opened. He asked me what I saw. 
I said that I saw another Tawakkul Beg and 
another Mulls Shah. The bandage was then 
removed, and I saw the shaikh In front of 
me. Again they covered my face, and 
again I saw him with my inward eye. 
Astonished, I cried: ( maaterl whether 1 
look with my bodily eye, or with my spiritual 
sight, it is always you I see.' I then saw a 
daazling figure approach me. The shaikh 
told me to say to the apparition, 'What is 
your name?' In my spirit I put the ques- 
tion, and the figure answered to my heart : 
' lam \Abdu 1-Qidir al-Jilani, I have already 
aided thee, thy heart is opened.' Much 
affected, I vowed that in honour of the saint, 
I would repeat the whole Qur*an every Friday 

"Mulle Shah then said: 'The spiritual 
world has been shown te thee in all its 
beauty.' I then rendored perfect obedience 
to the shaikh* The following day I saw the 
Prophet, the chief Companions, and legions of 
saints and angels. After throe . months I en- 
tered the cheerless region in which the 
figures appeared no more. During the whole 
of this time the shaikh continued to explain 
to me the mystery of the doctrine of the 
Unity and of the knowlege of Qod ; but as 
yet he did not show me the absolute reality. 
It was not until a year hart passed that I 
arrived at- the true conception of unity. Then 
in words such as these I told the shaikh ot 
my inspiration. 'I look upon the body as 
only dust and water, 1 regard noither my 
heart nor my soul, alas ! that in separation 
from Thee (Qod) so much of my life has 
passed. Thw w*rt J and I knew it not' 
The shaikh was delighted, and said that the 
truth of the union with Ood was now olearly 
revealed to me. Then addressing those who 
were present, he said:— 

'* * Tawakkul Beg learnt from me the doc- 
trine of the Unity, his inward eye has been 
opened, the spheres of colours ana of images 
have been shown to him. At length, he 
entered the colourless region. He has now 
attained to the Unity ; doubt and scepticism 
henceforth have no power over him. No one 
B999 the Unity with the outward eye, till the 
inward eye gains strength and power.' " 

Each institution imposes on its darweshes 
the obligation to recite certain passages at 
different times of the day in private, as well 
as in common with others. Several have 
also practices whioh are peculiar to them- 
selves, and whioh consist in dances, or rather 
religious circular movements. In each con- 
vent there is a room consecrated to these 
exorcise-. Nothing is simpler than its con- 
struction; it oontains no ornaments of any 

nature ; the middle of the room, turned to- 
wards Makkah, contains a niche or jni$rd6, in 
front of whioh is a small oarpet, mostly made 
of the skin of a sheep, on which the shaikh °' 
the community reounes ; over the niche the 
name of the founder of the order is written. 
In some halls this inscription is surmounted 
by two others — one containing the Confession 
of Faith, and the other the words •• Bisniil- 
loh, w Ac ("In the name of Ood, the most 
Clement and Merciful.") In others are seen 
on the wall to the right and the left of the 
niche tablets, on which are written in large 
letters the name of Qod (Allah), that of Mu- 
huinmad, and those of the four first Khalifaha. 
At others are seen the names of al-Haean 
and al-Queain, grandsons of the Prophet, 
and some verses of the Qur'du, or others of a 
moral oharactor. 

The exercises whioh are followed in these 
halls are of various kinds, a description of 
whioh is given in the account of zikb. 

The more aealous faqirs devote themselves 
to the most austere acts, and shut themselves 
up in their cells, so as to give themselYes up 
for whole hours to prayer and meditation ; 
the others pass very often a whole night in 
pronouncing the words Uu and Allah, or 
rather the phrase, Li tlaha ilia 'UaJL So as 
to drive away sloop from their eyes, some of 
thorn stand for whole nights in very uncom- 
fortable positions. They sit with their feet 
ou the ground, the two hands resting upon 
their knees : they fasten themselves in this 
attitude by a band of leather passed over 
theii neck and legs. Others tie their hair 
with a oord to the ceiling, and oall this usage 
Chilleh. There are some, also, who devote 
themselvee to an absolute retirement from 
the world, and to the most rigid abstinence, 
living only on bread and water for twelve 
days successively, in honour of the twelve 
Imams of the race of *Ali. This retirement is 
called t&alwak. Thoy protend that the 
shaikh 'Amr ghalwati was the first to fol- 
low it, and that he often practised it. They 
add that one day, having left his retirement, 
he heard a celestial voioe saying, " O 'Amr 
RhalwatI, why dost thou abandon us ? n and 
that, faithful to this oracle, he felt himsolf 
obliged to oonseorato the rest of his days to 
works of peuitenoe, and even to institute an 
order undor the name of Ifh alwatis. a uaiuo 
signifying ■« living in retirement.'* For this 
reason, darweshes of this order consider it 
their duty, more than any others, to live in 
solitude and abstinence. The more devoted 
among them observe sometimes a painful 
fast of forty days consecutivoly, called by 
them ai-arfcavn (forty), ^mougst them all 
their object is the expiation of their sins, the 
sanotifioation of their lives, and the glorifica- 
tion of Islam; the prosperity of the state, and 
the general salvation of the Muhamniadan 
people. The moot ancient and the greatest 
of the orders, such as the Alwanis, the Ad- 
hamls, the Qadiris, the Rufa'is, the Naq«h- 
bandia, the Rhalwatia, &c, are considered as 
the cardinal orders; for which reason th#v 
call themselves the U$uU t or •• Originals** 

Digitized by 



They give to the others the name* of the 
Fur*, or "Branches," signifying thereby 
secondary ones, to designate their filiation 
or emanation from the first. The order of 
the Naqshbandis end gfcalwatis hold, how- 
sver, the first rank in the temporal line ; the 
one on aoeoont of the conformity of Its sta- 
tutes to the principles of the ten first con* 
fraternities, and to the lustre which oansee 
the grandees and principal oitisens *>f the 
empire to incorporate themselves in It ; and 
the other, because of its being the sonroo of 
the mother society which gave birth to many 
others, In the spiritual line, the order of 
the Qadiris, Manlawis, Bafcfctashls, Bufa'is, 
and the Si'dis, are the most distinguished, 
especially the three first, on acoount of the 
eminent sanctity of their founders, of the mul- 
titude of the miracles attributed to them, and 
of the superabundance of the merit which is 
deemed especially attached to them. 

Although all of them are considered as 
mendicant orders, no darwesh is allowed to 
beg, especially in public The only exception 
is among the Ba&tishls, who deem H meri- 
torious to lire by alms ; and many of these 
visit not only private houses, but even the 
streets, publio squares, bureaux, and publio 
houses, for the purpose of recommending 
themseWes to the oherity of their brethren. 

They only express their requests by the 
words " Skayid UBmk? a corruption from 
« Shayun li-'lUA? which means, M Something 
for the lore of God." "Many of these make it 
a rule to Bto only by the labour of their 
hands, in imitation of Haji Bakhtash* their 
founder; and, like him, they make spoons, 
ladles, graters, and other utensils, of wood or 
marble. It is these, Also, who fashion the 
pieces of marble, white or veined* which are 
used as ooQars or buckles for the belts of 
all ths darweshes of their order, and the 
hukkmU, or shell cups, in which they are 
obliged to ask alms. 

Although in no wise bound by any oaths, 
all being free to change their community, and 
even to return to ths world, and there to 
adopt anv occupation whioh may please their 
fanoT, it is rarely that anyone makes use of 
this liberty. Bach one regards it as a sacred 
duty to end his days in the dress of his order. 
To this spirit of poTerty and perseverance, in 
which they are so exemplary, must be added 
that of perfect submission to their superior. 
This latter is elevated by the deep humility 
whioh aooompanies all thVjr conduct, not 
only in the interior of the cloisters, but even 
in prirate life. One ne^er meets them any- 
where but with head bent snd the most 
respectful oonntenanoa. They never salute 
anyone, particularly the Manlawis, and the 
Bakhtashfs, except by the sxolaniation, "Y* 
Rut n ThewordsiM6t-7^"thankstoGod," 
frequently are used in their conversation; and 
the more devout or enthusiastic speak only 
of dreams, visions, celestial spirits, super- 
natural objects, 4c 

They are seldom exposed to the trouble 
and vexations of ambition, because the most 
sndsnt darweshes are these who may aspire 



to the grade of shaifrh. or superior oi the 
convent. The shai&fes are named by their 
respective generals, called the Raisu 1- 
Mrnhankh (chief of shaikh). Thoi«o of the 
Manlawis have the distinctive title of Olte- 
leby Efendi. All reside in the same cities 
whioh contain the ashes of the founders of 
their orders, called by the name of Astineh 
signifying "the court." They are subordi- 
nate to the Mufti of the capital, who oxer- 
cisee absolute jurisdiction over them. In the 
Turkish Empire the ShaiUu 1-lslim has the 
right of removing all the generals of the va- 
rious orders, even those of the Qidiris, the 
Manlawis. snd of the BsfcJitishis, although 
the dignity be hereditary in their family, on 
account of their all throe being sprung from 
the blood of tho same founders of their 
orders. The Mu/li hss likewise the right to 
confirm the shaikhs who msy be nominatod 
by any of the generals of the orders* 

(See The Derviekee or Oriental Spiritualism, 
by John P. Brown ; Malcolm's Persia ; Lane's 
Modem Egyptian* : D'Ohsson's Ottoman Em- 
pin ; Ubioini's Letters on Turkey ; Herklott's 
Musalmans; Taikiratu 'l-Auliya, by Shaikh 
Faridu 'd-Din al-'AMar.) 

FAQR (yu). The life of a Faqir 
or an ascetic 

FARA' (&*). The first-born of 
either camels, sheep, or goats, which the 
Arab pagans used to offer to idols. This 
was Allowed by the Prophet at the com- 
mencement of his mission, but afterwards 
abolished. (MitAkit , book iv. c 50.) 

FABAIZ (<y*V)» pi. of JfcriiaA. 
" Inheritances. r A term used for the law of 
inheritance, or *Ilmu 7->Yirs?i>. Parlsah means 
literally an ordinance of God, and this, branch 
of Muslim law is so called because it is esta- 
blished fully in the Qur'an, Sarah iv. [xmhb- 

FARAQ (jy). IAL " Separation." 
Faraq-t-Avnoal is a term used by SMI 
mystics to express that state of mind in which 
tho soul is drawn away from a contempla- 
tion of God by a contemplation of his crea- 
tion; and faraq-i-tani (the second separa- 
tion) is when the soul is constantly contem- 
plating the stability of ths creation with the 
eternity of the Creator. ('Abdu V-Bassaq's 
Dictionary of$ufi Terms.) 

FABAQLIT (W»». The Arabic 
rendering of the Greek wafxixXtrrot, * Para- 
olete." Mulyammadan writers assert that it 
is the original of the word translated Ahmad 
in the following verse in the Qur'an, Sftr*h 
bdv. 6>— 

"And call to mind when Jesus, son of. 
Mary, said :— «Q ohildren of Israeli Verily I 
am an Apostle of God unto you, attesting the 
TVmrdt revealed before me, and giving good 
tidings of a Prophet that shall oome after 
whose name is Ahmad." 

A^mad is another derivative of the root to 
whioh Muhammad belongs, signifying, like it, 

Digitized by 




" the Praised." It is not improbable lhat in 
some imperfect oopies of St. John xvi. 7, 
napdKkqros may have boon rendered tt^m- 
kAvtos, which m some early Arabic transla- 
tion of the Gospel may haye been tr&UKlated 
Ahmad, in the Jlrfcy'ma'u 'I- Bihar, a work 
written three hundred years aeo, the word 
firaqht is said to mean a distmguisher be- 
tween truth and error The word ulao occurs 
several times in the well-knowu Shi'ah work, 
the Hayatu 'l-Quliib (vu{e Merrick's trunca- 
tion, page 86) The author says, " It is well 
known that his (the Prophet's) name in the 
Tourat is Aluddmuad, in the gospels (Injil) 
Tdttab, and in the Psalni* (Zabur) Faro*- 
Uttr And again (p. 808), « God said to 
Jesus. Son of my handmaid . . . verily 
I will ueud the chosen of prophets, Ahmad, 
whom 1 huvo selected of all my creature*, 
oven Forkalrct, uiy friond and servant." 

FAKSAKK (t-y). Persian Far- 
tang. A land measure which occurs in Mu- 
hammadan books of Jaw. It is a league of 
18,000 feet, or throe and a hall miles hi 

PARWAH (V). An Arab of the 
Banu Juzaiu and Governor of 'Amman, who 
Is represented by tradition (upon imperfect 
evidence) as one of the early martyrs of 
lslSm. Having been converted to Islam, the 
Roman authorities crucified him. (Muir's 
Life of MaMomsl, vol. ii p. 103.) 

FAB? (o*^). That which is obli- 
gatory. A term used for those rules and or- 
dinance* of religion which are said to have 
been established and onjointd by Qod Iftm- 
solf, as distinguished from those which are 
established upon the precept or practice of 
the Prophet, and which are called suunaJi. 

FAU? KIFA'l (JM ^tji), A 

command which is imperative (farx) upon 
all Muslims, but which if one person in eight 
or ten performs it, it is sufficient (kifffi) % or 
equivalent to all having performed it. 

They are generally held to bo five in num- 
ber : (1) To return a salutation j (2) To visit 
the sick and inquire after their welfare ; (8) 
To follow a bior on foot to the grave ; (4) To 
accept an invitation to dinner; (5) Replying 
to a sneeze, [bnuezimq.] 

They are also said to "be six or seven in 
number, when there are addod one or two 
of the following: (I) To gi*e advice when 
asked for it; (2") To help a Muslim to 
verify his oath; (3) To a&sist a person in 
distress. 'Abdu 1-Haqq says this last injunc- 
tion applies to all cases, whether thai of s 
Muslim or an infidel. (Mtshkdt, book v. c. i. 
pari 1.) 

FAlt?U 'L-'AIN (t^*J\ ^y). An 

injunction or ordinanco the obligation of 
which extendi to every Muslim, as prayer, 
fasting, dec. 

FASJD (*-^). A seditious or re- 
hellious person 


FASIQ (j~U). A term used in 
Muhuinmudan law for a reprobate person 
who neglects decorum In his dress and beha- 
viour. The acceptance of suoh a person's evi- 
dence ia not admissible. He is not regarded 
as a Muslim citizeo, although he may profess 

FASTING. Arabic Saum ( rr ); 
Persiap Bozah («j-y). Fasting was 
highly commended by Muhammad as an 
atonement for sin. The following are the 
fasts founded upon the example of the Pro- 
phet and observed by devout Muslims : — 

(1) The thirty-days of the month of Mama- 
zun. This month's fast is regarded as a 
divine institution, being enjoined in the 
Qur'on (Surah ii. 180) and is therefore com- 
pulsory. [UAMAZAM.1 

(2) The day Aihura'. The tenth day of 
tho mouth Muharram. This* is a voluntary 
fast, but it is pretty generally observed by all 
MuMlims, for Abu Qatadah relates that the 
Prophet said he hoped that the fast of 
'Ashura' would oover the sins of the coming 
year. (Mishkdt, book vii. ch. vii. pt. 1.) 

[ 4 ASlIUJtA\] 

(3) The six days following the «/m* 7- Fi$r. 
Abu Aiyub relates that the Prophet said 
•* The porson who fasts the month of Rama- 
zan, and follows it up with six days of the 
month ot Shawwftl, will obtain the rewards or 
a continued fast." (Mishkdt. book vii. ch. vii. 
pt. 1.) 

(4) The Monday and Thursday of every 
week are recommended as fast days, as dis- 
tinguished from the Christian fast of Wed- 
nesday. Abu tfurairah relates that the Pro- 
phet said, " The actions of Ood's servants 
are represented at the throne of Qod on 
Mondaya and Thursdays." (Mishkdt, oooy 
vii. ch. vii. pt. 2.) These days are only 
observed by strictly religious Muslims. 

(5) The mouth of Shaben. 'Ayishah re 
lates that " the Prophet used sometimes to 
fast part of this month and sometimes the 
whole." (Mishkat book vii. ch. vii pt. 1.) 
It is seldom observed in the present day 

(6) The 13th, 14th, and 15th of each 
month. These days aro termed ai-ayyatt*u 7- 
lif. i.e. the bright days, and were observed hy 
Muhammad umself as fasts. (Mishkdt. \nf ok 
vii. ch. vii pt. 2 ) These are generally ob- 
servod by devout Muslims, 

(7) Fasting alternate days, which Muham- 
mad said was the fast observed by David. 
King of Israel. (Mishkat, book vii ch. vii. 

In the Traditions, fasting is commended by 
Muhammad in the following words :— 

•• Every good act that a man does shall 
receive from ten to geeen hundred rewards 
but tho rewards of fasting are h and bound*, 
for fastii. is for God alone and He will give 
its rewards." 

" He who fast* abandons the cravings of 
his appetites for God's sake. 

" There are two pleasures in fasting, one 
when the person who fasts breaks it and the 
otherin the next world when he meets his 

Digitized by 



Lord. The Tory smell of the month of a 
Yeeper of a fast is more agreeable to God 
than the smell of musk." 

" Pasting is a shield.* 

u When any of yon fast utter no bad words, 
nor raise your voice in strife. If anyone 
abuse ono who is fasting, let him refrain from 
replying: let him say that he is keeping a 
fast* (Mi$hkat % hook vii. oh. i pt. 1.) 


ax-FATH (^saN), "The victory." 
The title of the XLvnrih Surah of the Qur'an, 
*n the first verse of which the word occurs. 
u Verily We (Qod) have givon thee an obvious 
victory, that Ged may pardon thee thy for- 
mer and later sin." 

Professor Palmer says •• S*me of tho com- 
mentators take this to mean sins committed 
by Muhammad before his call and after it 
Others refer the word to the liaison with the 
Coptic handmaiden Mary, and to his mar- 
riage with Zaineb.the wife of his adopted son 
Zeid." None of the commentators we have 
consulted, including al-Baisiwf, al-Jalalan, 
al-Kemilan, and ifusaiq, give tbe last in- 
terpretation. They all say it refers to his 
sins before and after his call to the Apostle- 

FATHER. In the Sunni law of 
inherits nee, a father is a sharer in the pro- 
perty of his son or son's son, taking one-sixth, 
but if his son die unmarried and without 
issue, the father is the residuary ami takes 
the whole. 

According to the law of qi$a$ or retalia- 
tion, if a father take the lifo of his son, he is 
not to be sis in, for the Propbot has said, 
" Retaliation must not be executed upon tbe 
parent for his offspring "; and Abu Hanlfan 
adds, " because as the parent is the efficient 
cause of his child's existence, it is not proper 
that the child should require or he the occasion 
of his father's death"; whence it is thst a son 
is forbidden to shoot his father, when in the 
army of the enemy, or to throw a stone st 
him, if suffering lepidation for adultery. 

In the law of evidence, tbe testimony of a 
father for or against his ohild is not admitted 
in a court of law. 

al-FATUJAH (l-Atil). Lit. " The 
opening one." The first ' chapter of the 
Qur'an, called also the Suratu 'l-Hamd, or 
the " Chapter of Praise." It is held in great 
veneration by Mu^ammadans, and is used hy 
them very much as tho Paternoiter is recited 
by Roman Catholics. It is repeated over sick 
persons as s moans of healing and also 
recited as an intercession for the souls of the 
departed, and occurs in each rak*ah of the 
daily prayer. Muhammad is related to have 
said it wss the greatest Surah in the Qur'an, 
end ro have called it the Qur'anu H^Atim, or 
the "exalted reading. ? It is also entitled 
the Sab*u 'l-Ma^ani, or the " soven recitals," 
as it contains seven verses; also Ummu 7- 
QeVmi, the " Mother of the Qur'an." Aecord- 



ing to a saying of the Prophet, the fatibak 
was revealed twioe; once at Makkah and 
once atal-Madinah. The Amfn is always said 
at the conclusion of this pruyor. 

The following transliteration of the Arabic 
of the F&tihah into English charaoters may 
givo some idea of the rhythm in which the 
Qur'an is written :— 

« ALhamthi U-Tiaki Rabbi V-'oVomfn. 
Ar-rajimani Y-raAim. 
Mdliki yawn* 'd-din. 
Ivdku na* bud a, wa-iyaka n.xsta'in. 
ihdind 7-siVJta U-muntaqlm. 
girdta 7/a«tna anUtmta 'alaihim. 
GJtairi H-mvqbzubi 'a/aiAfst, wala '*- 
Which is translated by Rodwell in his English 
Qur'an as follows :— 

•• Praise he to God. Lord of all the worlds I 
The Compassionate, tho Merciful ! 
King on the Day of Judgment I 
Thee d6 wo worship, and to Thee do wo 

cry for help 1 
Guide Thou us on the right path ! 
The path of those to whom Thou art 

gracious ! 
Not of those with whom Thou art an- 
gered, nor of those who go astray.** 

FATIMAH (IMk). A daughter 

of Muhammad, by his first wife Khadijah. 
She married 'Ali the cousin of Muhammad, by 
whom she had three sons, al-Haaan, al-Hn*ain, 
and al-Muhsin; the latter died in infsney. 
From the two former are descended the pos- 
terity of the Prophet, known as Saiyids. 
Patimah died six months after her father. 
She is spoken of. by the Prophet as one of the 
four perfect women, aud is called af-Batu!, or 
" the Virgin," by which is meant one who had 
renouncod the World, also Pd^imatu 's- 
ztihra, or " the beautiful F&tfmah." 

There are three women of the name of 
Fafcimah mentioned in tho Traditions: fl) 
Fafcimeh, the daughter of Muhammad ; (2) 
The mother of *A1I; (81 Tho daughter of 
Hannah, the uncle of Biul^ammad. 

al-F ATIMlYAH (I*«iun). « The 
Fatimidos." A dynasty of KhtUifahs who 
roignod over Egypt and North Africa from 
a.d. 008 to a.i>. 1171. They obtained the 
name from the pretensions of tho foundor of 
their dynasty Abu Mufyammad 'Ubaidu 
'Hah, who asserted that he was a Saiyid. 
aud descended from Fatfmah, tho daughter 
of the Prophet and 'AIL His opponents de- 
clared he was the grandson of a Jew of tho 
Magian religion. 

There wero in all fourteon Khaliiahs of 
this dynasty : — 

I. 'Ubaidu 'Uah, the first Fatimide Kfeali- 
fah, was born a.d. 882. Having incurred the 
displeasure of al-Muktafi, the reigning Abas- 
side Khalifah, he was obliged to wander 
through various parts of Africa, till through 
fortunate circumstances he was raised in 
A.r*. 010 from a dungeon in Segehnossa to 
sovereign power. He assumed the title of 
al-Mahdi, or •• the Director of the Faithful." 

Digitized by 





[mahdl] He subdued the Amira in the 
north of Africa, who had become independent 
of the Abassidee, and eatabliohed hit autho- 
rity from the Atlantio to the bordere of 
Egypt. He founded Mahadi on the eite of 
the ancient Aphrodieinm, a town on the ooaet 
of Africa, about a hundred milee couth of 
Tunic, and made it hie capital. He became 
the author of a great cchiem among the Mu- 
hammadan* by disowning the authority of 
the Abassidee, and aecuming the title* of 
gkalifah and Amiru *1-Mu'minin, " Prince of 
the Faithful.'* His fleete ravaged the coasts 
of Italy and Sicily, and his armice frequently 
invaded Egypt, but without any permanent 

(2) Al-Qtfm suooeeded his father in a.d. 
988. During his reign, an impostor, Abu 
Yaxid, originally an Ethiopian slave, advanced 
certain peculiar doctrines in religion, whiqh 
he was enabled to propagate over the whole 
of the north of Africa, and was so successful 
in his military expeditions as to deprive al- 
Qalm of all his dominions, and confine him to 
his capital, Mahadi, which he was besieging 
when al-Qa'im died. 

(8) Al-Ma*9*r succeeded his father in 
a.d. 946, when the kingdom wae in a 
state of the greatest confusion. By his valour 
and prudence he regained the greater part of 
the dominions of his grandfather <ubaidu 
llah, defeated the usurper Abo Tasid, and, laid 
the foundation of that power whioh enabled his 
son al-Mu*ias to oonquer Egypt. 

(4) Al-MWitx (▲.!>. 966) was the most 
powerful of the Patimide Khalifahs. He was 
successful in a naval war with Spain, and 
took the island of Sicily ; but his most cele- 
brated oenqueet was that of Egypt, which 
was subdued in a.d. 972. Two years after- 
wards he removed his court to Egypt, and 
founded Cairo. The name of the Abasside 
Khalifah was omitted in the Friday prayers,' 
and his own substituted in its plaoe ; from 
which time the great schism of the Fatimide 
and Abasside Khalifahs is more frequently 
dated than from the assumption of the title 
by < Ubaidu Hah. The armies of al-Mu<iss 
conquered the whole of Palestine and Syria as 
far as Damascus. 

(6) AL'Azii (A.D. 978\ The dominions re- 
oentjr enquired by al-Mu'lss were secured to 
the Fatimide Bfcalifahs by the wise govern- 
ment of hie son, al-'Asis, who took several 
towns in Syria. He married a Christian 
woman, whose brothers he made patriarohs 
of Alexandria and Jerusalem. 

(6) Al-fldlnvi wae only eleven years of age 
when he suooeeded his father in jld. 996. 
He is distinguished even among Oriental 
despots by his cruelty and folly. His tyranny 
caused frequent insurrections in Cairo. He 
persecuted the Jews and Christians, and 
burnt their places of worship. By his order 
the Church of the Resurrection at Jerusalem 
was destroyed (a.u. 1009). His persecutions 
of the Christian* induced them to appeal to 
their brethren in the West, and wae one of 
the causes thai led to the crusades. He 
carried hit folly no far as to seek to become 

the founder of a new religion, and to i 
that ac wae the express image of God. He 
was assassinated in a.d 1021, and wae suc- 
ceeded by his sou. 

(7) Ag-ZiAir (a.d. 1021} wae not ee cruel 
as his father, but was eddioted to pleasure, 
and resigned all the cares of government to 
hie Visire. In his reign the power of the 
Fatimide Kb*Kfaha began to decline. They 
possessed nothing but the external show of 
royalty; secluded in the harem, they were 
the slaves of their vizirs whom they oould 
not remove, and dared not disobey. In addi- 
tion to the evils of nongovernment, Egypt 
was afHioted in the reign of as-£ahir with 
one of the most dreadful famines that ever 
visited the country. 

(8) Al-Musta*9ir (aj>. 1087) wae only nine 
years old when he succeeded his father. The 
Turks invaded Syria and Palestine in his 
reign, took Damascus and Jerusalem (1076), 
where the princes of the house of Ortok, a 
Turkish family, established an independent 
kingdom They advanced te the Nile with 
the intention of conquering Egypt, but were 

(9) Al-Musta'H (aj>. 1094), the eeoond eon 
of al-Mustanf ir, was seated on the throne by 
tho all-powerful Vixir Afs*t» in whose hands 
the entire power rested during the whole oi 
al-Musta'lfs reign. The invasion of Asia 
Minor by the Crusadere in 1097 appeared to 
Aff al a favourable opportunity for the reco- 
very of Jerusalem. Refusing to assist the 
Turks against the Crusaders, he marched 
against Jerusalem, took it (1098), and de- 
prived the Ortok princes of the sovereignty 
whioh they had exercised for twenty years. 
His possession of Jerusalem was, however, of 
very snort duration, for it was taken in the 
following year (1099) by the Crusaders. 
Anxious to recover his loss, he led an Im- 
mense army in the same year against Jeru- 
salem, but was entirely defeated by the Cru- 
saders near Asoalon. 

(10) Al-Amir (a.n. 1101). 

(11) ALffafig (jlj>. 1129). 

(12) Ai-Zlfir (a.d. 1149). 
(18) AWafo (▲.!>. 1164). 

During these reigns the power of the Fati- 
midec rapidly decayed. 

(14) Al-'Azid (a.d. 1100) wae the last 
fitjalifah of the Fatimide dynasty At the 
commencement of his reign Egypt was 
divided into two factions, the respective 
chiefs of which, Dargham and Shewir, dis- 
puted for the dignity of Vixir. Shewir im- 
plored the assistanoe of Nuru 'd-din, who sent 
an army into Egypt under the oommand of 
Shirkuh, by means of whioh his rival was 
crushed. But becoming jealous of Muru'd- 
dins power in Egypt, he solicited the aid of 
Amauri, King of Jerusalem, who marobed 
into Egypt and expelled Shirkuh from the 
country. Nuru d-din soon sent another 
army into Egypt under the same commander, 
who was accompanied by his nephew, tho 
celebrated $alafcu 'd-din (Saladin). Shirkuh 
was again unsuooessful, and was obliged to 
retreat. The ambition of Amauri afforded 

Digitized by 



shortly Afterwards a more favourable oppor- 
tunity for the reduction of Egypt. Amanri, 
after driving Shirktih oat of tho country, 
meditated the design of reducing it to his own 
authority. Shiwir, alarmed at the soooess 
ot Amanri, entreated the assistance of Nurn 
d-din, who sent Shirk Oh for the third time at 
the bead of a nnmerone army. He repnlsed 
the Christians, and afterwards put the trea- 
cherous Vizir to death. Shirkub succeeded 
to his dignity, but dying shortly after, Sals- 
din obtained the noot of Visir. As Nuru *d- 
din was attached to the interests of the 
Abaesidee, he gave orders for the proclama- 
tion of al-Mustahdi, the Abasside EJjallfah, 
and for depriving the Fatimides of the Khali- 
fate. 'Asid, who was then on a sick-bed, 
died a few days afterwards, [kbamfah.] 

FATQ(vH*). Lit "Opening." A 
term used by §ftfi mystics to explain the 
eternity of matter, together with Its develop- 
ment m creation. (*Abdu *r-Ratsuej*s Vict. 
ofSufl Term.) 

FATRAH (M). Lit. "Languor," 
or "Intermission.* (1) Tho interval between 
the supposed revelation ot the xonth Surah 
of the Qur'in and the Lxxrvth and xomrd 
Surahs. It is during this period that the 
powers of inspiration of the Prophet are said 
to have been suspended, and it was then that 
he contemplated suicide by intending to cast 
himself from Mount IJire\ The accounts of 
this interval are confused and contradictory, 
and various are the periods assigned to it, 
via. from seven months to seven yoars. 

(2) The term is also used for the tune 
which elapses between the disappearance of 
a prophet and the appearance of another. 
(Gkijit* n-Lttghah in toco.) 

(8) A term used by Sufi mystics for a de- 
clension in spiritual life. (*Abdu 'r-Rassaq's 
Diet o/ Sf/1 Ttrm*.) 

Ax-FATTlfl (e^), "The Opener " 

of that which is difficult. 

One of the ninety-nine names or attributes 
ol God. It ooourt in the Qur'an, Sfirah 
xxxlv., "For He is tk§ npmn who knows." 

PATWi Gjj**). A religious or 
judicial sentence pronounced by the KJftalifah 
or by a Mufti, or Qa»- It is generally 
written. The following is a fatw* delivered 
by the present |f ufti of the IJanafi sect at 
Makkah in reply to the question as to 
whether India is a Daru 7-/#Aun. Fatwis are 
generally written in a similar form to this, 
but in Arabie :- 

" All praises are due to the Almighty, who 
is Lord of all tho creation I 
Almighty, increase my knowledge ! 
As long as even some of the peculiar 
observances of Islam prevail in it. it 
is the Dim 1-Ialam. 
The Almighty is Omniscient, Pure and 

This is tho Fatwd passed by one who 
hopes for the secret favour of tht Al- 



mighty, who praises God, and prays for 
blessings and peace on his Prophet. 

(Signed) Jamal ibh 'Abdu 'l-i.ah 

Shaikh Umakd *i^Qahavi, the 

present Mufti of Makkah (the 


May God favour him and his father.** 

FAUJDAR ( jWy). An officer of 
the Moghul Government who was invested 
with the charge of the police, and jurisdiction 
in all criminal matters. A criminal judge. 
Faujd&ri is a term now used in British courts 
for a oriminal suit as opposed to diwani, or 

FATJTU 'L-rJAJJ (©^ «■»•»). The 
end of the Pilgrimage, [pilobimaob.] 

FA?L (J*t), Lit "That which 
remains over and shore; redundant" A 
word used in tho Qur'an for God's graoe or 
kindness. Surah li. 244 : " God is Lord of 
grace to men, but most men give no thanks.* 
The Christian idea of divine grace, as in the 
New Testament, seems to be better expressed 

FA?t)Ll GJj**). Lit "That 

which is in excess. A term used in Modern - 
madau law for anything unauthorised, ce. 
baf-t-fazuti, is an unauthorised sale. Nika&- 
i-fk%ih is an unauthorised marriago, when 
the contracts are made by an unauthorised 

FEAST DATS. Arabic *%d (a**) •, 
dual 4 ldan; plural a*ynd. The two great 
festivals of the Mu^ammadans are, the 'Mi 
'MY{r, and the 'Am H-Afha. The other fee- 
tivals which are celebrated as days of 1 re- 
joicing are, the iShab-iBarat, or the fifteenth 
day of Sha'ban ; the Nau-IUx, or New Year's 
day; the A&ir-i-Chahmr Skamba, or the 
last Wednesday of tho month of Safari the 
Laylatu V-ifeuAo'to, or the first Friday in 
the month of the month Rajab ; the Maulud, 
or the birthday of Muhammad. 

An account of these feasts is given under 
their respective titles. 


existed amongst the ancient Arabians, was 
condemned by Muhammad. Vide Qur'an : — 

Surah xvi. 60 : " For when the birth of a 
daughter is announcod to any one of them, 
dark shadows settle on his face, and he is 
sad. He hidoth himself from the people be- 
cause of the bad news : shall he keep it with 
disgrace or bury it in the dust? Are not 
their Judgments wrong." 

Surah xrii. 88 : " Kill not your children for 
fear of want : for them and for you will We 
(God) provide." 

Surah lxxxi. 8 : " . . . And when the dam- 
sel that had been buried alive shall be asked 
(at tho Day of Judgment) for what crime she 
was put to death.** 

FIDYAH (e|Ji). A random. From 
JW, " to ransom,** " to exchange." An expia- 

Digitized by 





tion (or sin, or for duties unperformed. The 
word ocean threo times in the Qur'an : — 

Surah ii. 180: "For those who ere able to 
keep it (the fait) and yet break it, there shall 
be as an expiation the maintenance of n, poor 

Surah ii. 192: " Perform the pilgrimago 
and the visitation of the holy plaocs. . . . But 
whoever among you is sioic, or hath an ail- 
ment of tho head, must cxjn'atc by fasting, or 
alms, or a sacrifice." 

Surah Mi. 14 : " On that day (tho Day of 
Judgment) no expiation shall be taken from 
you (i.e. the hypocrites) or from those who 
do not believe ; your abode is the fire." 

The other word used in tho Qur'an for tho 
same idea is kaffdrak. [kaffabah, expia- 

PIG. Arabic al-Tin ((*#*N). Tho 
title of tho xovth Surah of tho Qur'an, so 
called because Muhammad makes tho Al- 
mighty swear by that fruit in the first verse. 
Al-Baizawl says God swears by fig* beoause 
of their great use. They are most excellent, 
because thoy can be eaten at once, having no 
stones, they are o*ay of digestion, and holp 
to oarry off tho phlegm, and gravol in 'the 
kidneys or bladder, and remove obstructions 
of tho liver, and also cure piles and gout. 
(Tttfibru 'I'Baifuwit in loco). 

PIJAR (/**). Lit. « That whicb 
b nnlswfuL N A term given to a scries of ssori- 
legious wars carried on between tho Quraish, 
and the Banu Hawizin, when Muhammad 
was a youth, about A.D. 580-690. (Muir, 
vol.ij 3.) 

A.L-PIL (Je*J»). The title of the 
ovth Surab of the Qur'an, as it gives an 
account of the Afk&bu'l-Fil, or "People of 
the Elephant." [klbfhant.] 

PINES. Arabic Diyah (***), A 

term which, in its strictest sense, means a 
sum exacted for any offence upon the persop, 
in consideration for the claim of qi$d$, or 
retaliation, not being insisted upon. (This 
does not apply to wilful murder.) A full and 
oomploto fine is that levied upon a person for 
msnHlsughter, which consists of either one 
hundred female camels or ten thousand dir- 
ham.H (silver), or one thousand dinars (gold). 

The line for slaying a woman is half that 
for slaying a man, " because tho rank of a 
woman is lower than that of a man, so also 
her faculties and uses 1 " The fine for slay- 
ing a limmi (be he a Jew, Christian, or ido- 
later) is the same as for slaying a Muslim. 

A complete fine is also lovied for the 
destruction of a nose, or a tongue, or a virile 
member, and, also, if a person tear out the 
beard, or tho hair of tho scalp, or tho whiskers, 
or both oyebrows, so that thoy never grow 
again, *' because the beauty of tho countenance 
is thereby effaced." 

A complete fine is due for any fellow parts, 
uh for two oyes, two lips, Ac, and one half the 
fine for one single member. 

For each finger, a tenth of the complete 

fine is due, and as every finger has three 
joints, a third of the fine for the whole is due 
for each joint. 

The fine for a tooth is a twentieth of the 
complete fine. 

A half fine is due for merely destroying the 
use of a limb, but if a person strike another in 
any way so as to completely dostroy the beauty 
of his person, a pomplete fine must be paid 
Wouuds on the face, vis. from tho orowo of 
the hosd to tb« chin, ait specially treated, 
and are termed *hijaj. Of *hi}aj t or M face 
wounds," there are ten : (1) harifah, or ouch 
as draw no blood — a mere scratch ; (2) dam- 
yak, a scratoh which draws blood, without 
causing it to flow; (3) damivah, a scratch 
which ostites blood to flow ; (4) bdztHiA, a out 
through the skin; (5) wuliUdbimak, a out 
to the flesh : (i») timkdq, a wound reaching 
into the pericranium ; (/) m&siAoA, a wound 
which* lays bare the bone; -.(8) hdshmah, a 
fracture of the skull; (9) munikilah, a frac- 
ture which causes the removal of part of 
tho skull; (10) dmmah, a wound extending 
to the brain. 

For an ammdh wound, a third of the com- 
plete fine is due. • Fifteen camels are due for 
a mundkitah, ten for a hashimah, flvo for a 
muftTkoA. and so on. 

All other wounds on other parts of the 
body may be adjusted for according to the 
above scale, but are left to the decision of 
the judge. 

For further information on the subject sea 
" Babu t-Diyab" in the Durru 'l-Mut&tdr, or 
the HiddyaJi, or the Fatavm f Alamgiri % or the 
Raddu 'tyuktar. 

PIQH (us). The dogmatic theo- 
logy of the Muslims. Works on Mul^ammadan 
law, whether civil or religious. The books most 
read by the Sunnis are the Hiddyah, written 
by a loarned man named 'All ibn Abi Bakr, 
a.h. 698, pert of which has been translated 
by the late Colonel Charles Hamilton; the 
Durru U-MuHtdr, by 'Ala*u 'd-din, A.S. 1088 ; 
the Sharhu 'FWiqdyah, by 'Ubaidu Hah ibn 
Maa'ud, a.h. 745; the Raddu 7-A/aA<ar, by 
Saiyid Muhammad Amin ibn 'Abidi 'd-din, 
and the Fatawa 'AUmohi . Amongst the 
Imamiyah School, or Shi'ahs. the principal 
works are Kitdbu 'sA-AAardt', by Abu 'J- 
Qesan 'All (a.h. 826) ; the Aluqntfi 7-/Yoa, 
by Abu Ja'far (a.m. 860);. the Shard^u »/- 
Ulam % by ShsikVNajmu 'd-din (a.h. 679); 
and the JamvuH-'Abldsi, by Baba'u 'd-din 
(A.H. 1031). 

PIEASAH (LA/), or for&sah. A 
9ufi term for the enlightenment of the heart. 
A penetration into the secrets of the un- 
known, '//sui 'l-Jira*ak t u The science of 
physiognomy. 1 ' 

PIIliSH (v>V). Lit. "A couch." 

In Mu^ammadan law " a wife." 


FIEDAUS (o»jV)- The Wghcst 

stage of celestial bliss, [paradise,] 

Digitized by 



FIRE. Arabic ndr (p). (1) The 
term an-nar, M the Are," is generally u*ed in 
the Qnr'ftn and the Traditions for " hell." 
(2) In the Qur'fin (Surah xxxvii. 29) the 
power of God is declared as being sble to 
" give Are out of a green tree." On which 
al-Baisawi says "the usual way of getting 
fire is by rubbing two pieces of wood toge- 
ther, one of which is marift and the other 
afar, and they produce fire, although both 
the sticks are green. (8) The burning to 
death of human beings is condemned by 
Muframmad, who said "Let no one punish 
with the punishment of fire but God.* 

FIRST-BORN. Although the 
Arabian legislator followed the Mosaic law 
in so many of his legal enartmonts, he 
has carefully avoided any legislation as to 
the rights of primogeniture, although it formed 
such a marked feature in the Pentateuch, in 
which the first-born of man and beast were 
devoted to God, and were redeemed with a 
price. In the Muslim law of inheritance, all 
the sons share equally, whilst in the Mosaio 
law the etdeet son received a double portion 
of the father's inheritance. (Deut. xxi. 17.) 

In eases of ohiefship, or monarchy, the 
eldest son usually inherits, but it rests en- 
tirely upon his fitness for the position. Very 
often the eldest son is passed by and a 
younger brother selected as ruler. .This was 
also the case amongst the Jews when Solo- 
mon succeeded his father in the kingdom. 
(1 Kings i. 80 ; ii. 22.) 

The curious fact that Muhammad made no 
provision for these rights of primogeniture, 
may have arisen from his having had no son 
to survive him. 

FISH. Arabic $amak (<iU~). (1) 
Fish which, dying of themselves, float upon 
the surface of the water, are abominated, 
according to Abu £anlfah. AshSh&fl'i, 
and Malik say they are indifferent. Aba 
rjanifah teaches that fish which are killed 
by accident are lawful, but such as die 
of themselves without any accident are un- 
lawful There are, howevor, different opinions 
regarding those which die of extreme host or 

(2) In the law of sale, ft is not lawful to 
sell fish which is not vet caught, nor is it 
lawful to sell fish which the vendor may 
have caught and afterwards thrown into a 
large tank. 

(8) Whilst the destruction of all animals, 
except noxious ones, is forbidden during the 
pilgrimage, fishing in the sea is permittoci by 
the Qu'rfcn, Surah v. 97: " Lawful for you is 
the garao of the sea.** 

FITAN (tf*i), pi. of fiinah. Sedi- 
tions; strifes; commotions. 

A term specially used for those wars and 
commotions which shall precede the Resur- 
rection. A chapter is devoted to the subject 
in all the books of traditions. (See $ah1hu 7- 
Bykh*ri,p. 1045; £e*f*ti A/us/im, p. 888.;) 

Muhammad in related to have said, "There 



will be Khabfahs after me that will not go 
the straight road in whioh I have gone, nor 
will follow mvexamplo, but in those times 
there will bo the hearts of devils in the bodies 
of men." Husaifah then said to him, "O 
Prophet, whst shall I do if I live to soo 
those days ? " And the Prophet said, " Obey 
blm who has the rule over you, even though 
he flog your back and take your money." 

Qaflyah, in a tradition (recorded in at-Tir- 
misf and Abu D&'ud), saia that Muhammad 
said that the succession would last for thirty 
years, and that the "four rightly directed 
Khalifahn " reigned exactly that time: Aba 
Bakr, two years; Timer, ten; 'TJsman, 
twelve ; and 'All, six. 

A mover or leader oi sedition is called a 
bagM or rebel, [bsbslliok.] 

PITRAH (*>•) Lit. "Nature." 
Certain ancient practices of the prophets 
before the time of Muhammad, which have 
not been forbidden by him. 

'Ayishah relates that the Prophet said: 
11 There are ten qualities of the prophets — 
clipping the raustaohios, so that they do not 
enter the mouth, not catting or shaving the 
beard, cleansing the teeth (i.e. miswSk), 
cleansing the nostrils with water at the 
usual ablutions, cutting the nails, cleaning 
the finger joints, pulling out the hairs under 
the arm -pits, shaving the hair of the privates, 
washing with water after passing urine, and 
oleansing the mouth with water at the time 
of ablution." (8ee $**#« Muslim.) 

The nose is to be washed out with water 
because it is supposed that the devil resides 
in the noso during the night. (8ee Mishk&t.) 

There is a ohapter in the A vesta of the 
Parsees, containing injunctions as to the 
paring of the nails of the hands and feet. 


ISLAM. (1) S/tahadah, or bearing witness 
that there is no deity but God ; (3) fritdt, or 
the observance* of the five stated periods of 
prayer ; (8) Zakat, giving the legal alms onoe 
a year ; (4) pawn, fasting during the whole of 
the month of Ramasan ; (6) Hajj % the pil- 
grimage to Makkah once in a life-time. 
They are also oalled the five foundations of 
practice, as distinguished from the six foun- 
dations of faith, [tslam, man.] 

KNOWLEDGE, whioh are with God alouo, are 
ssfofto be found in the last verse of the SQrsh 
Luqraan (xxxist, 84) of the Qur'in: "God! 
with dim is (J ) the Knowlodge of the llour ; 
(2) iind He sendeth down rain; (8) and He 
knoweth what is in the wombs 4 , (4) but no 
soul knoweth what shall be on the morrow ; 
(5) neither knoweth any soul in what land he 
shall die. Verily God is knowing and is in- 
formed of all." 

FIVE SENSES, The. Arabic aU 

hawdatul % l-kbatn$ah ( I« .ss *W <jAym)\). 
According to Muhammadan writers, there are 
five external (foAtri) sen sop and flvo internal 


Digitized by 




(batint) denies. The former being those Ave 
faculties known amongst European writers at 
iieeiog (bawah). hearing (jaMt'aA), mnelling 
(ihdMM(th) y taste (loVouAj, touch (lamisah). 
The latter : oommon senso (ttiM-i-mushturok), 
the imaginative faoulty {quwal-i-l^kaual), the 
thinking faqulty (yuw»oM-mura#arri/aA;. the in- 
■ tine tire faoulty (quioat-i-wdAimah), the re- 
tentire faoulty (<ptwat-i-hafizah). 

POOD. Arabic fa'dm ( r UL), pi. 
atiiiHah. The injunctions contained iu the 
Qnr'an (8urab U. ill 7) roftpeoting food are as 
follows ; " O ye who believe I out of the good 
things with which we have supplied you, und 
gWs Ood thanks if ye are His worshippers. 
Only that which dioth of itself, and blood, and 
swinp's dosh, and that over which any other 
name thau that of Ood hath been invokod, 
hath Ood forbidden you. But ho who shall 
partake of thorn by constraint, without dosiro, 
or of nooessity, then no sin shall bo upon hiui. 
Verily Ood is forgiving and merciful.* 
Surah v. 92.: " O Believer* ! wine (^ow) and 
games of chance, and statues, and divining - 
arrows are only an abomination of Satan's 
work 1 Avoid thorn that ye may prosper." 

The other injunctions concerning food are 
found in the Traditions and sayings oi Mu- 

No animal, except fish and locusts, is lawful 
food unless it be slaughtered according to tho 
Muhammadan law, namely, by drawing the 
knife aoross tho throat and cutting the wind- 
pipe, the oarotid arteries, and the gullet, re- 
peating at the same time the words " BCtmi 
*Umhi , AUflhu akbarf i.«. " In the name of 
Ood, Ood is great." A eitan animal, so slaugh- 
tered, becomes lawful food for Muslims, 
whether slaughtered by Jews, tfhristians, or 
Muhsuimsdnns, but animals slaughtered by 
either an idolater, or au apoetato from Islam, , 
is not lawful 

j£*l>bt or tho slsyiug of animals, is of 
two kinds. /i^iydri, or "of choice, and 
/sttrdri, or of necessity. The former being 
toe slaughtering of animals in the name 
of Ood, the latter being the slaughter effected 
by a wound, as in shooting birds or animals, 
in whioh case the words Bfsmi 7/dAi, Alldhu 
akbar tnu»t be said at the time of the dis- 
charge of the arrow from the bow or the 
shot from the gun. 

According to the f/tWayos, all quadrupeds 
that seize their prey with their teeth, and all 
birds which seize it with their talon* are un- 
lawful, became* tho Prophet has prohibited 
mankind from eating them. Uyonae. foics, 
vlephauts, weasels, pelicans, kites, oarriun 
crows, ravens, crocodiles, otters, eases, 
mules, wasps, and in goneral all insects, are 
forbiddon. But there is some doubt as to the 
lawfulness of horses' flesh. Pishes dying *of 
themeolves are also forbidde. . 

The prohibition of wine in tho Qur*un under 
the word kjijitm ie held to e*oludo all things 
which bttvu an intoxicating tendenoy, such as 
opium, chars, bhang, and tobacco. 

A Muslim can have no religious scruple* 
to eat with a Christian, as long as tho food 


eaten is of a lawful kind. Saiyid Ahmad 
Khan Bshadar QS.i,hae written a treatise 
proving that atuhanunedans oan oat with the 
Aht-irCitnbj namely) Jews or Christians- The 
Muhammadans of India,) whiUt they will cut 
food cooked by idolatrous Hindus, Tefuse to 
touch that cooked oither by Native or Euro- 
pean Christians; and they often refuse to 
allow Christians to draw water from the 
public wolls, although Hindus aro permitted 
to do so. Such objections arise solely from 
jealousy of race, and an unfriendly feeling 
towards the ruling power. In Afghanistan 
and Persia, no suoh objections exist ; and no 
doubt much evil has been caqsed by Govern- 
ment allowing Hindustani Muslims to create 
a religious custom whioh has no foundation 
whatover, excopt that of national hatred to 
their English conquerors. [katin<j.J 

tioned in the Quran, Surah ii. 83: "And we 
(Qod)said, < Adam, dwell thou and thy wife 
in Paradise and oat thorofrom amply as you 
wi\h ; but do not draw near this tree ' (sftu/a- 

Concerning this tree, the Commentator* 
hayq various opinions, tfusain says some 
jay**it was a flg tree, or a vine, but most 
people think it was a grain of wheat ((kin t ah) 
from a wheat stalk, [adam, fall.] 

FORGIVENESS, [pardon, 'afu.1 


Enjoined in the QuVan in the following 
words (Surah xlii. 38): " Let tho recompense 
of evil be only a like evil — but he who for* 
giveth and maketh noaco, shall find bis 
toward for it from Ood ; verily He lovoth not 
those who act unjustly. And thoro shall tie 
no way onen (i.e. no blame) against those 
who, af tor being wronged, avengo themselves. 
, . Whoso boarotb wrongs and forglvetb— 
tliis is a boundeu duty/' 

FORNICATION. Arabic *»n4'(.Ui). 
The word sine? includos both fornication with, 
an unmarried person, and adultery with a 
married person, [adultery.] 

The sin of fornication must be established, 
as iu Clio catte of adultery, oither by proof* or 
by confession. 

To •istablish it by proof, four witnesses are 
required, and if any person bring an accusa- 
tion eguinst u woman of cbatite reputation 
and fail to establish it, he must be punialutd 
with eighty Miripen. fgAzr.J 

Wheu a person for conscience a eke cun* 
feasee the sin ol fornication, the confession 
must be repeated four times at four d liferent 
sppoaranoes before a qezi,and tho person con* 
(casing must bo very exaot and particular -in 
to the circumstances, so that tloro can be no 
mistake. A self-accused person may also 
retract the confession at any period before, or 
during, the inUiction of tho puniahineut, and 
the retractation must be accepted. 

The punishment for fornication is one hun- 
dred stripAe (or fifty ioi a slave). The 

Digitized by 



soourging to be inflicted upon a man •tank- 
ing and upon a woman sitting; and the 
woman fa not to bo stripped. It should be 
done nith moderation, with • strap or whip, 
which has no knots upon it, and the stripes 
should be given not all upon the same part 
of (he body, [iurrail] 

In some countries banishment is addod to 
the punishment of scourging for fornication, 
especially if the sin is often repeated, so as to 
constitute common prostitution. 

The law is founded upon the following 
▼erne in the Qur'an, Surah axiv. 2-6 :— 

*• The whore and the whoremonger — scourge 
each of them with an hundred stripos ;' and 
let not compassion keep you from carrying out 
tho sentence of God, if ye beliove in Ood and 
the last day: And lot somo of the faithful 
witness their chastisement. 

•' The whoremongor shall not marry other 
than a where or an idolatress; and the whore 
shall not marry other than a whoremonger 
or an idolater. Such alliance* are forbiddon 
to the faithful. 

*• They who defame virtuous women, and 
bring not four witnesses, scourge them with 
Jnurtcore strip**, and recede ye not their tes- 
timony for ever, for these art perverse 
persons — 

n Stove those who afterwsrdi repent and 
live virtuously; for truly God is Lenient, 
Merciful ! " 

The Mubammadan law differs from Jew ish 
law with regard to fornication; seo Exoduw 
xxii. 16, 17: — •• If a man entice a maid thst 
is not betrothed, and lie w ith her, he shall 
surelv endow her to be bis wife. If her f al her 
utterly refuse to give her unto him, he shall 

Ky money according to the dowry of virgins " 
>ut. xxii. 25-29:— " If a damsel that is a 
virgin be betrothed unto a husband, and a man 
find her in the city and lie with her, then ye 
shall bring them ont unto the gate of the city, 
and ye shall stone them with stones that thoy 
die: the damsel because she cried not, being 
in the city, and the man because he hath 
humbled his neighbour's wife ; so shalt thou 
put away evil from among you. But if a man 
And a betrothed damsel in the field, and (he 
man force her and lie with her, thou the man 
only that lay with her shall die. But unto 
the damsel shalt thou do oolbing : there is in 
the damsel *no sin worthy of death. . . . Jf a 
man find a damsel that la a virgin, which is 
not betrothed, and lay hold on her, and lie 
with her, and they be found, then the man 
that lay with her shall give unto tho .dam- 
sel's father fifty shekels of silver, and she 
shall be Ms wife; because he hath humbled 
her, he msy not put her away all his 

hih&nah (&V**). Mu'awiyab ibn 
Hakam rotates that he asked the Prophet if 
it were right to consult fortune-tellers at>out 
future events, and he replied. " Siuce you 
have embraced Islam, you must not consult 
them [maoicJ 



FOSTERAGE. Arabic rasa'ah, 
riiiVak (M* ; ). According to Abu 
y an if ah, the period of fosterage is thirty 
months ; but the two disciples, Yusuf and Mu- 
bamxnad, hold it to be two years, whilst 
Zufar maintains that it is three years. Fos- 
terage with respect to the prohibitions 
attached to it is of two kind*; first, where 
a woman takes a strango child to nurse, by 
which all future matrimonial connection 
between that child and th* woman, or/her 
relations within the prohibited degrees, is 
rendered illegal ; secondly, where a woman 
nursos two children, male and female, upon 
the same milk, which prohibits suy future 
matrimonial connection between them. For 
further particulars on this subject, see Ha- 
milton's //icfoyoA, voL 1. page 18/» 

FOUNDLING. Arabic hqH (W**). 
hit. »« That which is picked up." The per- 
son who finds the ohild is called the mul- 
taqit. Tho taking up of s foundling is said 
to be a laudable and generous act, and where 
the finder soes that the child's life is in peril, 
it is an inouxpbont religious duty. (Iltanyoh, 
vol. il p. 2A2.) 

The maintenance of a foundling is defrayed 
from the public treasury, but the finder is 
not to domand anything for his trouble and 
expense, but aftor the finding of the child 
hss been reported to tho magistrate, the ohild 
i* legally placed under the care of the mvl- 
taqit, and supported by the state. A found- 
ling ' is deolared to he free, and not a alavo. 
ana 'unless he be found on the land or pro- 
perty of a Jew or Christian, he is declared 
a Muslim. But if the child be found on the 
property* of a Jew or Christian, he will be de- 
clared a Jew or Christian as the case may 
bo. The mult o git, caonot contract the found- 
ling in marriage -without the sanction of the 
magistrate, but ho may send him to school 
sua in every respect see to his education and 
training without consulting the magistrate. 

FRIDAY. Arabic Jnm'ah (***♦). 

The Pay of Assembly." The Mnhammadan 
Sabbath, on which (hey assomble in tho J ami* 
% Man id, or chtof nioeqno, and recite two 
rik'Qui of prayers and listen to the oration, 
oi KhtUhsh at the time of mid-day prayer. 
Muhammad claims in the Traditions to have 
established Friday as a day of worship by 
divine command. He says, " Friday v. as or- 
dered as a divine day of worship both for the 
Jew And Christian, but they have acted con- 
trary to the command The Jew UUed 
Saturday and the Christian fixed Sunday. 1 * 

According to tho same traditions, Friday is 
"the best day on which the sun rises, 
the day on which Adam was taken into 
Paradise snd turned out of it, the day on 
which he repented and on which he died. It 
will also be the Dsy of Resurrection." 

There is also a certain hour on Friday 
(known only to God) on whioh a Muslim 
obtains all the good he asks of the Almighty. 
Muhammad prayed that God may put a seal 
on the heart of every Muslim who through 

Digitized by 





negligence omit* prayer for three successive 
Fridays. Muhammad said : — 

11 Whoever bathes on Friday and comes to 
prayers in the beginning and comes on foot 
and bets near the Imam and listens to the 
ktmtbah, and says nothing playful, but sits 
silent, every step betook will gel the rewards 
of a whole year's worshipping and rewards of 
one year's fast and one year's prayings at 

44 There are three descriptions of people 
present on Friday, ono of them who comes 
to the mas j id talking triflingty, and this is 
what he gets instead of rewards ; and there is 
a man who is present for making supplica- 
tions, and he asks God, and if He wills Ho 
gives him, if not, refuses; the third a man 
who attends to hear the khutboh and is 
silent, and does not incommode anyone, and 
this Friday covers his sins till lbs next, and 
three dajs longer j for God says, Whoever doth 
ene good act will roccive ten in return. 
(MishLit, book iv. c. xliii.) [khutbah.] 

FRIENDSHIP with Jews and 
Christians Is condemned in the Qur'an, Surah 
V- 56 : •* ye who believe I take not the Jews 
and Christians for your friends (or patrons) ; 
Ihey are the friends of eaoh other, but 
whoso amongst you takes them foi friends, 
verily he is of them, and, verily. God guides 
not an no just people." 


described in the Quran as evidences of God's 
love and care for his creatures. 

Snrah tL 14?:— 

"He it is who produoeth gardens of the 
vine trellised and untroltised, and the palm 
trees, and the corn of various food, and olives, 
and pomegranates, like and unlike Rut of 
their fruit when they bear fruit,' and pay the 
due thereof on the day of its ingathering 
and be not prodigal, for God lovetb not the 


" And He it is who hath outstretched the 
earth, and placed on it the 6rm mountains, 
and rivers : and of every fruit He hath plaoed 
on it two kinds; He eauseth the night to 
enshroud the duy. Verily in this are signs 
for thoeo who reflect. 

* And on the earth hard by each othor are 
its various portions: gardens of grapes and 
corn, and palm trees single or clustered. 
Though watered by the same water, yet 
some make we more excellent aa food than 
other: Verily in all this are signs for those 
who understand.'* 

FUGITIVES. (1) A fugitive slave, 
either male or female, is called abiq (<jfl). 
The 'capture of a fugitive slave is a laudable 

act, and tho eaptor is entitled to a reward of 
forty dirhams. (2) A fugitive on account of 
religion is called utukajir ( jt-W*)* Special 
blessings sre promised to those who flee their 
country on acoount of rhoir being Muslims. 

Surah iv. 101 : •• Whosoever flees in the 
way of God shall find in the earth a spacious 

Sarah xxii. 67 - Those who flee in Godfc 
way and then are slain or die, Qod will pro- 
vide (hem with a godly provision." [slavxs, 


FULS (^il). An idol (or an idol 
temple), belonging to the Bani T*iy, a trioe 
divided between the profession of idolatry 
and Christianity. Destroyed by 'All by order 
of Muhammad, a.r 660. (Muir, roL iv. p, 

FUNERAL. Arabic jaaAoA (t)U») 


The river 
of the rivers of 

FUBAT Mr—*). 
Euphratot, said . to t>e one 
Ed«n. [a den.) ' 

al.FUBQAN (eifcytt). (1) The title 
of the xxvth Surah of the Qur'an. (2) One 
of the titles of the Qur'an (Surah* u. 181; 
iii. 2; xxv. 1). (3) The title given to the 
Taurut revealed to Moses (Surah it 50; xxi. 
49). (4) The victory on the day of the battle 
of Badr (Surah via. 42). (5) A term used by 
Sufi mystics for a distinguishing between 
truth and error. 

Muhammadau lexicographers axe unani- 
mous in inter pretating the word furqan to 
mean that which distinguishes between good 
and evil, lawful and unlawful. The Jews use 
the word peieJt % or' pirka, from the same root, 
to denote a section or portion of scripture. 

FU^SILAT (**U). Lit. " Wore 
made plain. * A title of the xust Surah of 
the Qur'an, from the word occurring in the 
second verss. The Surah is also known as 
tho Hdmim a*-Sajdah % t« dietingush it from the 
Surah xxxnnd, which is also called as-Sqjdtih, 
or " Adoration." 

FUTURE LIFE. Tho immortality 
of the soul and the reality of a future life are 
very distinctive doctrines of the religion of 
Muhammad, and very numerous are the 
references to it in the Qur'an. The whole 
system of Islam Is based upon the belief in 
the future existence of the soul of man. A 
description of the special character of this 
future life will be found in the article on 


The terms generally used to express a 
future life are Daru H-Aktfirat % Daru IBagcT 

Digitized by 






GABR (,**). [majus.] 

GABRIEL. Arabic Jibrd'H 

(J*V*)- ln tne Qur'an Jibril ( J*^). 
The angelic being who Is supposed to have 
been the medium of the revelation of the 
Qur'an to Muhammad. He is mentioned 
only twice in the Qur'an bj name. Suratu *1- 
Baqarah ii. 91 : •• Whoso is the enemy of 
Gabriel— for he hath by God's lea? e CMUsed 
to descend on thy heart the confirmation of 
provions revelations,** 4c. &ud again in 
bflrelu *-Tahrfm, lxvi. 4: "Oed is his Pro- 
tector, and UabrieL** He is, however, sup- 
posed to be spoken of in Surahs ii. 81, 254; 
v. 109; ivi. 104. as « the Holy Spirit/ /?«** 
'/•QftvAe; in SOrmh xxvl 198, as "the Faith- 
ful Spirit,* arfithu 7-4f»i* ; and in l|ii. 6, as 
"one terrible in power,** Shadidu '1-Quw*. 

The account of Gabriel's first appearance 
to Muhammad is related as follow* by Abu 
*1-Flda' : " MuTaammad was wont to retire to 
Mount Hire for a month every year. When 
the year of his mission came, he went to 
Mount Ulri in the month of Ramasin for the 
purpose of sojourning there, having his 
family with him : and there be abotio uutil 
the night arrived in which Qod was pleased 
to biess him. Gabriel camo to him, and naid 
to him, * Recite I ' And he replied, ' What 
shall I recite?* And he aaid, • Recite thou, 
in the name of thy Lord who created. Created 
man from olots of blood Recite thou I For 
the Lord it most Beneficent. . Who hath 
taught the use of the pen. Hath taught 
man that which he knoweth not.* After 
this the Prophet went io the middle of 
the mountain, and heard a voioe from heaven 
which said. * Thou art the Messenger of Ood 
and I am Gabriel.' He continued standing in 
his place to contemplate Gabriel uutil he 
withdrew." [quiun.J 

Sir William Muit says : •• tt is clear that at 
a later period at least, if not from the first, 
Mabomot confounded Gabriel with the Holy 
Ghost. The idea may have arisen from some 
such Toisapprehe naioo as the following. Mary 
conceived Jesus by the power of the Holy 
Ghost, which overshadowed her. But it was 
Gabriel who visited Mary to announce the 
conception of he Saviour. The Holy Ghost 
was therefore another name for Gabriel. We 
need hardly wonder at this ignorance when 
Mahomet teems to have believed that 
Christians held Mary to be the third person 
in the Trinity T* 

.With reference to the verse quoted above, 
from the Sfirata 1-Baqarah, Salo says tho 
Commentators say that the Jews asked what 
angel it was' that brought the Qur*in to Mu- 
hammad, and on being told that it was 
Gabriel, they replied that he was their 
enemy, and the messenger of wrath and Judg- 
ment ; but that if it bad been Michael they 

would have believed on him, beoause that 
angel was their friend, and the messenger of 
peace and plenty. 

It is also important to observe that the 
only distinct assertion of Gabriel being the 
medium of divine rerolation, occurs in a 
Madaniyah Surah 

Gabnel ia called in Muslim books ar-Rihu V- 
A* tarn, •• the Supreme Spirit ** ; ar-Rubu *t-Mu- 
karram, " The Honoured Spirit * ; Riihu 'Mloff, 
" The Spirit of canting into " ; Rutin U*Q*dus t 
•'The Holy Spirit**: and ar-RSln i-Amin, 
" The Faithful Spirit. 

GAMBLING (Arabic maitir, 
y~*+ ; qimtir jUi) is forbidden in the 

Surah ii. 216 : »' They will ask thee oon- 
oerning wine, and games of chance. Say both 
is a great sin, and advantage also, to men, 
but their sin is greater than their advan- 

Surah v 93: n Only would Satan sow 
hatred -and strife among you, by wine and 
games of chance, and turn you aside from 
the remembrance of God, and from pray or : 
will ye not, therefore, abstain from them ? " 

The etidonce of a gambler is not admis- 
sible in s Muhammad an court of law, because 
gaming is a great crime. (Hidagah ii. 
p. 688.) 

GARDEN. Arabic jannah (*j*) ; 
Heb. *£, pi. o^jj. In the Quran the 

residence of our first parents is culled 
Al-jannah, ''the garden," and not Jannatn 
l Aa\ or the "Oarden of Eden,** Jannatn 
*AH* being the fourth stage of celestial bliss. 
At-jannd', •• the gardens," is s term frequently 
u«od in the Qur'an tor the state of heavenly 
Joy ; and the stages of paradise, which are 
oight, are known as — (1)* The garden of 
eternity, (2) The dwelling of peace, (3) Tho 
dwelling which abideth, (4) The garden of 

Eden, (5) The garden of refuge, (Q) The 
gardm of delight, (7) The garden of •Illiv 
(8) The garden of Paradise. [pAKADtaa. j 


GENII. Arabic jinn (e>*), and 
jdnn (e>W). Mubammld was a sincere 
belieyer in the existence of good and evil 
genii, and has left a record of his belief in the 
Lxxirad chapter of his Qur'an, entitled the 
Snratn 7-Jmn. It opens thus :— 

" 8at: It hath been revealed to me that a 
company of JINN listened and said,— Verily, 
we have heard a marvellous discourse 

"It guideth to the truth; wherefore we 
believed in it, and we will not henceforth join 
any being with our Lord ; 

" And He, — mav the majesty of our Lord 
be exalted 1 — hath taken no spouse neither 
hath he any offspring. 

Digitized by 





« Bat the foolish among us hath spoken of 
God that which is unjust : 

" And ve verily j thought that no one 
amongst men or Jinn would have uttered a 
lie against God. 

" There are indeed people among men, who 
hare sought for refuge unto people among 
jinn : but they only increased their folly : 

" And they thought as to think, that God 
would not raiao any from the dead. 

" And the lion von* did we essay, but 
found them IIIIchI with a mighty garrison, aud 
with flaming darts ; 

*♦ And we sat on some of tho seats to listen, 
but whoever listeneth findeth an ambush 
read* for him of flaming darts." 

The following exhaustive aooount of the 
Muhammadan belief on the subject is taken 
from tho writings of tho late Mr. Lane (tho 
learned author of the Motiem Eywtiam aud 
of Notts on the Arabian Night*), but slightly 
sitered to meet the requirements of the pre- 
sent work. 

According to a tradition from the Prophet, 
this species consists of five ordors, namely. 
Jinn (who sro the lenst powerful of all), Jinn, 
Shaitan* (or devils), 'Ifrfts, and Marids. 1 ho 
last, it is added, are the most powerful ; and 
the Jinn are transformed Jinn, Uko as certain 
apes and swine were transformed men. It 
must, however, be remarked that the terms 
Jinn and Jinn are generally used indiscrimi- 
nately as names of the whole speoies, wbotber 
good or bad, and that the former term is tbe 
more common. Also, that Shaitan is com- 
monly used to signify any evil genius. An 
'If rit is a powerful evil genius ; a J/orirf, on 
ovil genius of the most powerful class. The 
Jinn (but, goneralry speaking, evil ones) are 
called by the Persians Stvu % tho wort 
powerful evil Jinn, Narahn (which signifies 
"males," though they are said to be mslos 
and females); the good Jinn, ttrU, though 
this term is commonly applied to females. 
In a tradition from the Prophet, it is said, 
" The Jinn were created of a smokeless fire." 
The word which signifies " a smokeless fire ' 
has been misunderstood by some as meaning 
M the flame of firo?* Al-Jauhari (in tho £iW) 
renders it rightly ; and says that of this fire 
was the Shaitan or Iblia created. Al-Jann 
is sometimes used as a name for Iblia, aa in 
the following verse of the Qui m (Surah xv. 
27): * And the Jinn [the father of the Jinn, 
i.e. Iblia] we had created before [i.e. before 
tbe creation of Adam] of the fire of the 
Samum [i.e. of tbe fire without smoke]." 
Jann also signifies " a serpent," as in other 
'pssaagee of the Qur'in, and is used in the 
same book as synonymous with Jinn. In the 
last sense it is generally believed to bo used 
in the tradition quoted in the commencement 
of thia paragraph. There are several *ppa- 
jently contradictory traditions from tho Pro- 
phet, which are reconciled by what has been 
above stated ; in one it is said that Iblia was 
the father of all the Jinn and Shaitan ; Jann 
being here synonymous with Jinn ; in another, 
that Jinn was the father of all the Jinn, here 
Jann being used as a name for Ibii*. 

"It is held," says al-Qazwini, "that the 
Jinn are aerial animals, with transparent 
bodied, which oan assume various forms. 
People differ iu opinion respecting these 
beings ; some consider the Jinn end Shaitan* 
aa unruly men. but these persona are of tbe 
Mn'tasilahs fa seot of Muslim tteetbinkere], 
and some hold that God, whose name he 
exulted, created tbe angels of the light of 
fire, and tho Jmn of ita flame [but this in at 
variance with the goneral opiulou], and tbo 
Sbaifcana of its smoke [which is alto at 
variance with the common opinion]] and that 
[sH] these kinds of beings are [usually] in- 
visible to men. but that thoy aaeuuie what 
forma t hoy please, and when their form be- 
comes' condensed thoy are visible. " This last 
remark illustrates aoveraV descriptions of 
genii In tho Arabian Nights, where tho form 
of the monster is at first undefined, or 
like an enormous pillar, and then gradually 
aaaumea a human shape and less gigantio 

It is said that God created the Jann [or 
Jinn] two thousand years before Adam [or. 
according to some writers, much earlier |, and 
that there are bclie?ers and iriudels and every 
sect among them, as among men. {Some say 
that a prophet named Yusuf was sent to the 
Jinn ; others, that they had only preachers or 
edmouirthere ; others, agaiu, that seventy 
apostles were sent, before Muhammad, to 
Jinn and men oonjointly. It ia commonly 
Wlieted that the preadamite Jinn were go- 
verned by forty (or, according to eoine, 
seventy-two) kings, to each of whom the 
Arsb writers give the name of Suleiman (or 
Solomon) ; sua thst they derive their appel- 
lation from the last of these, who waa called 
Jinn ibn Jann, and who, acme aay, built the 
Pyramids of Egypt. 

The following acoount of the preadamite 
Jinn is given by al-Qaswinf :— 

41 It ia related in histories that a race of 
Jinn in ancient times, before the oreatiou of 
Adam, inhabited the earth, and covered it, 
the land and the sea, and the plains snd the 
mountains ; and the favours of God were mul- 
tiplied upon them, and they had government, 
and prophecy, and religion and law ; but they 
transgressed and offended, and opposed their 
prophets, and made wickedness to abound in 
the earth '. whereupon God, whose name be 
exalted, sent against them an army of angels, 
who took possession of the earth, and drove 
away the Jinn to the regiono of the islands, 
and made many of them prisoners; and- of 
those who were made prisoners waa 'Asezil 
(afterwards called Iblis, from his despair), 
and a slaughter was made among them. At 
shit time, 'Asaxil was young; he grew up 
among the angels [and probably for that 
reason waa oallod one of thorn], and became 
loarned in their knowledge, and assumed the 
government of thorn; and his day a were pro- 
longed until he became their chief ; and thus 
it continued for a long time, until the affair 
between him and Adam happened, as God, 
whose name be exalted, hath said, ' When we 
aaid unto the Angels, Worship. ye Adam, and 

Digitized by 




Iain worshipped except Iblis, f whtf] was 
one] of the Jinn/ (Surah L 40). 

Iblis. we are told "by another authority, 
waa sent at a governor upon the earth, and 
judged among the Jinn a thousand rears, 
attar which he ascondod into heaveu, and re- 
mained oinployod in worship until the erea- 
tiou of Adam. The name of Iblia waa origi- 
nally, according to some, *As*xil (aa before 
mentioned), and according to others, eJ-H*Ha. ; 
hi? patronymic is Abu Msranah or AbQ '1- 
£Qlimr. It is disputed whether he was. of 
tho angels or of tho Jinn. There aro three 
opinions on t Ida point: (1) That ho was of the 
ntitf«K from a tradition from Ibn 'Abbaa : 
%) That be waa of the Shaifcans (or evil 
linn), as it is said in tho Qur'au, ''Except 
Iblia 1 [who] waa [one] of the Jinn " ; thia was 
the opinion of al-Hnsanu 'l-Basri, and is that 
commonly held ; (3) That he waa neither of 
the angela nor of the Jinn, hut created alono 
of fire. Ibn 'Abbas founds his opiuion on 
the same text from which al-IJasanu *1-Basri 
derives his : " When we ssid unto the angola, 
worship yo Adam, and Tall] worshipped ex- 
oept Iblia, [who] was tone] of the Jinn " 
(before quoted) ; which bo explains by sey- 
lug" that the most noble and honourable 
among tho angela are called M tho Jinn,** be- 
cause tbey are veiled from the uyos of the 
other angels on account of thoir superiority : 
and that Iblis was ono of these Jinn. He 
adda, that he had the government of the 
lowest heaven and of the earth, and waa 
called the Ta'us {lit. "Peacock") of the 
angels ; and that there was not a spot in tho 
lowest heaven but he bad prostrated himself 
upon it ; bat when the Jinn rebelled upon the 
earth, God aent a troop of angela, who drove 
them to the ialanda and mountains ; and Iblis 
being elated with pride, and refusing to pro- 
strate himself before Adam, God transformed 
him into a Shaifcin. Bat this reasoning is 
opposed by other versea, in which Iblia ia 
represented sa saying, " Thou haat created 
dm of firs, and baa croated him [Adam] of 
earth." It is thereforo argued, " If ho wore 
created originally of fire, how was he created 
of light ? for tho angela were [all] created of 
light." Tho formor vorse may be explained 
by the tradition thut Iblis. having been taken 
captive, waa oxalted among tho angels ; or, 
perhaps, thero is an ollipsis after tho word 
" Angnls " : (or it might bo inferred that the 
command given to tho Angels was also (and 
a fortiort) to be obeyed by tho Jinn. 

According to s tradition, Iblis and all the 
Shaifcans are distinguished from the other 
Jinn "by a longer distance. " The 8hai*ana." 
it is added, " are the children of Iblis, and 
die not but with him ; whereas the [other] 
Jinn die before him. though they may lire 
many centuries. But thia ia not altogether 
accordant with tho popular belief : Iblia and 
many other evil Jinn are to survive mankind, 
hat they are to die before tho general resur- 
rection, as also even the angels, tho last of 
whom will he the Angel of Death, 'IxraVil. 
Yot not all the ovil Jinn are to live thna long. 
Many of them are killed by shooting stars, 



hurled at them from heaven ; wherefore, the 
Arabs, when they see a shooting star (thihib), 
often exolaim, ' May God transfix the enemy 
of the faith 1 ' Many also aro killed by other 
Jinn, and somo oven by men. The fire of 
whioh the Jinn ia created circulates in his 
veins, in place of blood ; therefore, when he 
receives a mortal Wound, thia fire, .issuing 
from his veina, generally consumes him to 

The Jinn, it has been already shown, are 
peaceable. ' They also eat and drink, and 
propagate their species, sometimes in conj unc- 
tion with human beings ; in which latter case, 
the offspring partakos ol the nature of both 
parents. In ail theae respects they differ 
from the angela. Among the evil Jinn are 
distinguished the five sons of their ohief, 
Iblis ; namely, T"\ who brings about calami- 
ties, losses, and injuries ; al-A'war, who en- 
courages debauohery ; But, who suggests lies ; 
Dasim. who oauses hatred between man snd 
wife ; and Zalambur, who presides over places 
of traffic. 

The moat common forms and habitations 
or plaoes of resort of the Jinn must ndw be 
described. The following traditions from tho 
Prophet are to the purpose ir- 

The Jinn are of varicus shapes, having tho 
forms of serpents, scorpions, lions, wolves, 
Jackals, Ac The Jinn are of three kinds — 
ono on the land, one on the sea, and ono in 
the air. The Jinn consist of forty troops, 
each troop consisting of six hundred thou- 
sand. The Jinn are of three kinds — one have 
wings and fly ; another are snakes and dogs ; 
and tho third movo about from place to place 
like mon. Domestic snakes are asserted to 
be Jinn on the same authority. 

The Prophet ordered his followers *to kill 
serpents and scorpions if they intruded at 
prayers ; but on other occasions, he seems to 
have required first to admonish them to 
dopart, and thon, if tbey remained, to kill 
them. The* Doctors, however, differ in opinion 
whethor all kinds of snakes or serpents 
should be admonished ilrst ; or whether any 
should; for the Prophet, aay they, took a 
covenant of tho Jinn [probably after the 
above-mentioned command], that they should 
not enter the houses of the faithful; thoro- 
fore, it ia argued, if thoy enter, they break 
their covenant, and it becomes lawful to kill 
them without previous admonishment. Yet 
it is related that 'Ayiahah, one of the Pro- 
phet's wives, having killed a serpent in her 
chamber, was alarmed by a dream, and fear- 
ing that it might have been a Muslim Jinni, as 
it did not cntor her chamber, when she was 
undressed, gave in alms, as an expiation, 
twrdve thousand dirhams (about £300), the 
price of tho blood of a Muslim. 

The Jinn are said to appear to mankind 
most oommonly in tho shapes of serpents, 
dogs, cats, or human beings. In the last 
case they are sometimes of the stature of 
men, ana sometimes of a size enormously 
gigantic If good, they are generally resplon- 
dontly handsome; if evil, horribly hideous. 
They become invisible at pleasure (by a rapid 

Digitized by 





extension or rarefaction of the psrtioloa 
which compote -them), or suddenly disappear 
in the earth or air, or through a solid wait 
Many Mualima in the present day profess 
to have seen and held intercourse with 

The Zauba*ah t whioh is a whirlwind that 
raises the sand or dust in the form of a 
pillar of prodigious height, often seen sweep- 
ing across the desorts and fields, is believed 
to be caused by the flight of an evil genii. 
To defend themselves from a Jinn thus 
"riding in the whirlwind," the Arabs often 
exclaim, "Iron I Iron!" (ffadid* Ftadid!) 
or, ** Iron 1 thou unlucky ! * (ffadid! yd 
Mcuhum /), as the Jinn are supposed to have 
a great dread of that metal ; or they exclaim, 
"God is most great!" (Attdhu debar I) A 
similar superstition prevails with respect to 
the waterspout at sea. 

It is believed that the chief abode of the 
Jinn is in the mountains of Quf. whioh are 
supposed to encompass the whole of our 
earth. But they are also believed to pervade 
the solid body of our earth, and the Arma- 
ment; and to choose, as their principal place* 
of resort, or of occasional abode, baths, 
wells, the Utrina, ovens, ruined houses, 
market-places, the juncture* of roads, the sea, 
and rivers. 

The Arabs, therefore, when they pour 
water, Ac, on the ground, or enter a bath, or 
let down a bucket into a well, or visit the 
Utrina, and on various other occasions, say, 
** Permission ! " or •« Permission, ye blessed ! " 
(/|ti/ or Itn yd Mubdrakim!). The evil 
spirits (or evil genXi), it is said, had liberty to 
enter any of the seven heavens till the birth 
of Jesus, whsn they were excluded from three 
of them. On the birth of Muhammad, they 
were forbidden the other four. They con- 
tinue, however, to ascend to the con tines of 
the lowest heaven, and there listening to the 
oouversation of the angels respecting things 
decreed by God, obtain knowledge of futu,rity, 
which they sometimes impart to men, who 
by means of talismans or certain invocations 
make them to serve the purposes of magical 

What the Prophet said of Iblis in the fol- 
lowing tradition, applios also to the evil Jinn 
over whom he presides: Ills chief abode 
[among men) is the bath ; his chief places of 
resort are the markets and junctures of roads ; 
his food is whatever is killed without tbo 
name of God being pronounced over it; his 
drink, whatever is intoxicating ; his Mu'azjiu, 
the mixmar (a musical pipe), i.e. any musical 
instrument) ; his Quran, poetry ; his written 
character, the marks made in geomancy ; 
his speech, falsehood; his snares are 

That particular genii prenidod over par- 
ticular places,- was the opinion of the early 
Arabs. It is said in the QurVui (Surah 
lxxii. 0), " And there were certain mon who 
sought refuge with certain of the Jinn.** In 
the commentary of the Jalalan, I find the 
following remark on these words: — "When 
I hoy hailed, on their journey, in a place of 

four, each man said, ♦ I seek refuge with tho 
lord of this place, from the mischief of his 
fooljsh ouos ! In illustration of this, I may 
insert the following tradition, translated from 
a/-Qpzwmi :— ** It U related by a certain 
narrator of traditions, that he descended into 
a valley with his sheep, and a wolf oarried 
off a ewe from among them ; and he arose, 
and raised his voice, and cried, * inhabitant 
of the valley!* whereupon he heard a voice 
saying, * O welf , restore to him his sheep 1 ' 
and the wolf came with the ewe, and left her, 
and departed." The same opinion is held by 
the modern Arabs, though probably they do 
not use suoh an invocation. 

A similar superstition, a relic of ancient 
Egyptian credulity, still prevails among the 
people of Cairo. It is believed that each 
quarter of this city has its peculiar guardian- 
genius, or Agathodwmon, which has the form 
of a serpent. 

It has already been mentioned that some of 
the Jinn are Muslim^ and others infidels. The 
good acquit themselves of the imperative 
dutios of religion, namely, prayers, slms- 
givmg, fasting during the month of Rama- 
san, and pilgrimage to Makkah and Mount 
'Arafat, but in the performance of these 
duties they are generally invisible to human 

No man, it is said, ever obtained such ab- 
solute powor over tbo Jinii as Sulaiman ibn 
Da'ud (Solomon, the son of David). This he 
did by virtue of a most wonderful talisman, 
which is said to have come down to him from 
heaven. It was a sealing ring, upon which 
was engraved " the most great name N of God 
[al-ismu 'l-a'zam], and was partly composed 
of brass and partly of iron. With the brass he 
stamped his written commands to the good 
Jinn ; with the iron (for a reason before men- 
tioned) those to tne evil Jinn or dovils. 
Over both orders he hsd unlimited power, as 
well as over the birds and the winds, and, aa 
ia generally said, the wild beasts. Hl# waslr, 
Asaf the son of Barkfciyah, ia also said to 
have been acquainted with " the most great 
name," by uttering which the greatest mira- 
cles may be performed, even that of raising 
the dead. By virtue of this name, engraved 
on his ring, Sulaiman compelled the Jinn to 
assist in building the temple Oi Jerusalem, 
and in various other works. Many of the 
evil genii he convorted to the true faith, and 
many others of this class, who remained 
obstinate in infidelity, he confined in prisons. 
He is said to have boon monarch of the 
whole earth. Henoe, perhaps, the name of 
Sulaiman ia given to the universal monarchs 
of the preadamite Jinn ; unless the story of 
his own universal dominion originated from 
confounding him with those kings of the 

The injuries related to have been indicted 
upon human beings by evil genii are of various 
kinds. Geuii are said to have often carried 
off beautiful women, whom they have forcibly 
kept as their wives or concr.binos. Malicious or 
disturbed genii are asflt»rl-<l often to station 
themselves on the roofs, or at tiie windows. 

Digitized by 



of houses, mnd to throw down bricks and 
stones on persons passing by When they 
take possession of an uninhabited house, 
they seldom fail to persecute terribly any 
person who goes to reside in it They are 
also very apt to pilfer provisions, Ao. Many 
learned and devout persons, to secure thoir 
property from such depredations, repeat the 
words, "In the name of Qod, tho Compas- 
sionate, tho Merciful ! " on locking tho doors 
of their houses, rooms, or closets, and on 
covering the bread-basket, or anything con- 
taining food. During the month of Ramazin, 
the evil genii are believed to be confined in 
prison ; and, therefore, on the last night of 
that month-, with the ssrae view, women 
sometimes repeat the words shore mentioned, 
and sprinkle salt upon the floors of the apart- 
ments of their houses. 

To nomplete this sketch of Arabian myth- 
ology, an account must be added of several 
creatures generally believed to be of inferior 
orders of the Jinn. One of these is the 
Qh&l, which is commonly regarded as a kind 
of Shaitin, or evil genii, that eats- men, and 
is also described by some as a Jinn, or an 
enchanter, who assumes various forms. Tho 
(ihflls are said to appear- in the forms of 
various animals, and of human beings, and in 
many monstrous shapes ; to haunt burial- 
grounds and other sequestered spots ; to feed 
upon dead human bodies ; and to kill and 
devour any human creature' who has the 
misfortune to fall in their way ; whence the 
term *• Qhul " is applied to any cannibal. 

An opinion quoted by a celebrated author 
respecting the Qhul is, that it is a demoniacal 
animal, which passes a solitary existence in 
the deserts, resembling both man and brute ; 
that it appears to a person travelling alone 
in the night and in solitary places, and, being 
supposed by him to be itself a traveller, 
lures him • out of his way. Another opinion 
stated by him is this : that, when the Shai- 
tins attempt to hear words by stealth [from 
the confines of the lowest heaven], they are 
struck by shooting stars, and some are burnt ; 
some falling into a sea, or rather a large 
river (oa£r), become converted into croco- 
diles; and some, falling upon the land, be- 
come Qhals. The same author adds tho fol- 
lowing tradition: "Tho Qhul is any Jinn 
that is opposed to travels, assuming various 
forms and appearances; and affirms that 
several of the Companions of the Prophet 
«aw Qfculs in their travels ; and that 'Umar 
among them saw a Qhul while on a journey 
to Syria, before Islam, and struck it with his 

It appears thst " Qhul " is, properly speak- 
ing, a name only given to a female demon of 
the kind above described ; the male is oslled 
• Outrun." It is said that these beings, and 
the Qhaddar; or Qbarr&r, and other similar 
creatures, which will presently be mentioned, 
are the offspring of Iblis and of a wife whom 
God created for him of the fire of the Samum 
(whioh here signifies, as in an instance 
before mentioned, " a smokeless Are **) ; and 
that they sprang from an egg. Tho fomale 



(jlifil, it is added, appears to men* in tlie 
deserts, in various forms, converses with 
them, and sometimes prostitutes herself to 

The Si'lat, or Si'la', is another demoniacal 
creature, described by some [or rather, by 
most authors] as of the Jinn. It is said that 
it is mostly found in forests ; and that when 
it captures a man/ it makes him dance, and 
plays with him as the cat plays with the 
mouse. A man of Isfahan asserted that 
many beings of this kind abounded in his 
country; that sometime the wolf would 
hunt one of thorn by night, and devour it, and 
that, when it had seised It, the Si'la' would 
cry out, " Come to my help, for the wolf de- 
voureth me P or it would cry, "Who will 
liberate me ? I have s hundred dinars, and 
he shall receive them ! ** But the people 
knowing that it Was the cry of tho 8i'le\ no 
one would liborate it; and so the wolf 
would oat it. 

An island in the sea of China (§in) is called 
" the island of the Si'la'," by Arab geographers, 
from its being said to be inhabited by the 
demons so named; they are described as 
creatures of hideous forms, supposed to be 
HhaHans, tho offspring of human beings and 
Jinn, who eat men. 

The QJaaddar is another creature of a simi- 
lar nature, described as being found in the 
borders of al-Yaman, and sometimes in Tiha- 
mah, and in the upper parts of Egypt, It is 
said that it entices a man to it, and cither 
tortures him in a manner not to be described 
or merely terrifies him, and leaves him. 

Tho Dalhan is also a demoniacal being, in- 
habiting the islands of the seas, having the 
form of a man, and riding on an ostrioh. ft 
eats the flesh of mon whom the sea easts on 
the shore from m recks. Somo say that a 
Dalhan onoe attaoked a ship on the sea, and 
desired to take the orew ; but they contended 
with it; whereupon it uttered a cry whioh 
caused them to fall on their faces, and it 
took them. 

The Shiqq is another demoniacal oreature, 
having tho form of half a human being (like 
a man divided longitudinally) , and it is be- 
lieved that the Nasnas is the offspring of a 
Shiqq and of a human being. The Shiqq 
appears to travellers ; and it was a demon of 
this kind who killed, and was killed by «AL 
qamah, the son of Safwan, the son of Umai- 
yah, of whom it is well known that he was 
killed by a Jinn. So says afiQaiwini. 

The Nasnas (above mentioned) is described 
as resembling naif a human being; having 
half a head, half a body, one arm, and one 
leg, with which it hops with much agility ; as 
being found in the woods of al-Taman, and 
being endowed with speech ; M but God," it is 
added, " is all knowing." It is said that it is 
found In rjtsrwmaut as well as al-Taman : and 
that one was brought alive to al-Mutawakkil. It 
resembled a man in form, excepting that it had 
but half a face, whioh was in its breast, and 
a tail like that of a sheep. The people of 
9asramaut, it Is added, eat it ; and its flesh 
is sweet. It is only generated in their country 


Digitized by 




A man who went there asserted that he saw 
a captured Nasnas, which cried out for mercy, 
conjuring him \>7 God and by himself. 

A raoe of people whose head is in the 
breast, is described as inhabiting an island 
oallod Jabah (supposed to* be Jam), in tho 
sea of Hind, or India. A kind of Nasnas is 
also dosoribed as inhabiting tho island of Rai], 
in the sea of China, and having wings like 
those of the bat. 

The Ilntif is a boing that Is heard, but not 
seen ; aud is often mentioned by Arab writers. 
It is generally the communicator, of some 
intelligence in tho way of advice, or direction, 
or warning. (See Lane's Modtrn Egyptians ; 
lame's Notes on the Arabian NiyhU.) 

GENTILES. Arabic Ummi fcyt, 

from www, "a mother"); pi. ummiyun, lit. 
" Ignorant as new-born babe**." Hebrew 

D^J. According to . al-Baiz&wi, all the 

people of the earth who do not possess a 
divine Book. In the Qur'an, the term is spe- 
cially applied to the idolaters of Arabia. 

Surah lxii. 2: "He (God) it is who sent 
unto the Qentiles a Prophet, amongst them to 
recite to them His signs and to purify them, 
and to teach them the Book, tho wisdom, 
although they were l>of 01 o in obvious error." 


AL-QHlBAH (M-a-H). "The 

desert." A nsme given to the open plain 
near al-Madinah. 

in sales. 

Fraud or deceit 

GBADDAB (>}**). A species of 
demon said to be found on the oordors of 
el- Yemen, [oxmii.] 

GHAtUR (***). A festival of 
the Shi*ahs on the 18th of the month of £u '1- 
Hijjah, when three images of dough tilled 
with honey are made to represent Abu Bakr, 
'Umar, and *Usman, which are stuok vrith 
knives, and the honey is sipped as typical of 
the blood of the usurping Khalifahs. The 
festival is named from QKad'v\ " a pool," and 
the festival commemorates, it is said, Muham- 
mad having declared *Ali his successor at 
Qh<»<br /tt*iw, a watoring place midway 
between tfakkah and al-Madinuh. 

QHAIB (s-eA). Lit "Secret" 

The terms* Qhaibu V-Huwiyah, " Socret es- 
sence," and ol- Qhaibu 'l-Mut&q, " the absolute 
unknowable," are used by §ufi mystics' to 
express the nature of God, ( ( Abdu Y-Raz- 
zaq's Diet, of &tf'i Terms.) 

QHAIBAH (ILc*). "Jealousy." 
Muhammad is related to have said,** There 
is a kind of jealousy (yhairaft) which Ged 
likes, and there is a kind of jealousy which 
he abominates. The jealousy which God 
likes is when a man has suspicion that his wife 
or slate girl comes and sits by a stranger; 
the jealousy which God abominates is when, 
without cause, a man harbours in his heart a 


bad opinion of his wife." (Mishkdt, book 
xiii c. xt. pt 2.) 

QEAIR.I-MAHD1 (&*+•«*). Lit: 
" Without Mahdi." A small suet who belie? e 
that the Imam Mahdi will not reappear. They 
say that one Saiyid Muhammad of Jeypore 
was the real Mahdi, the twelfth Imam, and 
that he has now uevor more to return, 
They vonerato him as highly as they do the 
Prophet, and opnsider all othor Muslims to 
be unbelievers. Ou tho night called Lailatu 
'1-Qadr, in the month of Ramazan, they meet 
and repeat two rak-ah prayers. After that act 
of devotion is over, they say : " God is Al- 
mighty, Muhammad is. our Prophet, the 
Qur'an and Mahdi are just and true. Tm^ 
Mahdi is oome and gone. Whosoover disbe- 
lieves this is an infidel." They are a very 
fanatical sect. (S*e Qununt- Islam.) 

QHAMARAT (**V*)» plural of 
gbfimrak, " abyss." A word used to express 
the agonies of death. It occurs in the Qur an, 
Surah vi. 93: "But couldst thou see when 
the ungodly aro in tho floods of .death (yha- 
mardtu 'l*mau£) t and the angels reach forth 
their hands, saying, < Yield up your souls :— 
this day shall ye be recompensed with a hu- 
miliating punishment/ " 

AL-QBANI (<J*\). "The Tnde. 

pendent One.* One of the ninety-nine special 
names or attributes oi God, expressing the 
superiority of the Almighty over the neces- 
sities and requirements of mankind. The 
word occurs in the Qur'an, Surah Ix. 6, and 
is translated by Palmer, " He is rieA." 

GBA§B (s— *). " Using by force; 

usurpation. M 

GhfHo t in its literal sense, means the for- 
cibly taking a thing from another. In the 
language of the law it signified tho takiug of 
the property of another which is valuable 
and saored, without tho consent of the pro- 
prietor, in suoh a manner as to destroy the 
proprietor's possession of it, whence it is 
that usurpation is established by exacting 
service from the slave of another, or by put- 
ting a burden upon the quadruped of another, 
but not by sitting upon the carpet of 
another; booauso by the use oi the slavo 
of another, and by loading the quadruped of 
another, the possession of the proprietor is 
destroyed, whereas by sitting upon the car- 
pet of another the possession of the pro- 
prietor is not destroyed It is to be observed 
that, if any. person knowingly and wilfully 
usurp the property of another, he is held in 
law to be an offender, and becomes respon- 
sible for a compensation. If. on the con- 
trary, .he should not have msde the usurpa- 
tion knowingly and wilfully (as where a per- 
son destroys property on the supposition of 
its belonging to himself, and it afterwards 
proves the right of another), he is in that 
case also liable for a compensation, because 
a compensation is the rigbi of men ; hut he is 
not an offender, as his erroneous offence is 
cancelled (Hidayah. vol iit. p. 522.) 

Digitized by 



al-QHISHIYAH (***UN), " The 
Covering, Overwhelming." A name given \o 
the Lxxxvmth Sarah of the Qur'an. the word 
occurring in the first verse for tho Day of 
Judgment: "Has thore come to thee tho 
story of the overwhelming f n 

QEkSTL (J-lfc). "A washer ef 

the deed.* An official is generally appointed 
for this purpose by the Imam of the parish. 

GBASSAN (<j<~±). A tribe of 

Arabs inhabiting the western side of the 
Syrian desert in the time of Muhammad. 
(See MuirVi Life of Mahomet, voL i. p. 
clxxxiii.) F 

QBATAPAN( \Afe). An Arabian 
tribe descended from Qais. 

GBAU8 (*>/)/ Lit. " One to whom 

we can cry for help." A mediator. A title 
given te a Mn^ammadan saint Some hold 
it to bo the highest order of sanctity, whilst 
others regard H as soconcl in rank to that of 
Qfltb. According to the Qhyaw 'l-Lug&ah 
it is an inferior rank of sanctity to that 
of Qut h. 

QBA$AB (v-4-fc). "Anger," 
M wrath." A word used frequently in the 
Qur'an for the wrath of God, §.g. Surah iv. 
05 : " God shall be angry with him." 

QHAZl ( e jV*). One who fights in 
the cause of Islam. A hero ; a warrior. One 
who slays an infidel. It is also a title of 
distinction conferred by Muslim rulers.upon 
generals and warriors of renown. In the 
Turkish Kmniro the title of G£dri implies 
something similar to our "Fiold Marshal." 
The Prophet is related to bave said, "God is 
sponsor for him who goes forth to fight in 
the road of God, for His satisfaction and for 
that of His Prophet. He shall, if he be 
not killed, return to his' home with plunder 
and rewards. And if ho die, his reward is 
paradise." (Miehkat, book xvii. o. 1.) 

QHAZWAH («jj-A). A military 
force when it is lead by either an Apostle 
(Ra*itt) or an Imam. A small force com- 
manded by one of the Imam's lieutenants is a 
sorfyoA, or brigade. (See Qhiyanu 'l-Lughah, 
in toco.) 

AL-QBAZZALI ( Jtytf). Abu 
9amid Muhammad ibn Mohammad ibn 
Ahmad al-GhtutdIf r \a a well known 8unnl 
doctor eurnamed ffujfatu 'f-Ietam (« the proof 
of Islam "> He was a native of Jbn, and.for 
sometime ■ professor in the college at Nat- 
»spur. Born a.H. 460 (a-d. 1068), died 
605 (a.d. 1111), st Tfts. His .exposition 
on tho nature or God will ho found in tho 
article ooo. Hit great theological work is 
the Jhyfu • UHani 'd-Din. 

OJJlBArt » f *W-*). « Slander ; 
calumny.** Anything whispered of an absent 
person to his detriment, although it be true. 
(Buhtan. expressing a false accusation.) 
Qhibah is condemned in the Qor'an (Surah 

GHU8L 189 

xliXi 12): "0* believers, avoid frequent sus- 
picions, for somo suspicions are a crime ; 
neither let one of you traduce (g&bah) another 
in his absence." A chanter is deyotod to 
the condemnation of backbiting and .calumny 
in tho Traditions (vid* Mithkat, book xxii. 
ch. x.) 

QHIPAR (jUla): An Arabian 
trtho in the time of Muhammad who inha- 
bited a traot of country in tho vicinity of al- 
Madlnah. They were descendants of Abu 
Zarri a-Qhifari. 

QJfflSHAWAH (I,UA). Lit. "A 
covering." A dimness in the eye. A word 
used in tho Qur'an for spiritual blindness. 
Surah ii. 6 : " Their hearts and their ears 
hath God sealed up, and over their eyes is a 

CUJISLIN (cjd-*). The water,, 

blood, and matter, supposed by Mohamme- 
dan* to run down f ho. skin and flesh of the 
damnod in noil. See Qur'un, SOrah lxix. 86: 
44 No friend shall he have here that day, 
nor food but ghitHn* 

(ffltJL (J/). A roan-devouring 
demon of the woods. A species of Jinn 

QEULAM XfU), pi. ghibnah. A 
boy under age. A term used in modern 
Muslim for a slave, the legal word being 
l abd. It occurs in the Qur'an for a son. 
Surah iii. 42 : " She (Mary) said, * How can 
I have a son when a man has not touched 

GUULAT («*). IM. "The Zea- 
lots." A title givon to a leading sect of tho 
Shi'ahs who, through their excessive zeal for 
the Imams, have raised them above the 
dogree of human beings. 

QUULtTL (J,l±). Defrauding or 
purloining any part of tho lawful plunder in 
a jihad or religious war. Forbidden in the 
Qur'an, Surah iii. 166: "But he who shall 
tie/rand, shall come forth with his defraud- 
ings on.the day of the resurrection : then shall 
every soul be paid what it hath merited, and 
they shall not be treated with injustice," 

QfiURAB M/). Lit. "A crow." 
Ghurdou 't-Bain : . " The crow of separation.** 
A term used by the $ufi m ystici for a certain 
etate of separation from God. ('Abdu V- 
Razziq's Diet, of $ufi Termn.) 

QBURBAH («/). A fine of fire 
hundred dlrhams. A slavo of that value. It 
is the fine for a person striking a woman 
so as to oocasion a misoarrisge. .. (Hidayah, 
vol iv. p. 662.) 

QSUSL ( J~*), as distinguished 
ft am ghatl (washing) is the religious ac*t of 
ftnthing the whole body after a legal im- 
purity. It is founded upon the express in- 
junction of the Qur'an, Surah v. 9 : " If ye are 
polluted then purify yourselves," And the 

Digitized by 




Traditions most niinutoly relate the occasions 
on which the Prophet performed .the cere- 
mony of gbu*1 or bathing. The Muslim 
teachers of all sects are unanimous in pre- 
scribing the washing of the whole body after 
the following acts, which render the body 
jvnub, or impure: (1) //c/y?, monsos ; (z) 
nijas, puerperium; (3) jimff, opitus; (4) 
ihtitdm pollutio nocturne. It is absolutely 
necessary that every part of the body should 
be wasnod, for 'All relates -that the Prophet 
said, He who leaves but one hair unwashed 
on his body, will be punished in hell accord- 
ingly.** (Misted t, book ii c viil) 

QHUSL MASNtTN ( a yu- J^±). 

Lit. " Washings which are Sunnah." 
. Such washings are founded upon the Sun- 
nali, or precept and practice of Muhammad, 
although they aw not supposed to be of 
divino institution. They are four in number : 
(I) Upon the admission of a convert to 
Islam ; (2) Before the Friday prayers and on 
the great festival*; (8) After washing tho 

dead ; (4) Alter blood-letting. (See §ab*hu 
hBukhari, p. 89, Babu 'l-G$mL) Akrimah 
rolates that people came from sl-*Iraq and 
asked Ibn 'Abbas if he believed that bathing 
on Friday* was a divine institution, and Ibn 
'Abbas replied, <* No, but bathing is a great 
purifier, and I will tell you how tho custom 
ot bathing began. Th» people were engaged 
in daily labour and wore blankets, and the 
people sweated to such a degree as to oauso 
a bad smell, so the Prophet said, * men ! 
bathe ye on *Fridaya and put some seent on 
your clothes/" (Matthew's Muhkat, vol i. 
p. 120, from the Qadis of Abu Da'ud.) 

GIANTS. There is but one allu- 
sion to giants in the Qur'au, namely, to the 
tribe 'Ad, who are apokon pf as men ** with 
lofty statures " (Sarah lxxxix. 0), and the 
oommontator, Shah 'Abdu 1-Azis of Delhi, 
says they were men of not less than twelve 
yards in stature. Aoeording to a tradition in 
the Kitibu 'sk-SAqfak by the Qasi «Ayas 
(p. 66), Adam waa sixty yards in height. 
In the Q&vdt* 'l-Lughah, a giant named *0J 
U mentioned, who was born in the days of 
Adam and lived until the time of Moses, a 
period of 8,600 years, and that he waa so 
high, tjiat the flood In tho days of Noah only 
reached to his waist There are traditions 
. and stories of giants whoso graves exist unto 
tho present day. throughout the whole of 
Aala. Opposite the Ohuroh Mission House at 
Peshawur Is a grave nine yards long, whioji 
is held in great reverence by both MuhamV 
madana and Hindus* De la ' Belle, in his 
Travels in jftrsia, vol il p. 89, mentions 
several which exist In Persia. Giant graven in 
Hindustan are numerous. 

GIDEON. In the Qur'an there is 
evidently a confusion in one passage between 
the story of Saul as told therein, and the 
account of Gideon given in the Old Testament, 
as the following extracts will show : — 

"'Ard when Saul marched forth with his 
forces, he said, 4 Ood will test you by a river . 


He who drinketh of it shall not be of my 
band ; but he who xhall not taste it, drinking 
a drink out of tho hand excepted, shall be of 
my band.' And, except a few of them, they 
drank of it. And when they had passed it, 
ho and those who believed with him, the 
former said, * We havo no strength this day 
against Goliath (Jalut) and his forces : ' But 
they who hold it as oertain that they must 
meet God, aaid, < How oft, by God's will, hath 
a small host vanquished a 'numerona host ! 
and God ia with the eteadfaatly enduring.'" 
(Surah ii. 250.) 

Which compare with Judgea vii. 5 : — 
"So they brought down the people unto 
tho water ; and tho Lord aaid unto Gideon, 
Evory one that lappeth of the water with hi* 
tonguo, an a dog lappeth,. him ahalt thou aet 
by himself ; likewise overy one that boweth 
down upon hie kneea to drink. . . . The Lord 
said, By the three hundred men that lapped will 
I save you, and deliver the Midianitea into thine 
hand 9 

GIFTS. Arabic hibqh (*>), pi. 
hibat. A deed of gift. The term hibah in 
the languago of Muslim law meana a transfer 
of property made immediatoly and without 
exohange. He who makes the gift ia called 
the wdfib, or donor ;' the thins/given, mauhub ; 
and the person to whom it ia given is mauhub 

Muhammad sanctioned the retraction of a 
gift when he said, ^A donor preserves his 
right to his gift, so long as he doee not obtain 
a return for it." Although there is another 
tradition which says : " Let not a donor re- 
traot his gift j but let a father if he pleases 
retract his gift to his son." Aeh-Shafi'i 
maintains that it ia not lawful td retract a 
gift, except it be from a father to a son. AU 
the doctors are agreed that to rotract a gift 
is an abomination, for Muhammad said : " Tho 
retraction of a gift ia like eating one's spittle." 
The general opinion ia that a gift to a 
stranger may be retracted, but nut a gift to 
a kinsman. A retracted gift, by the mutual 
consent of the parties, should be effeoted by 
a decree of the Qftsi, or judge. (Hidayai, 
voL iiL p. 890.) 

GIRDLE Arabic nitdq (jlW). 
Amongst the Balfhtsshls and several other 
orders of faqlr investiture with a girdle ie 
the sign of incorporation into the order. The 
nestiatria aay that Adam waa the Jlret to 
wear the girdle worn by them, and after him 
fifteen other piophots wore it in aucceaaion, 
viz. Seth, Noah, Shu'aib, Job, Joseph, Abra- 
ham, Husha', Yusha*, Jirjis, Jonas, 8alife, 
Zakariah,al-&blar,Ilyas, and Jesus. (Brown '» 
Dervish**, p. 145.) 

GNOSTICS. " The singular cor- 

retpondenoo between the allusions to the cru * 
cifixion in the Corfcn, and the wild specula 
tions of the early heretics, have lod to the 
conjecture that Mahomet acquired his notions 
of Christianity from a Gnostie source. But 
Gnosticism had disappeared from Egypt 

Digitized by 





heforo tho sixth century, and tbcro is no 
reason for supposing that it had At any time 
gained footing in Arabia. Besides, there is 
no affinity between the supernatuialism of tho 
Gnostics and Dooetss, and the rstiouslism of 
the Goran. According to the former, tho 
Deity must be romoved far from the gross 
contact of evil matter ; and the Mon Christ, 
which alighted npon Jesus, at His baptfom, 
must ascend to its native regions before the 
crucifixion. With Mahomet, on tho Qontrarv, 
Jesns Ohrist -was a mere man — wonderfully 
born, indeed — but still an ordinary man, a 
ftorrant of the Almighty, a* others had been 
before him. But although there is no ground 
for believing that Gnostic doctrines were 
taught to Mahomet, yet some of the strango 
fancies of those heretics, preserved in Syrian 
tradition, may hare come to tho ears of his 
informants (the ohief of whom, even on 
Christian topics, seem to hare been Jews, 
unable probably to distinguish heretical fable 
from Christian dootrine), and hare been by 
them adopted as a lixely and convenient 
mode of explaining away that which formed 
the gjreat barrier betwoon Jews and Chris- 
tians/' (Muir's f>7* of Mahomet, new od. 
p. 101.) 

GOD. The name of the Creator of 

the Universe in the Qur'an is Allah, which is 
the title given to tho Supreme Being by Mu- 
frammadans of every race and language. 

Allah is supposed to be derived from ildh, 
a deity or god, with the addition of tho defi- 
nite article al—Al-ilah y " the God "—or, so- 
cording to some authorities, it is from lah, i.e. 
Al-tah, « the secret one." But Abu tfanifah 
says that just as the essehoe of God is un- 
changeable, so is His namo, and that Allah 
has ever been the name of tho Eternal Being. 
(See Qkififu H-Lnghah.) 

AUSh may be an Arabic rendering of the 

Hebrew *2M •*» •"* tn * tensed root "ftM 
«/, M to be strong," or from ptf^H' *h* sm ~ 
gular form ef Q^TiTH ** * 8 expressed in 
Persian mid Hindustani by the won! £AwW, 
derived from the Persian j&ae?, self; the 
self-existing one. 

Another word very frequently used f of the 
Almighty in the Qur'an is Rabb, which is 
generally translated in English^ersions of the 
Qur'an, "Lord." It soemn to stand in the 
relative position of the Jehovah of the Old 
Testament and tho Ktpcoc, of tho New Testa- 
ment The word is understood by Muslims 
to mean M the sustainer," but it is probably 

derived from the Hebrew nSD ™bbah t " a 

stronghold,' 1 or from its root rab t which, ac- 
eoxding to Gesenius, means " a multitude," or 
anything of rise or importance. 

ThelRlc Altih it called the hmu 'n-gat, 
or, the essential name of God, all other titles, 
including Rabb, being considered Atm&u '*- 
Si/at, or M attributes " of the Divine Being. 
These attributes are called al-A$m?H 'Matna, 



or the •* excellent namos." Tho oxpression 
occurs in tho Qur'an (Sarah vii. 170), " But 
God's are excellent name* % call on Him 
thereby.'* This verse is commented upon in 
the Traditions, and Abu Hurairah says that 
Muhammad said, «♦ Voriiy, thero are ninoty- 
nine names of God, and whoever rooites thorn 
shall enter into Paradise." 

In the same 'tradition these mimes (or 
attributes) are givon as follows : — 

~ * " Tho Morciful. 

The Oompassionato. 

The Ring. 

Tho Holy. 

Tho Poaoo. 

Tho Faithful. 

The Protector. 

Tho Mighty. 

Tho Repairer. 

The Great. 

The Creator. 

The Maker. 

The Fashioner. 

The Forgiver. 

The Dominant. 

Tho Bostowor 

Tho Provider. 

Tho Oponor. 

Tho Know or. 

The Reetraincr. 

Tho Spreader. 

The Abaser. 

The ExaHer. 

The Honourer. 

Tho Destroyer. 

The Hearer. 

The Beer. 

The Ruler. 

The Just. 

The Subtle. 

The Aware. 

The Clement. 

Tho Grand. 

The Forgiving. 

The Grateful. 

The Exalted. 

The Great 

The Guardian. 

Tho Strongthoner. 

The Reckoner. 

The Majestic. 

The Generons 

The Watcher. 

The Approver. 

The Comprehensive. 

The Wise. 

The Jioving. 

Tho G orious 

The Rai«er. 

The Witness. 

The Truth. 

The Advocate 

The Strong. 

The Firm. 

The Patron. 

The Laudable. 

The Counter. 

The Beginner 

The Restorer. 

The Quiokener 


1. A r- Rahman 

2. Ar-Rahim . 
8 Al-Malik . 

4. Al-Quddu*. 

5. Am -Sal dm . 

6. Al-Mu'min 

7. Al-Muhaimin 

Ah'Atlx . 

Al-Jabbdr . 



12. Al-Bdri . 

18. Al-Mufawwir 

14. AI-(Jhaffdr 

15. Al-Qahhdr 
10. Al-Wahhab. 
17. Ar-RasMnij 
IB. A I- Fall* h 

19. At-'AUm . 

20. ALQflbiz . 

21. Al-Basii . 

22. AUKhafit . 
28 ArlStf* • 

24. At-Micizr . 

25. Al-SfmU . 
20. Af-Sami* . 
27. Al-Ba*\r . 

A I- Hakim . 
AlLatif . 

31. AlKhabb . 

82. Alffr'Hm . 

88. Al-'Ailm . 

84. Al'Uhafnr 

85. A*h-Shakur 

86. Al-'All 

87. Al-Kabir .. 
8& Al-Hafit . 

89. ALMuqit . 

40. ALHaHh . 

41. AlJaia . 

42. Al-Korim . 
4a Ar-Raqib . 

44. AlMtmb . 

45. Al-Waii* . 

46. Al-Haklvx . 

47. Al-Wadud 

48. Al-Maj\H . 

49. At-Bait . 

50. Ath-Shahid 

51. Al-Haqq . 

52. AU tyaW . 
5a Al-Qctwi . 

54. Al'Mntm . 

55. Al- WiUi . 
5a AlMamvt. 
57. Al-Muhi% . 

56. AhMubdi 
59. Al-Mwid . 
00. AtMuhyi 

Digitized by 





61. Al-Mumt . 

62. Al-Haif . 
6a Al-Quitnbu 
04. At-Wajid . 
66. Al-Mafid . 

66. Al- Wahid. 

67. Ab-$amad. 

68. AUtfdir . 

69. Al-Muqtadir 

70. Al-Muqaddim 

Tho Killer. 
The Living. 
The Subsisting. 
The Finder. 
The Glprioifs. 
The One. 
The Eternal. 
The Powerful. 
The prevailing. 
The Bringing for- 

71. Al-Mu'akhkhxr . Tho Deferror. 

72. Ai-Awwal . . The First. 

73. Al-A&hir . . The Lest. 

74. A?-Z5kir . . ThoKvident. 

75. A/-£d{iM . . The Hidden. 

76. Al-WaH . . The Governor. 

77. Al-Muta'dTi . The Exalted. 
l&'Al-Barr . . The Righteous. 

79. At-Tauwdb . The Accepter of 


80. AUAfuntagiw The Avenger. 

81. AL'AJuw . . Tho Pardoner. 

82. Ar-Rctuf . . The Kind. 

88. MdUku H-Mulk . The Rulor of tho 

84. £u '(.JatiUi um 7- The Lord of Majesty 

lb dm . und Liberality. 

86. Al-Aiuqtii. , The Equitable 
86. Al-JamV . . Tho Oolloctor. 
67. Al-Uhatii . . Tho Independent. 

88. Al'Muahfii . The Kuriobor. 

89. ALM*tl . . The Grver. 

90. Al-Mani* . . The Withholder. 

91. Af-Zarr . The Distresses 

92. A*NaJi' . . The Proflter. 

98. An-Nif . . The Light. 
94. Al-Hadi . . Tho Guide. 

96. ALBatfc . . The Incomparable. 

96. AtBaqi . . The Euduring. 

97. At-Warii . . The Inheritor. 
9a Ar-Rtukid. . The Director. 

99. Ap-^almr . . The Patient. 

The \ist oither begins or closes with Allah % 
thus completing the number oT one hundred 
names, whioh are usually rocitod on a rosary 
in the ceremony of fcikr [zixa], as well ss at 
all leisure moments, by devout Muslims. The 
Wahhabie do not use a rosary ^ but count 
tho names on their fingers, which they say! 
was the custom of the Prophet, for from the 
Traditions it appears that Muhammad did 
not use a rosary. 

'According to tho Traditions (Miihkdt, book 
*, o. i.), the Almighty has an "exalted 
name *' known as the Inau V- A 1 tarn, which 
Muhammad is related to have said was 
either in the Suratu'l-Baqarah, the second 
chapter of the Qur'an, 168th verse, or in the 
Suratu Ali i lmiin t the third chapter, first 
verse. The namos of God whioh occur in 
those two versos are ar- Rahman, " the Mer- 
ciful," ar-Ilah'm* " The Compassionate," «/- 
\laiy % "the Living," and ul-QuiyutH, "the 
Subsisting." There is, however, another tra- 
dition, from which it would appear that tho 
name may he either at- A hud, " the One," or 
a#-Samad, "the Eternal" 

*Abdu i-IJeqq, in his remarks on thes* 
traditions, says that it is generally held, ac 

-cording to a tradition by 'Ayishah, that this 
great name is known only to the prophets 
and other saintly persons. The compilor of 
the Kitabu 'f-7ViV5f says it is none other 
than the name of Allah. 

The Prophet having said that whoever 
calls upon God by this name shall obtain all 
his desires (MitXkdt\ book x. 2), tho 
various sects of faqirs and mystics spend 
much time in endeavouring to ascertain what 
tho name really is [pa* wan], and the person 
who is able to assort that he has obtained 
this secret knowledge possesses groat in- 
fluence over the minds of the superstitious. 

Thero can be littlo doubt that tho discus- 
sion regarding this exalted name has arissn 
from the oiroumstance that Muhammad be- 
came aware of tho fact that the Jews never 
recited the great name of Johovah, and spoke 
of it as " tho great and terrible name," ** the 
peculiar namo " of God. 

The attributes of God as expressed in the 
ninety-nine names, are divided into tho atma'u 
H-jalaliyah, or tho glorious attributes, and 
the asmtTu 'l-jumaTiyah, or the terrible ettri- 
butea. Suoh namos as arlinhlm, " the Mer- 
ciful," ai-KurbH, « the Kind," and al l Afum, 
" the Forgiver," belonging to the former ; and 
al'Qftipi, "the Strong," at Afuntaqim, " ih* 
Avenger," and al-Qiair t "tho Powerful," lo 
the latter. 

In praying to Qod it is usual for tho .wor- 
shipper to address the Almfehty by that 
name or attribute which he wishes to appeal 
to. For example, if praying for pardon, he 
will address God as either al-'Afuw, "tho 
Pardoner," or at-Tauwdb, "the Receiver of 

A belief in tho existence of Qod, His Unity, 
His Absolute Powor, and in the other essen- 
tial attributes of an Eternal and Almighty 
Being, is the most important part of the 
Muslim religion, and is supposed to he ex- 
pressed in the two clauses of the well-known 
formula : — 

La ilaha //-/« H4aku. 
There is no deity But Allah. 

The first- olause, "There is no deity," is 
knowu as the Na/l or that which is rejected, 
and tho second clause, "But Allah," as tho 
J »bdt t or that whioh is established, the 
term Nofl wa-fibdt being applied to the first 
two clauses of the Muslim's JToJimkiA, or 

The teaohing of Mufeammad in his Quran 
as to the nature of God, forms such an im- 
portant consideration in an exposition qt 
IsUm, that no apology is needed for full and 
lengthy quotations from that book on tho 

The following verses are arranged in 
chronological order according to Jama 'ii- 
din oM-SufuiV* list :— 

Smatu 7-/£&/a>. Chapter oxiii 
(One of the earliest chapters of the 

" Say, He is God, One [Godl 

" God. the Eternal 

Digitized by 





44 Ho begotteth not nor is begotten, 
M And there hi none eqnal unto dim.** 
Svrafu 'l-A'rif. Chapter vii: 52. 

(Given at al-Madinah.) 
" verily your Lord ii God, who created the 
heavens and) * ne **rth in six days : then Ho 
ascended the throne. He eauseth the night 
to cover the day; it followeth it swiftly: and 
Re created the son and the moon and the 
start, made subject utterly to His command. 
Do not the Whole creation* and command be- 
long to Him? Blessed be God, the Lord of 
the Worlds-" 
SStatm Maryam. Ohaptor xix. 91-96, 

(Given at Makkah.) 
"They say, *The Compassionate hath 

Stten offspring ' : Yd haTO dono an impious 

44 It wauteth little but that* the heavens be 
rent thereat, and that the earth clear© 
asunder, and that the mountains fall down in 

"For that they hare attributed offspring 
to the Compassionate, when It beeeemeth not 
the Compassionate to get offspring. 

44 There is none of all that are in the hea- 
vens and the earth but he shall come unto 
the Compassionate as a servant. . He hath 
known them and numbered them with an 
exact numbering 

" And each of them shall come unto Him 
on the day of resurrection, alone. 

" Verily those who have believed and have 
done the things that are right, on them the 
Compassionate will bestow [His] love." 

Suratu H-jfijr. Chapter xv. 16-26. 
(Given at Makkah.) 

" We (God) have placed in heaven the twelve 
signs of the Zodiac, and adorned them for the 
beholders with the conetellatioia ; 

" And We have guarded them (by means of 
ehooting ntarn) from every accursed devil 

"Excepting him who listened by stealth, 
whom a manftest shooting star pursueth. 

" We have also spread forth the earth, and 
thrown thereon firm mountains, and We have 
caused to spring forth in it every kind [of 
green thing J weighed. 

"And We have provided for you therein 
noceftsarie* of life, and far him whom ye do 
not sustain ; 

" And there is not a thing bnt the store- 
houses thereof are with Us snd We send if 
not down save in determined quantities. 

"We also send the fertilizing winds, and 
We send down water from heaven, snd give 
you to drink thereof; and ye are not the 
stoma, of it 

•« And verily* We give life snd death, and 
Wo are the heJra ofaU the creation. 

"We also know those who have gone 
Woro you, and We know those who follow 
after [youj. 

"And vorily thy Jjord will ssaemblo them 
together : for He is Wise, knowing." 

Sumtu 'J-Arram. Chapter vi 69-64. 
(Given at Makkah.) 

" With Him are the keys of the hidden 
things : none knoweth them bnt Ho : and He 
knoweth whatsoever it on the land snd in 

the sea, and there falleth not a leaf but Ho 
knoweth it, nor a grain in the dark parts of 
the earth, nor a moist thing nor a dry thing, 
bnt [it is notedlin a distinct writing. 

11 And it is He who taketh your souls at 
night, and knoweth what ye have gained in 
tho day; thon He reviveth you therein, that 
an appointed time may be fulfilled. Then 
unto Him shall yo return: then will He 
doclare unto you what ye have dono. 

" And He is the Supreme ovor His servants, 
and He sendeth watchors over you, - until 
when death oometh unto any one of you, Our 
messengers take his soul, and they fail 

44 Then are they returned unto God their 
Lord, the Truo. Doth not Judgment belong 
to Him? And He is the most quick of 

44 Sat, Who delivereth you from the dark- 
nesses of the land and of the sea, when yo 
supplicate Him humbly and in secret, laying, 
4 If Thou deliver us from these dangere, we 
will assuredly be of [the number of] the 

44 Say. God delivereth you from them and 
from every affliction." 

/&., 95-10* *— 

44 Verily God causeth the grain to oome 
forth, and the date-stone : He bringeth forth 
the living from the dead, and He bringeth 
forth the dead from the living : This is God ; 
then wherefore are ye turned away? 

44 He canseth the dawn to appear, and hath 
ordained the night for rest, and the sun and 
the moon for reckoning time: this is the 
appointment of the Mighty, the Wise. 

44 And it fs Ho who hath ordained for yon 
the stars, that ye may be guided by them in 
the darkness of the land and of the sea : We 
have dearly shown the signs of Our power 
unto the people who know. * 

14 And it is He who hath produced you 
from one soul, and Mere ie a place of rest and 
of storing : We have clearly shown the signs 
to the people who understand. 

44 And it is He who hath sent down water 
from heaven, and We have produced thereby 
the germs of overything, ana We have caused 
the green thing to come forth therefrom, from 
*bioh We draw forth grains maaaed; and 
from the palm-tree, from its fruit-branch, 
clutters of dates heaped together : and gar- 
dens of grapes, and the olive and the pome- 
granate, like one another and not like. Look 
ye at their fruits when they bear fruit, and 
their ripening. Verily therein are signs unto 
the people who believe. 

14 Vet they, have set np tho Jinn as partners 
of God. though He hath created them, and 
without knowledgo have they falsely attri- 
buted to 111m sons and daughters. Kxtolled 
be His purity, and high be He exalted above 
that which they attribute [to Him] I 

44 He i$ the Author of the heavena and the 
.earth. How then should He haye offspring, 
when He hath no consort, and hath created 
everything and knoweth everything? 

41 This is God your Lord. There is no God 
but He, the Creator of everything : thereforo 

Digitized by 





worship ye Him; and He is guardian over 

** The eyoa see Him not, but He seeth the 
eyos : and He is the Gracious, tho Knowing." 

Surutu Banl Isra'tf. Chapter lxvii. 1-4. 
(Given at Makkah.) 

u Bleated be He in whose hand is the domi- 
nion and who is all powerful ; 

"Who hath created death and life, that 
TTe may prove you, which of you Twill be] 
)>est in works: and He is the Mighty, tho 
Vory- Forgiving : 

"Who hath created seven heavens, one 
above another. Thou seeet not any fault in 
tho creation ef the Compassionate. But lift 
up the eyos again to heaven. Dost thou sou 
any fissures t 

"Then lift up the eyes again twibo; the 
sight shall return unto thee dull and dim." 

SQratu 't-'Ankabut. Chapter xxix. 40-43. 
(Given at Makkah.) 

" The likeness of those who take to them- 
selves Tutelars instead of God is as the like- 
ness of the spider, which maketh for herself 
a dwolling; and the frailest of dwellings 
surely is the dwelling of tho spider 1 If they 
ant*w ! 

*• VerPy God knoweth whatever thing they 
invoke in His stead ;* and He is the Mighty, 
the Wise. 

14 And these parables we propound unto 
men ; bnt none understand them oxoept the 

"God hath oreated tho heavens and tho 
earth in truth : verily therein is a sign unto 
the believers.*' 

SwratuH-BaqaraJL Chapter ii. 167-160. 
(Given at al-Madinah.) 

** And your God is One God : thero is no 
god but lie, the Compassionate, the Merciful. 

** Verily in the creation of the heavens and 
the earth, and the varying of night and day, 
and the ships that course upon the sea laden 
with what is profitable to mankind, and the 
water that God hath sent down from heaven, 
quickening the earth thereby after its death, 
and scattering about it all kinds of beasts ; 
and in the changing of the winds, and the 
olouds that are compelled to do service be- 
tween heaven and earth, are signs unto a 
people who understand. 

*• Yet among men are those who take to 
themselves, beside God, idols, whioh they 
love as with the love of God : but those who 
have believed are more loving towards God 
than these toward* their idols. n 

lb., 360 :— 

"God I There is no God but He, the 
Ever-Living, the Ever-Subsisting. Slumber 
seixeth Him not, nor sleep. To Him be- 
longeth whatsoever is in the Heavens and 
whatsoever is in the Earth. Who ia he that 
shall interoedo with Him, unless by His per- 
mission t He knoweth «what [hath boon] 
before them and what [shall boj after them, 
and they shalUnot compass aught of His 
knowledge save .what He willeth. His Throne 
comprehendeth the Heavena and the Earth, 
and tho oare of them burdenoth Him not. 
And He in the High, the Great. 

Suratu Ati l Imrdn t Chapter til 25. 
(Given at al-Madinah ) 

" Say, God, to whom belongeth dominion, 
Thon givest dominion to whom Thou wilt, 
and from whom Thou wilt Thou takest it 
away ; Thou exaltest whom Thou wilt, and 
whom Thou wilt Thou humblest. In Thy hand 
is good. Verily Thou art all-powerful. 

" Thou causost the night to pass into the 
day, and Thou causest the day to pass into 
the night ; and Thon briiigest forth the living 
from tho dosd, and Thou bringest forth tho 
dead from the living ; and Thou givest sus- 
tenance to whom Thou wilt without mea- 
sure. *' 

Sural* V-fta'd. Chapter xiii. 18. 
(Given at al-Madinah.) 

" It is He who maketh the lightning to 
appear unto you, [causing] fear and hope of 
rain, and formeth the pregnant- clouds. 

"And the thunder proclaiineth His per- 
fection with His praise; and [likewise J the 
angel*, in fear of Him. And He sondeth the 
thunderbolts, and striketh with them whom 
He ploaseth, whilst they dispute concerning 
God ; for He is mighty in power. " 

Siratu 'n-iVW. Chapter iv. 61. 
(Given at al-Madinah.) 

" Verily God will not forgive the associat • 
ing with Him [any other being aa a god], but 
will forgivo other sins unto whom Ho 
pleasetb; and whoso assooiateth [another] 
with God hath wrought a great wickedness." 

The following is an interpretation of the 
Muslim belief in the existence and nature of 
God, by the famous scholastic, divine, the 
Imam el-Qhaszali, in his book entitled «/- 
Maoaadu 7-osjui, an extract from which 
Ockiey has translated from Pocock't Specimen 
1 listeria Arahum : — 

" Praise be to God the Creator and Restorer 
of all things; who does whatsoever He 
pleases, who is master of the glorious throne 
and mighty force, and directs His sinoere ser- 
vants Into the right way and the straight 
Sath; who favoureth them, who have once 
orne testimony to the unity, by preeerving 
their confessions from the darkness of doubt 
and hesitation ; who directs them to follow 
His chosen apostle, upon whom be the bless- 
ing and peace of God ; and to go after His 
most honourable companions, to whom he 
hath vouchsafed His assistance and direction 
which is revealed to them in His essence and 
operations by the excellencies of His attri- 
butes, to tho knowledge whereof no man 
attains but ho that hath boon taught by hear- 
ing. To these, as touching His essenco, He 
maketh known that He is one, and hath no 

Eartner; singular, without anything like 
lim ; uniform, having no oontrary ; ■operate, 
having no equal. He is ancient, having no 
first ; eternal, having uo hogiimiug ; remain- 
ing for over, having no ond; continuing to 
otornity, without any termination. He per* 
sists, without oeaaing to be ; remains with* 
out failing, and never did cease, nor ever shall 
coase to be described by glorious attributes, 
nor is subject to any decree so as to be de- 
termined by any precise limits or set times, 

Digitized by 





but is the First and the Last, and is within 
and without. 

<* ( What God is not) He, glorified be His 
name, it not a bodj endued with form, nor a 
»ubatanee circumscribed with limits or deter- 
mined by measure ; neither does He resemble 
todies, a* thoyare eapable of being measorod 
or dJrided. Neither is He a substance, neither 
do substances exist In Him ; neither is He an 
accident, nor do aeeidents exist in Him. 
Neither is ho like to. anything that exists, 
neither is anything like to Him ; nor is he 
determinate in quantity nor comprehended by 
bounds, nor circumscribed by the differences 
of situation, nor contained in tho hearens. 
He sits upon the throne, after that manner 
whioh He Himself hath described, and in that 
same sense which He Himself means, which 
is a sitting far removed from any notion of 
contact, or resting upon, or local situation ; 
but both the throne itself, and whatsoever is 
upon it, are sustained by the goodness of his 
• power, and are subject to the grasp of His 
hand. But He is shore the throne, and shore 
all things, eren to the utmost ends of the 
earth; but so abore as at the same time not 
to be a whit nearer the throne and the 
heaven; since He is exalted by (inQnite) 
degrees above the throne no less thsn He is 
exalted abore the earth, and at the same 
time is near to everything that hath a being ; 
nay, * nearer to man than their jugular veins, 
and is witness to everything ' : though His 
nearness is not like the nearness of bodies, 
as neither is His essence like the essence of 
bodies. Neither doth He eiist in anything, 
neither doth anything exist in Him ; but He 
Is too high to be contained in anv place, and 
too holy to be determined by time ; for He 
was before time and place were created, and 
is now sfter the same manner as He always 
was. He is also distinct from the creatures 
by His attributes, neither is there anything 
besides Himself in His ossence, nor is His 
essence in any other besides Him. He is too 
holy to be subject to change, or any local 
motion; neither do any accidents dwell in 
Him, nor any contingencies befall Him ; but 
He abides through all generations with His 

Slorious attributes, free from all danger of 
issolntion. As to the attribute of perfec- 
tion, He wants no addition of His perfection. 
As to being, He is known to exist by the 
apprehension of the understanding; and He 
is seen as He is by an ocular intuition, which 
will be vouchsafed out of His meroy and 
graee to the holy in the eternal mansion, com- 
pleting their joy by the vision of His glorious 

M (fits power.) He, praised be His name, 
is living, powerful, mighty, omnipotent, not 
liable to any defect or impotence; neither 
slumbering nor sleeping, nor being obnoxious 
to decay or death. To Him belongs the 
kingdom, and the power, and the might. 
His is the dominion, and the excellency, and 
the creation, and the command thereof. The 
heavens are folded up in His right band, and 
all creatures are oooched within His grasp. 
His excellency consists in His croating and 

producing, and His unity in. communicating 
existence and a beginning of being. He 
created men and their works, and measured 
out their maintenance and their determined 
times. Nothing that Is possible can escape 
His grasp, nor oan the vloissitudes of things 
olude his powor. The olTects of his might 
arc innumerable, and the objects of his know- 
ledge infinite. 

u (//i> knowledge*) Ho, praised be His 
name, knows all things that can be under- 
stood, and comprehends whatsoever comes to 
Sass, from the extremities of the earth to the 
ighest hearens. Eren the weight of a pis- 
mire could not escape Him either in earth or 
hearen ; but He would perceire the oreeping 
of the black pismire in the dark night upon 
the hard stone, and discern tho motion of an 
atom in the opon air. He knows what is 
secret and conceals it, and views the concep- 
tions of the minds, and the motions of 
the thoughts, and the inmost recesses of 
socrets, by a knowledge auoient and eternal, 
that nerer ceased to be His attribute from 
eternal otornity, and not by any new know- 
ledge, superadded to His essenoe, either in- 
hering or adventitious. 

"(//t« witL) Ho, praised be His name; 
doth will those things to be that are, and dis- 
posos of all accidonts. Nothing passes in the 
ompire, nor the kingdom, neither littlo nor 
much, nor small nor great, nor good nor eril, 
nor profitable nor hurtful, nor faith nor in- 
fidelity, nor knowledge nor ignorance, nor 
prosperity nor adversity, nor increase nor de- 
crease, nor obedienoe nor rebellion, but by 
His determinate counsel and decree, and His 
deflnito sentence and will. Nor doth the 
wink of him that seeth, nor the subtlety of 
him that thinketh, exceed the bounds of Mis 
will ; but it is He who gare all things their 
beginning ; He is th* oreator and restorer, the 
solo operator of what He ploases ; thore is no 
reversing His docree nor delaying what He 
hath determined, nor is thore any refuge to 
man from his rebellion against Him, but only 
His help and meroy ; nor hath any man any 
power to perform any duty towards Him, but 
through His lore and w4U. Though mon, 
genii, angels and devils, should conspire to- 
gether oither to put on* single atom in 
motion, or cause it to cease its motion, with- 
out His will and approbation, tboy would not 
be able to do it His will subsists in His 
essence amongst the rest of His attributes, 
and was from eternity one of His eternal 
attributes, by which He willed from eternity 
the existence of those things that He had 
decreed, which wore nrodneod in tbolr proper 
seasons according to His eternal will, without 
any before or ajUr % and in agreoment both 
with His knowledge and will, and not bj* me- 
thodising of thoughts, nor waiting for s 
proper time, for which reason no one thing 
is in Him a hindrance from another. 

" (His hearing and tight.) And He, praised 
be His name, is bearing and seeing, and 
heareth and seeth. No audible object, bow 
still soever, escapeth His hearing ; nor is any 
thiug risiblo so nniall as to esoape his sight : 


Digitized by 





for distance is no hindrance to Hla hearing, 
nor darkness to His aighL Ho eeea without 
pnpil or eyo-lid, and hears without any pas- 
sage or ear, even as He knoweth without a 
heart, and performs His actions without the 
assistance of any corporeal limb, and creates 
without any instrument, for His attributes 
(or properties) are. not like those of men, any 
more than His essence is like theirs. 

" {Hit word.) Furthermore, He doth speak, 
command, -forbid, promise, and threaten by an 
eternal, anoient word, subsisting in His 
essence. Neither it it like to the word of the 
ereaturee, nor doth it eonsiet in a .voice 
arising from the oommotion of the air and the 
collision of bodies,. nor letters which are sepa- 
rated by the joining together of the lips or 
the motion of the tougue. The Quran, the 
Law, the Qoapel, and the Psalter, are bopks 
sent down by Him to Uis apostles, and the 
Quran,. indeed, is read -with tougues, written 
in books, and kept in hearts : yet as subsist- 
ing. in the esfcenoo of Clod, it doth not become 
liable to separation and division < whilst it is 
transferred into the hearts and the papers* 
Thue Moses also heard the Word of God 
without voice or letter, even as the saints be- 
hold the essence of God without substance 
or accident. And sirico these are his attri- 
butes, He liveth and knoweth. is powerful 
and willeth and. operatoth, and seeth and 
epeaketh, by life ana knowledge, and will and 
hearing; and sight and word, not by His 
simple essence. 

" {Hit work$.) He, praised be His name, 
exists after suoh a manner that nothing be- 
sides Him hath any being' but what is pro- 
duced by His operation, and flowoth from His 
justice after the best, moit excellent, most 
perfect, and roost just niedoL He is, more- 
over, wise in His works, and just in His 
decrees* Hut His justico is not to be com- 
posed with the justice of men. For a man 
may be supposed to act unjustly by invading 
the possession of another; but no injustice 
can be conceivod by God, inasmuch as there 
Is nothing that belongs to any other besidea 
Himself, so that wrong is not imputable to 
Him as meddling with things not appertaining 
to Him. All things, Himself only excepted, 
genii, men, the dovil, angels, heaven, earth, 
animals, plants, substance, accident, intel- 
ligible', sensible, were all created originally by 
Him. He created them by His power out of 
mere privation, and brought them into light, 
when as yet they were nothing at ally but He 
alone existing from eternity, neither was 
there any other with Him. Now He creased 
all things in the beginning for the manifesta- 
tion of His power, end His willi and the con- 
tarnation of Uis word, which was true from 
all eternity. Not that He stood in need of 
them, nor wanted them; but He manifestly 
declared His {lory in areeting and prodeojng, 
and commanding, without heme under any 
obligation, nor out of neceeetty. Loving kind- 
noes, the showing favour and grace, and 
beneficence, belong to Him; wsjeteas it is in 
His power to pour forth upon men a variety 
of torments, and afflict them with various 

kinds of sorrows and diseases, whloh, if He 
were to do, His justice could not be arraigned, 
nor would he be chargeable with injustice. 
Yet he rewards those that worship Rim for 
their obedience on account of his promise and 
beneficence, not of their merit nor of necessity, 
since there is nothing which He oen be tied 
to perform ; nor can any injustice be sup- 
posed in Him, tier can He be under, any obli- 
gation to any person whatsoever. That His 
creatures, however, should be bound to serve 
Him, ariseth from His having declared by the 
tongues of the prophets that it was due to 
Him from them. The worship of Him is uot 
Simply the dictate of the understanding, but 
He sent messengers to carry to men His com- 
mands, and promises, and threats, whoae 
veracity He proved by manifest miracles, 
whereby men are obliged to give credit to 
them in those things that they relate * 

Inoluded in the attributes of God ae given 
in Hia ninety nine titles or names, there are 
the Haji tifdl , or Seven Attributes ; *4ufe*m- 
mad al-Barqawt baa expreesod them as 
follows: — 

(1) tfayof, or Life. God Most High Is 
alone to be adored. He has neither associate 
nor equal Ho is' free from the iniperfeotions 
of humanity. He is neither begotten nor 
doos He bf* et. He is .invisible. He is with- 
out figure, form, colour or part His exist- 
ence has neither beginning nor end. He is 
immutable. If He so wills* He can annihilate 
the world in a moment of time and, if it eeem 
good to Him, recreate it in an instant. 
Nothing is difficult to Him, whether it be the 
creation ef a fly or that of- the seven heavens. 
He receives neither profit nor loss from what- 
ever may happen. If all the Infideia became 
believer* and all the irreligious pious, He 
would gain . no advantago. On the other 
hand, if all Believers became infidels, He 
would suffer no loss. 

(3) '/&*, or Knowledge. He has knowledge 
of aU things hidden or manifest, whether in 
heaven or on earth. He knows the number 
of the leaves. of the trees, of the grain* of 
wheat and of aand. Evente past and future 
are known to Him. He knows what enters 
ipto the heart ef man and *het Ife utters 
with His mouth. He alone, except those to 
whom He has revealed them, knows the in- 
visible things. He ie free from forgetfulneaa, 
negligenoe and error. Hia knowledgo is 
eternal : it ia not posterior to Hie essence. 

C») Qavn-oA, or Power, He is Almighty. 
If He wills, He can raise the dead, make 
•tones talk, trees walk, annihilate the heavens 
and the earth* 'ond recreate of gold or of 
silver thousands -similar to those destroyed. 
fl[e caw" transport a man in a moment' of time 
from the east to the west, or from the west lo 
the east, er to the seventh heaven. His 
power Is eternal a priori end apvetericn. It 
is not posterior to Hie eesenos. 

(4) JridaK or WUL He een d o what He 
wule, and whatever He wttle eomee to pass. 
He is not obliged to act. 8verything,good of 
evil, in this world exists by Hie wilL He wills 
the faith ot the believer and the piety of the 

Digitized by 





religious. If He were to chtnge * His will 
there would be neither e true believer nor a 
pious man. He willeth also the unbelief of 
the unbeliever and the ir religion of tho wioked 
and, without that will, there would neither 
be unbcliof nor irreligion. All we do we do by 
Hie will : what He willeth not doee not come 
to pass. If one should ask why God does 
not will that all men should believe, we 
answer : M We have no right to enquire about 
what God wills and does. He is perfectly 
free to will and to do what He pleases.** In 
creating unbelievers, in willing that they 
should remain in that .state ; in making ser- 
pents, soorpions and pigs : in willing, in short, 
all that is evil, God has wise ends in view 
which it is not necessary that we should 
know. We must acknowledge that the will 
of .God is eternal and that it is not posterior 
to His essence. 

(6) Sam 1 , or Hearing. He hears all sounds 
whether low or load. He hears without an 
ear, for His attributes are not like those of 

(6) fiasar, or Seeing. He sees all things, 
even the steps of a black ant on a black-stone 
in a dark night ; yet He has no eye as men 

(7) Kalam, or Speech. He speaks, but not 
with a tongue as men do.- He speaks to some 
of His servants without the intervention of 
another, even as He spoke to Moses, and 
to Muhammad on the night of the ascension 
to heaven. He speaks to others by the instru- 
mentality of Gabriel, and this is the usual way 
in which He communicates His will to the 
prophets. It follows from this that the 
Qur'an is the word of God, and is eternal and 
uncreated. (Salo's Faith of Islam.) 

With regard to the Mugammadan beliof in 
the Supreme Being, Mr. Palgrave, the well- 
kinown Oriental traveller, thus expresses 
himself :— 

M « There is no god but God,' are words 
simply tantamount in English to the nega- 
tion of any deity save one alone ; and thus 
much they certainly moan in Arabic, but 
the imply muoh more also. Their full sense 
is, not only to deny absolutely and unre- 
servedly all plurality, whether of nature or of 
person, in the Supreme Being, not only to 
establish the unity of the Unbegotting and Un- 
begot, in all its simple and uhcommunicable 
Onenees ; but besides this, the words in Arabic 
and among Arabs imply that this one Su- 
preme Being is also the only Agent, the only 
Force, the only act existing throughout the 
universe, and leave to all beings else, matter 
or spirit, instinct or intelligence, physical or 
moral, nothing but pure unconditional passivs- 
oess, alike in movement or in quiescence, in 
action or in capacity. The sole power, the 
solo motor, movement, oneray, and deed, is 
God ; the rest is downright inertia and mere 
instrumentality, from the highest archangel 
down to the simplest atom of creation. Hence, 
in this one sentence,. is summed up a system 
whioh, for want of a better name, I may be 
permitted to call the Pantheism of Force, or 
of Act, thus exclusively assigned to God, Who 

absorbs it all, exercises it all, and to Whom 
alone it can be ascribed, whether for preser- 
ving or for destroying,- for relativo evil or for 
equally relative good. I say « relative^' be- 
oauae ft is clear that in such a theology, no 
place is left for absolute good or evil, reason 
or extravagance, all is abridged in the auto- 
cratical will of tho One great Agent : ' fie 
vofo, tic jubeo t ttet pro rah one voluntas ' ; or, 
more significantly still, in Arabic Ktma 
yeshao (ka-ma yashfu), 'as He Wills it,' to 
quote the constantly recurring expression ol 
the Goran. 

" Thus immeasureably and eternally exalted 
above, and dissimilar from, all creatures, 
which lie levelled before Him on one common 
plane of instrumsntslity and inertness, God is 
One in the totalitv of omnipotent and omni- 
present action, whicfi acknowledges no rulo, 
standard, or limit, save His own sole and 
absolute will. He communicatee nothing to 
His creatures, for their seeming power and 
act ever remain Hjs alone, and in return He 
receives nothing from them; for whatevor 
they may be, that they are in Him, by Him, 
and from Him only. And, secondly, no supe- 
riority, no distinction, no pre-eminence, can be 
lawfully claimed by one creature over its 
fellow, in the utter equalisation of their un- 
exceptional servitude and abasement ; all are 
alike tools of the one solitary Force whioh 
employs them to crush or to benefit, to truth 
or to error, to honour or shame, to happincas 
or misery, quite independently of their indi- 
vidual fitness, deserts, or advantage, and 
simply because 'He wills it,' and 'as He 
wills It.' 

" One might at first sight think that this 
tremendous Autocrat, this uncontrolled and 
unsympathising Power, would be far above any- 
thing liko passions, desires, or inclinations. Tet 
suoh is not the ease, for He has with respect 
to His creatures one main feeling and source 
of action, namely, jealousy of thorn, lest- they 
should perchance attribute to themselves 
something of what is His alone, and thus on- 
croach on His all-engrossing kingdom. Hence 
He is ever more prone to punish than to 
reward, to inflict pain than to bestow plea- 
sure, to ruin than to build. It is His sin- 
gular satisfaction to let created beinffs oonti 
Dually feel that they are nothing olse than 
His slaves, His tools, and contemptible tools 
also, that thus they may the better ac- 
knowledge His superiority, and know . His 
power to be above their power, His cunning 
above ithoir cunning, His will above their 
will, His pride above their pride ; or rather, 
that there is no power, cunning, will, or pride, 
save His own. 

'•But He Himself, sterile in His inacces- 
sible height, neither loving nor enjoying aught 
save His own and self-measured decree, with- 
out son, companion, or counsellor, is no less 
barren of Himself than for His creatures, and 
His own barrenness and lone egoism in Him' 
self is the cause and rule of His indifferent 
and unregarding despotism around. The 
first note is tho key of the whole tune, and 
the primal idea of God runs through and 

Digitized by 





modifier the whole system and orecd that 
centres iu Him. 

" Thai the notion here given of the Deity, 
monstrous and blasphemous as it msy appear, 
is exactly and literally that which the Coran 
oonTeys or intends to convey, I at present take 
(or granted. But that it indeed is so, no one 
who has attentively perused and thought over 
the Arabio text (for mero cursory reading, 
especially in a translation, will not suffice), 
can hesitate* to allow. In fact, evory phrase 
of the preceding sontonces, every touch in this 
odious portrait, has heen taken, to the best of 
my ability, word for word, or at least mean- 
ing for meaning, from the * Book.' the truast 
mirror of the mind and scope of its writer. 

'■And that such was in .reality Maho- 
met's mind and idea, is fully confirmed by 
the witness-tongue of contemporary -tradition. 
Of this we have many authentic samples : the 
Saheeh (?abib), the Commentary of Beyd&uri* 
(al*Bai?awi) t the Mishkat ul Masabih : d 
fifty similar works, afford ample tea tin ooy on 
this point. But for the benefit of my readers 
in general, all of whom may not have drunk 
equally deep at the fountain-heads of Islamic 
dogma, I will subjoin a specimen, known 
perhaps to many Orientalists, yet too charac- 
teristic to be here omitted, a repetition of 
which I have endured times out of number 
from admiring and approving Wahh&bis in 

"'Accordingly, when Ood' — so runs the 
tradition : I had better said, the blasphemy — 
' resolved to create the human race, He took 
into His hands a mass of earth, the same 
whence all mankind were to bo formed, and 
in which they after a manner pre-existed ; and 
having then divided the olod into two equal 
portions, He threw the one lialf into hell, 
saying, " These to eternal fire, and I care 
not " ; and projected tho other half into hea- 
ven, adding, " and these to Paradise, I care 
not.*' (See Miehkatu H-Maeabil Balm 7- 

* Common tarr would here be superfluous. 
But in this we have before us the adequate 
idea of predestination, or, to give it a truer 
name, pro-damnation, held and taught in the 
school of the Coran. Paradise and hell are 
at once totally independent of love or hatred 
on the part of the Deity, and of merits or de- 
merits, of good or evil conduct, on the part 
of the creature; and, in the corresponding 
theory, rightly so, since the very actions 
which we call good or ill-deserving, right or 
wrong, wicked or virtuous, are In their es- 
sence all one and of one, and aooordingly 
merit neither praise nor blame, punishment 
nor recompense, exoept and simply after the 
arbitrary value which the all-regulating will 
of the great despot may choose to assign or 
impute to them. In a word, He burns one in- 
dividual through all eternity amid red-hot 
ohaine and seas of molten fir; and seats 
another in the plenary enjoyment of an ever- 
lasting brothel between forty celestial concu- 
bines, just and equally for His own good 
pleasure, and beoause He wills it. 

"Men are thus all on ono common level, 

here and hereafter, in their physical, social, 
and morsl light — the level of slaves to one 
sole Master, of tools to one universal Agent. 
But the equalising process does pot stop 
here : beasts, birds, fishes, insects, all parti- 
cipate of the same honour or debasement ; all 
aro, like man, the slaves of Ood, the tools 
aod automata of His will; and henoe Ma- 
homet is simply logical and self-consistent 
when in the Coran he informs his followers, 
that birds, beasts, and the rest are ' nations ' 
like themselves, nor does any intrinsio dis- 
tinction exist between them and the human 
species, except what accidental diversity the 
' King, the Proud One, the Mighty, the Giant/ 
Ac, as he styles his God, may have been 

{rieased to make, just as He willed it, and so 
ong as He may will it. 

" However, should any one think himself 
aggrieved by such association, he may con- 
sole himself by reflecting that, on the other 
hand, angels, archangels, genii, devils, and 
whatever other spiritual beings may exist, 
are no loss on his level also ; and that if 'he 
himself be no better than a camel, he is, how- 
ever, no worse than Gabriel or any seraph. 
And then, over all and ahove all, f There is 
no god but God.'* — (Central and Eastern 
Arabia, voL L p. 865.) 

Ydjwj wa Mdiqjt also gpelt Ma'jtij 
wa Ya'juj (***"; •****). A barbarous 
poople of Central Asia, perhaps the Turko- 
mans, who are in the Qur'an represented as 
doing evil in the land in the days of 2 A 1- 
Qarnain (or Alexander). See Surah xvttt 

•'they said, '0 £& 1-Qarnata I verily Gog 
and Magog waste this land ; shall we then pay 
thee trihute, so thou build a rampart between 
us' and them?' 

" Ho said, • Better than your tribute is the 
might wherewith my Lord hath strengthened 
me ; but help me strenuously, and I will set a 
barrier botween you and them. 

" ' Bring me blocks of iron/ — until when it 
filled the space between the mountain aides — 
' Ply,' said he, ' vour bellows,' — until when he 
had made it red with heat (fire), he said,— 
' Bring me molten brass that I may pour upon 

"And Gog and Magog were not able to 
scale it, neither were they able to dig 
through it. 

"'This,' said he, 'is a mercy from my 

They are also spoken of in Surah xxi. 95, 
96, as a people who shall appear in the last 
days : — 

" There is a ban on every city which we 
shall have destroyed, that they shall not 
arise again, 

11 Until a way is opened for Gog and Ma- 
;og, and they shall hasten from every high 

Al-Baisawi says Yijuj and Mijfij are two 
tribes descended from Jspheth the son of 
Noah, and some say Tajfij belong to the 
Turks and MejuJ to the JIls. (Comp 


Digitized by 



Esekiel kzxtUL 9 ; xxxix. 1 ; Rev. xvi. 14; 
x». a) 

GOLD. Arabic fo*a& (s-*i) ; Heb. 

Jintj Tht Jtajfeaf imposed upon gold is upon 
twenty mt'ioaV* one-half misq&l, and upon 
every four mlsqela In excess, one qM|, because 
the alma upon gold la ona fortieth of the whole. 
This la duo upon all gold, whether it be in coin 
or In ornament*. Bat ash-Shan 1 '! aaya It la 
not due upon the ornaments of women or the 
ringa of men. (Hidiyah, vol. t p. 27.) 

The aale of gold la only lawful when It la 
exactly equal in point of weight, for Muham- 
mad said, " Sell gold for gold, from hand to 
hand, at en equal rate according to weight, 
for any Inequality In point of weight If usury." 
(ieta, ?oUL 651) 

u It la not lawful for a man or woman to eat 
or drink ont of gold or silver vessels." >'ldem t 
*oL Ti. 86.) 

GOMATH. Arabic J&M (^W). 
The giant whom King David slew. Men- 
tioned in the Qur'in, Surah ii. 261: "And 
when they went forth to battle against Jilut 
and hia army, they said, *0 Lord, rive us 
patience, and strengthen our feet, and help ua 
agalnat the Infidels I' Therefore they dis- 
comfited them by the will of God, and David 
slew JUftt." 

The commentators have not ventured to 
give any account of JAlut 

GOMORRAH. Arabic GhamiiraK 
Not mentioned bj name in 

^ Qar'ftn ; but StuHim tea Q&awriiraA are un- 
derstood to be the *' overturned cities " re- 
ferred to in Surahs ix. 71, lxix. 0. 

GOOD TVORKS. Arabic ai>$dli- 
b&t (<a>\+)\-**-}\). According to the 
teaching of the Qur'an* good works without 
faith will not save from the torments of 

Surah xviii. 108-6 : « Shall we tell you who 
are they that have lost their labour most; 
whose efforts in the present life have boon 
mistaken, and who deemed that what they 
did was right ? They are those who believed 
not In the signs of the Lord, or that they 
should ever meet Him. Vain, therefore, are 
their works; and no weight will we allow 
them on the day of Reeurrection." 

Faith in the above Is belief in the mission 
of Muhammad: all Muslims being considered 
in a state of grace, no matter what their actions 
may be. With reference to the good deeds of 
Muslims, the following Is the teaching of 
Muhammad 1 , aa recorded in the Traditions 
(JftsMft, book x. chap, iil.):- 

" When a man la brought to Islam and ho 
performs it well, God covers all his former 
sins, and he gets ten rewards for every good 
act, up to seven hundred, and even more than 
that, whereas the reward of misdeeds is as 
one to one, unless God passes that over like- 

"There are three persons whose actions 
are not written ; one a person asleep until he 
awakes; the second, a boy not arrived at 




puberty ; 
covers till 

; the third, a madman until he re- 
covers nls reason." 

" Verily, God reoordeth both the good deeds 
snd the evil deeds. He who has proposed to 
do evil and did not do it, for him God re- 
oordeth one perfectly good deed. And he who 
intendod to do good and put hia Intentions 
into practice, for him God reoordeth from ten 
to seven hundred good deeds (aooording to 
their merits). And he who Intended to do 
evH but did it not, God reoordeth one good 
act ; but he who intendeth to do evil and doeth 
it, for him God reoordeth one evil deed." 

" Verily, the condition of that person who 
doea evil and after that good deeds, if like the 
condition of * man with tight armour on, 
whioh has troubled him. He does one good 
deed and the rings of tho armour become 
open. He does another good deed, and the 
armour falls from his body." 

"Verily there was a man amongst those 
who' were before yon to whom the angel of 
death oame to take his soul, and he was 
asked ' Have you done any good aotf He 
said In answer, * I do not remember that I 
have done any good' It was said to bhn, 
4 Look well into yourself, and consider if you 
have done any good work. He eaid, ' I do 
not 8nd any good in myself, exoept that I 
used to buy and sell in the world and used to 
claim my risbt from the rioh, but allowed 
them their leisure to pay me when they liked, 
and I forgave the poor. 1 Then' God brought 
that man into paradise." 

" An adulteress was forgiven, who passed- 
by a dog at a well, and the dog wae holding 
out his tongue from thirst, whioh was near 
killing him. The woman drew oft her boot 
and tied it to the end of her veil, and drew 
water for the dog* and gave him to drink, and 
she was forgiven on aooount of that act. It 
was asked the Prophet, ' Verily, are there re- 
wards for our dping good to quadrupeds, and 
giving them water to drink ? ' He ssid, ' There 
are rewards for benefiting every animal 
having a moist liver.' " 

«■ Tour smiling in your brother! face is 
slms ; and your exhorting mankind to # vir- 
tuous deeds is alms v and yonr prohibiting 
the forbidden is alms ; and your showing men 
the road when they lose it is nlms ; and your 
assisting the blind is alms ; and your removing 
stones, thorns, and bones, whioh are inconve- 
nient to man is alms; and your pouring 
water from your bucket into that of your 
brother la alms for you. H 

GOSHAH-NlSHlN (e>*u *V). 
Lit. " One who aits In a corner. w A Persian 
.term for a devout person who in retirement 
engages in the contemplation of the Deity. 

GOSPEL. Arabic Ityll (sW\). 
A term applied to the whole of the New Tes- 
tament scriptures, [new TsaTAMBXT.] 

GRAMMAR. [iLmu 'l-adab.J 
GRANDFATHER Arabic jadd 
(a*). If a father die without appoint- 
ing an execntor, the grandfather represents 

Digitized by 




the father And in making contracts of mar- 
riage, the grandfather has precedence of an 
executor, although the executyt takes prece- 
dence In managing the property. (Wdayah, 
▼ol. it. p. 555.) In oaao of the father being 
poor, it is the duly of tho grandfather to act 
for hi* grandchild in the distribution of alms, 
&c (Idem, vol. ii p 344.) 

GRANDMOTHER. Arabic jaddah 
(f**). .If the mother of an infant 
die, the right hitanah, or guardianship, rests 
with the maternal grandmother in preference 
to tho pat oi nil I; but if she bo not living, the 
paternal grandmother has the right prior to 
any other relation. The patvnal grandmother 
is also entitled to a sixth of the effects of a 
ohild of her son, if the child's mother be dead, 
as being the mothor's share. (Hiddvuh, vol. i. 
p. 586.) ' 

GRAVE. Arabic qahr (^i); Heb. 
-)3p # The graves of Muhauiraadans 
are 'so dag at to allow the body to lie with its 
face towards Makksh; consequently in India 
they are dog from north to south. It is usual 
to dig a grave the depth equal to the height of 
the breast of a middle-sized man, and to make 
a recess at the bottom, which is called laftd t m 
which the body is placed. The body having 
been placed in this recess, it is closed with 
miburut brisks, aud the gravo is flllod with 
earth and a mound raised over it. 

The Traditions of Muhammad, as well as 
the works of Muslim doctors, all teach that 
a dead body is conscious of pain, and there- 
fore great care is taken to prevent any pres- 
sure upon the/ body. 

'Amir relates that his father Sa«d iba Abi 
Waaqes said on his death-bed, "Make a 
Mm for me towards Makkah,and put unburnt 
bricks upon my grave, as was done in the 
case of the Prophet ($<it*ihu Jfu*lim, p. 2111 
Sufyan at-Tammar rcletoa that he •• saw the 
Prophet's grave, and tho top of It was like a 
camel's back." (£aAtfu H-Bukhari.) 

Ibii 'Abbas says " a red cloth was placed 
upon the Prophet's grave." (MiMat, book 
v. c. vi.) 

Jabir says " the Prophet prohibited build- 
ing with mortar on graves, and also placing 
inscriptions upon them." (Mixhkdt, book v. 
c. viS Bnt notwithstanding this tradition 
(which is acted upon by the Wahhabis), 
masonry tombs are moat common in all parts 
of Islam, and form some of the most striking 
specimens of Muhsmmadan architecture. 

GRAVE, The Punishments of the. 

['AXtBU 'L-QaBX.] 

GREEKS. Arabic ar-Riim ( r ^) f 
by which is meant the Byzanlino or- Eastern 
Umpire. In the xxxth chapter of the Qur'an, 
entitled the Suraiu V-ifav*, or the % •• Chapter 
of tho Greeks," there is a reference to the 
defeat of the Byzantine powoi by the Per- 
sians with a supposed propheoy of future suc- 
cesses. The chapter begins thus :— 

"Alii. I,em. Miui. THE GBEEK8 bavo 
been defoated 


•• In n laud hard by : But after their defeat 
thev shall defoat their foes, 

" In a few years. First and last Is the 
affair with God. Aud on that day shall the 
faithful rejoice 

" In the aid of their God : He aidetq whom 

Ho will ; and He is the Mighty, tho Merciful. 

" It is the promise of God : To his promise 

God will not be untruo: but most men know 

if not." 

Following al-Baitawi, the Jalalen, and 
other commentators, Sale remarks that— - 

The accomplishment of tho prophecy con- 
tained in this passage, which is very famous 
among the Muhaiumadaus, being insisted on 
by their doctors as a convincing proof that 
the Qur'an really came down from heaven, it 
may ho excusable to be a little particular. 

The passage is said to have been revealed 
on occasion of a groat victory obtained by the 
Persians over the Greeks, the news wheroof 
coming to Makksh, the inlldols became 
strangely elated, and began to abuse Muham- 
mad and hie followers, imagining that this 
success of the Persians, who, like themselves, 
were idolators, and supposed to have no 
scriptures, against the Christians, who pre- 
tended as well as Muhammad to worship one 
•God, and to have divine scriptures, was an 
earnest of their own future successes against 
the Prophet, and those of his religion, to 
check which vain hopes it was foretold in the 
words of the text, that how improbable aoever 
it might seem, yet the scale should be turned 
in a few years, and the vanquished Greeks 
prevail aa remarkably agamst the Persians. 
That this prophecy was exactly fulfilled, the 
commentators fail not to observe, though 
they do not exactly agree in the accounts 
they give of its accomplishment, the number 
of years between the two actions being not 
precisely determined. Some place the vic- 
tory gaiued by the Persians in tho fifth year 
before tho llijrah, and their defeat by the 
Greeks in tho second year after it, when the 
battle of Badr was fought ; others place the 
former in* the third or fourth year before 
the Hijrah, and the latter in the end of the 
sixth or beginning of the seventh year after it, 
when the expedition of al-rjudaibiyah was 
undertaken. The date of the victory gained 
by tho Greeks in the first of these accounts, 
interferes with a story which the commenta- 
tors teU, of a wagor laid by Abu Bakr with 
Ubaiy ibn ghalf, who turned this prophecy 
into ridicule. Aba Bakr- at first laid ten 
young camels that the Persiana should re- 
ceive an overthrow within three years, but on 
his acquainting Muhammad with what he had 
done, that Prophet told him that the word 
or j, made use of in this passage, signified no 
determinate numbor of years, but any number 
from three to nine (though some suppose the 
tenth year is included), and therefore advised 
him to prolong the time and to raise the 
wsger, which ho accordingly proposed to 
Ubaiy, and they agreed that the time assigned 
should be nine years and the wager a hun- 
dred camels. Before the time was elapsed, 
Ubaiy died of a wound received at Uhud, in 

Digitized by 





the third .year of the Hijreh ; but the event 
afterwards showing that Abft Bekr had won, 
ha rece i ved the camels of Ubay** heirs, and 
brought tham Ul triumph to Muhammad. 
History Informs us thai the successes of 
Kfcoent Fervm, King of Persia* who carried 
or a terrible war egttaai the Croak empire, 
to revenge tha desth of Maurice, his father- 
in-law, slain by Phocas, ware ▼err great* and 
oonstnued in an uninterrupted course for two- 
and-twenty years. Particularly in tha year 
of Christ 016, about the beginning of tha 
sfxth year baroro the Hijreh, tho Persians, 
Having tha preceding year conquered Syria, 
made themselves master* of Palestine and 
teak Jerusalem, which seems to be that signal 
advantage gained over tiie Grcoks mentioned 
in thle passage* ns agreeing beat with the 
terms horn used, and most likely to alarm the 
Arabs by reason ©( their vicinity to tha soene 
of sotion ; and there was to little probability 
at that time of the Greeks being able to re- 
trieve tWr losses much less to distress the 
Persians, that in the following years the 
arms of the laffer made still farther and 
more considerable progresses, and at length 
thev laid siege to Constant ineple itself. Bat 
in the year Gt5, in which the fourth year of 
the Hijrab began, abut ten roars after the 
taking of Jerusalem, the Greeks, when it was 
least expected, gained a remarkable victory 
over the Persians, »nd not only obliged them 
to quit the territories of the empire, by. car- 
rying the. war into their own country, but 
drove them to the last extremity, and spoiled 
tha capital city al-Madayin; Ueracliue en- 
joylae; f henceforward a continued series of 
goeoHortuQQ, to the daposillon snd death of 
KJloerO. (Sale's Koran, in loco.) 

GBO VE, The. Arabic Aikah (l*k\). 
The Afhabu % Aikah, or M the people of the 
Grove, n sre mentioned four times in tbe 
Qufin, SQraha xv. 78, xxvl. 176, xxviii.21, 
L 13, as being a tribe or class of people who 
toasted tbe prop' hats as liars. The following 
particulars regarding them are given in Surah 
xx vi. 170 : — 

M The people of the grove of Mad van treated 
the Apostles as liars. 

M When Shusab their brother said to them, 
• Will ve/not fear God? 

M I fcn)y am your trustworthy Apostle. 

" Pear God, then, and obey me : 

" No reward ask I of you for this : my re- 
ward-is of the IiOrd of the Worlds alone." 

GUARDIANSHIP. Guardianship 
over a minor is of two kinds: toUayah 
{}&}) or guardianship of tbe property and 
ettocsttofi and marriage of the ward, and 
kikhmk ( XjU,k ), or guardianship over the 
rearing and bringing np of the child. 

Quardiaus sre either so by natural right or 
by testament, or by sppointment by a lodge. 

The guardianship of a minor for the ma- 
BegoiuemVartd presort a tion of his property 
devolves first On his or her fathor, then on 
the father's executor, next oil the paternal 
grandfather, than on his executor, then on 

the executors of suoh exec a tore, next on the 
ruling power or his representative, the Qisi, 
or Judge. In default of a father, father's 
father, and their executors, as above, all of 
whom are termed near guardians, it rests In 
the Q&sl to appoint a gnardian of an lnfent*s 
property. The ether paternal kinsmen who 
are termed remote kindred, and the' mother 
succeed, according to proximity, to- the guar- 
dianship of an infant for tha purpose of edit* 
cation and maniaee ? they have no right to 
be* guardians of his property, unless ap- 
pointed to be so by the rutins; authority, or in 
the original proprietor's will, proved by com-' 
potent witnesses. The mother's right of 
guardianship is, however, forfeited open her 
being remarried to a strangor, but regained 
when she is dlvoroed by him, snd has again 
become a widow. 

In default of tho mothor aa well as of the 
paternal kindred of • a minor, his maternal 
relations are, according to proximity, entitled 
to guardianship for the purposes of educa- 
tion snd marriage, and not for the manage- 
ment of his property, onleee so appointed in 
the Into owner's will or by tha QsxT. 

The general rulo Is that a guardian, execu- 
tor, or anyone who has the oaroof the person 
and property of a minor, can enter Into a 
contract which is or likely to bo advantageous 
and not injurious to his ward. 

A guardian may sell or purchase moveables 
on account of bis ward, efther for an equiva- 
lent or at Such a rate as to occasion an inoon* 
siderablo loss, but not at snob a rato as to 
make the loss great and apparent. (Hidoyah 
vot. lv. p. 668.) 

A guardian Is allowed to borrow money for 
the suppoft and education of his ward, even 
by pawning 1 the minor's property : the debt so 
contracted must be paid out of his (the 
minor's) estate, or by him When he comes of 

It is not lawful. for a guardian to pledge 
into his own hands roods belonging to his 
ward on acoonftt of a debt due to him. or into 
the hands of hie child, being an infant, or 
into the hands of his slave being a merchant 
and free from debt. (Hidawh* vol* iv. p. 

A father can pawn the goods of his infant 
child into his own hands for a debt duo from 
the child, or into the hands of another of hie 
children being an infant. 

A father may also pawn on acoount of his 
own debt the goods belonging to. bis minor 
son, who on coming of ng^ will redeem the 
goods discharging the debt, and have a olaim 
on the father for the atrm. 

The contract of pawn entered into by a 
father with respect to his minor child's goods 
cannot be annulled by the minor, even if It 
were not for his own debt or for his own 

The mother .is, of all the persona, tbe best 
entitled to the custody (hitanah) df her infant 
child during marriage and after separation 
from her husband, unless she be an apostate, 
or wicked, . or unworthy to bo trusted 1 * 
(Fatawdi 'AlamgJri, vol. i. p. 788.) 

Digitized by 





Next the mother*! mother how high soever 
U entitled to the custody (At>d*aa) of e 
ohild; failing her by death, or marriage 
to a stranger, the fall sister it entitled ; 
failing her by doath or marriage to a 
stranger, the half-sister by the mother. On 
failure of her in the same way the daughter 
of the full sister, then the daughter of the 
half-sister by the mother. Next tho maternal 
aunt in the same way, and then the paternal 
aunts also in like manner. (A'ofdied-i-* Ham- 
ylri, vol 1. p. 72a) 

An umm-t-walad (or a female slave who has 
borne a ohild to her master), whon emanci- 
pated, obtains the right of taking her child. 
(HidayaA, toL L p. 889.) 

When it is necessary to remove a boy from 
the custody of women, or there is no woman 
of his own people to take charge of him, he 
is to be given up to his agnate male rela- 
tives ('a$aboh). Of these the father is the 
first, then the paternal grandfather, how 
high soever, then the full brother, then the 
half-brother by the father, then the son of the 
full brother, then the son of tho half -brother 
by the father, then the full paternal uncle, 
then the half paternal uncle by the father, 
then the sons of paternal uncles in I he same 
order. But though s boy may he given up to 
the son of his paternal uncle, a girl should 
not be entrusted to him 

No male has any right to tho custody of a 
female ohild, but one who is within the pro- 
hibited degrees of relationship to her ; and an 
•as abak who is profligate has no right to her 
custody. (Fatium-i-'Alamgbri, \oL L p. 729.) 
A female's custody of a bov terminates 
when he is seven years old, and of a girl st 
her puberty. 

Malo custody of a boy oontinues till pu- 
berty, of a female not only till puberty, hut till 
she can be safely left to herself and trusted 
to take care of herself. 

When a female has neither father nor 
grandfather nor any of her 'ojoooA to take 
charge of her, or the *aj£6aA is prodigato, it 
is the duty of the judge to take cognizance of 
her condition; and if she can be trusted to. 
take care of herself, he should allow her to 
live alone, whether she be a virgiu or a sftryi- 
dak, and if not, he should place her with some 
female astm, or trustee, in whom he has con- 
fidence; for* he is the superintendent of all 
Muslims. (Fatiwi-i-'Alamgiri, vol i. p. 780.) 

When a mother refuses to take charge of a 
ohild without hire, it may be oommitted to 

A boy or girl having passed the period of 
Mf&nah, has no option to be with one parent 
in preference to the other, but must neces- 
sarily thenceforth romain in charge of the 
father. (/7t<%aA, vol. L p. 889.) 

Before the completion of Hdiuk % or disso- 
lution of marriage, the proper place of Jis o% 
mth is thst where the huebaud and wife live, 
and the former cannot take away the ohild 
out of the oustody of the latter. After com- 
pletion of her 'iddah, and separation from her 
husband, a woman can take her child to the 
place of her nativity, provided the marriage 
had been contracted there, or it is so near 
from tho place of separation Or husband'* 
residence, that if the husband should leave 
the latter in the morning to visit the- child, 
he can return to his residence before night. 
There is also no objection to her removing 
with the child from a village to the city or 
ohief town of the district, tho same being ad- 
vantagoons to tho child, and in no respect 
injurious to the father. If the child's mother 
be dead, and its hi?anah or custody has 
passed to the maternal grandfather, she oan- 
not remove the child to her own oity, though 
tho marriage had taken plsoe thore. Other 
women than the grandmother are like her in 
respect to the j.lsce of Ai> tfiioA. 

Whon an umm i-walad bar been emancipated, 
she has no right to take her child from the 
oity in which the father is residing. 

(Hiddvah, toL i. ; Fatawai-'A lamgtrC voL i. ; 
Durrv %Mu&tdr t p. 846 ; Jimfiu V/toute ; 
Tooors Lecture*, 1879 ; Bailie's Diytt, p. 

GUE8T. Arabic ?aif O-A-*-*). 

GUBZ Qj-X). (1) The Pewian 

word for the mifroo/aA, or iron mace, where- 
with the infidel dead are smitten 'in their 
graves by the angels Munkrr and Nakir. 
['▲cabu 'l-qajul] 

. (2) An iron mace pointed at one end and 
having a knob at the other covered with 
spikes, and used by the Gurs M*r, or Rufa'i 
faqlrs, for striking against their breasts in 
their devotional exercises. (Qanun-i-lilim^ 
p. 291.) 


HABl' (At*). "DuBt/ f especially 

the finer partiolee whioh fly about and are 
only conspicuous in the sun's rays. 

A term used by the $ftfi myotics for those 

Strtions of matter (Aoyi/a) whioh Ood has 
stributed in creation. (*Abdu 'r-Rasxeq's 
Did o/$\fiT*mi.) 

rJABlB ah-NAJJAE 0Vey»v-*t->). 
"9abih the Carpenter," whose story is told 
in the Qur*an (Surah zxzvi 12), as follows :— 

"Bet forth to them the Instance of the 
people of the oity (i.e. of Antioch) when the 
Kent Onee came to it 

* When we sent two (f.s. John and Jude) 

Digitized by 



unto them and they oharged them both with 
imposture-- therefore with a third (U. Simon 
Peiert we strengthened them : end they said, 
1 Verilj we era the Se*t unto you of Geo? 

"They said, »Ye are only men like tie: 
Nought hath the God ot Mercy eent down. 
Ye do nothing but lie.* 

"They said, 'Our Lord knoweth that we 
are surely eent unto von ; 

"'To proclaim a clear meeeage ie our only 

u They eaid. Of a truth we augur ill from 
you ; if ye desist not we will surely stone you. 
end a grievous 'punishment will surely befall 
you from us. 

«They said, 'Your augury of Nile wRh 
yourselves. Will ye be werned? Ney, ye 
ere 'an erring people.' 

« Then from ihe end of the city a man (t.e 
HabTb, the carpenter) came running: Me 
Mid '0 my people ! follow the Sent Ones ; 

w< Follow tboeo who eefc' not of you e re- 
compense and who ere rightly guided* 

"< And Why ehould I not werahip Him who 
mede me, end to whom ye shall be brought 

«• Shall I tekegodc boclde Him? If the 
God of merey be pleesed to afflict me, their 
intercession will not avert from me aught, 
nor will Ihey deliver: 

" * Truly then should I be in a manifest error 

"« Verily, In your Lord have I believed; 
therefore bear me.' 

u — Tt was said to him. Bnter thou into 
Paradise , (•*. slier thoy had stoned him to 
death). And he said. «Oh that my people 

" ' How graeioue flod hath been to mo and 
that He hath mede me one of His honoured 

" Bui no army sent we down out of heaven 
after his efwoA > nor were we then eending down 
our oeee/j— 

"There, was but one about ficm Gabul, 
and lo ! Ihey wore extinct. 

41 Oh I the misery tint rut* upon my eer- 
vanta ! No apoatle oometh to them but they 
laugh him to acorn." 

Al-Belsawi, the oommentetor, says the 
people of the City of Antiooh were idolaters, 
and that Jesua sent two of his dlaciples, Yahya 
end Tunas (John and Jude)to preach to 'hem. 
And when they arrived, they met Habib, the 
carpenter, to whom they made known tbeir 
mission. Habib ■aid, •* What eigne can ye 
thow that yc are eent of God ? " . And the die- 
siples replied, "We can beal the sick and 
give sight to those who are born Mind, and 
cure the leprosy.* 1 Then rjsbib brought hie 
aick eon to them end Ihey laid their handa 
upon him and he waa healed. And Ha bib 
believed on Jesus, and he made known the 
gospel to the people or the city. Many ot the 
people then came to the disciplee and were 
also healed. Hie news then reaehed tho ear 
of the governor of the city, and he sent for 
the two disciples end they preached to him. 
He replied, «• Is your God different from our 
God?* They eaid. "Yes. Me it ie who 
tiade thee a od thy gods." The governor then 



lent them away and put them in prieon 
When they were in forison, Jeeua tent Sham*fra 
f Simon Peter), and p% came soeretly and made 
mends with the servants of tho governor, and 
In time gained aooest to the governors pre* 
sen^e, and performed a miracle in Ihe pre- 
sence of the governor by raising a child who 
had been dead seven days. The child when 
raised from the deed, said he had seen Jesus 
Christ In heaven, and that he' had interceded 
for the three disciples in prison. Tho 
governor believed ami many others with 
him. Those who did not believe raised a die* 
turbanee in the city, and Habib the carpenter 
exhorted them to believe. For thie he was 
stoned, and, hsving died, entered Into Ptffadiee. 
Habib'a toirth is still seen at Antiooh. and is 
visited by Mnhammadena as a shrine, 

HABlti ( J*t*) [ABEL.] 

HABWAH (lj*e>). Th* posture of 
silting with the lege and thighs contracted 
towards the belly the/ ba«k bont forwards, 
and supported in that position by the arms 
crossed over the knees. Muslims are for* 
bidden to sit in this posture do ring the re- 
cital or the Khutbsb on Fridays (Miikkit 
book iv. p. 45, pt. 2) st H inclines to drowsiness. 

HADAS 0*V»*) State of an on- 
clean person, of one who has not performed 
the usual ablutions bofore prayer. 

IJADD (*»Vpl. Awtoi. In its pri- 
mitive sense Audi signiHe9 "obstruction," 
whence a porter or gate-keeper is called 
Hadddd or u obstructed from his office of 
prohibiting people from entering. In law it 
expresses the pnnlahmonts, the limits of which 
have been defined by If u^ammad either in tho 
Quran or in the Hadjg. These' punishments 
srefl) For adulter*, stoning; (2) For fornica- 
tion, a hundred stripes ; (S) For the false 
accusation of a married person with adultery 
(or Qos/)» eighty stripes; (4) For apes may, 
death \ (5) For drinking wine, eighty stripes •, 
(6) For ikeft, Ihe cutting off of the rigbt hand j 

Per highway robbery : for simple robbery or 
the Highway, Uia lots of hands and feet; for 
robbery with murder, death, either by the 
sword or by crucifixion. (HtWoyoA. vol H. 
p. 1. [ipoNisNumrr.] 

AT.-HADID (J^aJI). "Iron/' The 
title of the fcvtith SO rah of the Qur*in in 
which tho word occurs (verse 25) : •* We sont 
downvVo* in which are both keen violence and 
advantage to mea* 

HADIS (*-*-). What happens 
for the first lime; new, fresh. That which 
is born in time as opposed to qmdim, or that 
which is without a beginning, as God. 

H ALl§ (ve*» w), pi. ahadis. [tra- 


HADIS QUDSI (^ *+*»). A 

divine saying. A t*rm nsed fcr it haiih 7WM1 
relates a revelation from God Sn the language 
of the Prophet. An example is fonnd Tn the 
AHshkat (book i. c. i. pt. I): " AbQ Hurairah 
Said, « The Prophet of God related these woros 


Digitized by 




of God, "The ions of Adam vox me, and 
abate (he age, whereas I am The AGE 
itself : In my hands are all event* : I have 
made the day and night.""' 

HADIYAH (It**). A present or 
offering made to persons of consequence, 
kings or ralera. \ 

HADY (vs*»). Cattle sacrificed at 
Makkah daring the Pilgrimage, as distin- 
guished from animals sacrificed on the Great 
Festival, which are called ufMyuh. Those 
animuls aro branded and sent off with strings 
round thoir nocks, as offerings to the sacrod 
temple. They may be bullocks, or camels, or 
sheep, or goats. (Miihkat, book xl c. viii.) 

HlPIg (fcW). Lit. "A guardiau " 
or protector. (1) One of the naraos of God, 
ul-Hqfiz. (2)' A governor, e.g. Htifitu 1-Bait : 
the guardian of the Makkan templo. (3) One 
who has oommitted the whole of the Qur'an 
to memory. 

*Usmiu relates that the Prophet said: 
*• The best person amongst you is he who has 
loarnt the Qur*an and teaches it. (Mishkdt, 
book vii. c. i.) In the east it is usual for 
blind men to commit the Qur*an to momory, 
and to thus obtain tho honourable distinction 
vt //a/is. 

HAF§AH (X-a*). One of Muham- 
mad's rives. She was the daughter of 'Umar, 
and the widow Of Khunais, an early convert 
to Islam. Sho married Muhammad about six 
months after her former husband's death. 
During tho lifetime cf the Prophet she wa ; a 
person of considerable influence in his coun- 
sels, being the daughter of 'Umar. She sur- 
vived Mnjyammad some years, and has re- 
corded sevoral traditions of his sayings. 

HAGAB. Arabic Hdjar (j+l*). 
The slave wife of Abraham and the mother 
of IshmaeL Al-Baisawi says that Hajar was 
the slave girl of Sarah, the wife of Abraham, 
and she admitted her to Abraham, [and from 
her was born Ishmael. Sarah became jealous 
of Hajar (because, she had a son), and she 
demanded of Abraham that he should put 
both the mother and- child away, and he sent 
theni away in the direction of Makkah, and 
at Makkah God produced for them the spring 
Zamxam [xamsam] When the tribe of Jur- 
hum saw that there was water in that place, 
thoy said to Hajar, " If you will share with 
as the water of this spring, we will share with 
you the milk of our herds," and from that 
time Makkah became a place of importance. 
(Tafnru 7-fioisawi, p. 424.) 

HAIR. Arabic sha'r, sha'ar (/*). 
Ueb. -ufo. 

The sale of human hair is unlawful in the 
same manner as the use of it for any purpose 
Is unlawful Being a pan of tho human 
body, it is necessary to preserve it from dis- 
grace, to which an exposure of it to sale 
necessarily subjects it. It is related in the 
traditions that God has cursed women who use 
false hair. (HidayaA, vol ii. p. 430.) fiiKAD.] 


HA'ITIYAH (**UUj. A sect of 
Muslims founded by Ahmad ibn Qi'it, who 
said there iwere two Gods, one whose exis- 
tence is from eternity (gadim), i.e. Allah, 
and tho other who is created in time (mubad- 
dan), *•«. al-Maaih, (Christ), and that it is he 
who will judge tho world in the last day. 
And he. maintained that this is tho moaning 
of tho words which occur in the traditions : 
•< Qod created man in his own image." (KUabu 
LTa'rifat, in loco.) 

HAIWAN (e>V0- The animal 
creation ; whioh is divided into huitodn italic;, 
or rational boings ; and batman sdkit. or 
irrational beings, [ammals, bungs.] 

ax-HAIY GjeJt) ; Heb. TT, " The 

Living One." One of the ninety -nine attributes 
of God. The term frequently oocurs in the 

HA'I^AH (UW), A menstruous 
woman, {mbhstxdatiom.] 

HAJAR 0*1*). [hagab.] 

(•y-Mp*)- Lit. "The Black Stone." 
The famous black stono which forms part of 
tho sharp angle of tho Ka'bah in the templo 
at Makkah. Mr. Burkhardt says, "It is an 
irregular oval, about sevon inches in dia- 
meter, with an undulating surface, composed 
of about a dozon sraallor stones of different 
sizes and shapes, well joined together with a 
small quantity of cement, and perfectly well 
smoothed ; it looks as if the whole had been 
broken inta as many pieces by a violent blow, 
and then united again. It is very difficult to 
determine accurately tho quality ot tbis 
stone, which has boon worn to its present 
surface by the millions of touches and kissos 
it has recoived. It appeared to me liko a 
lava, containing several small oxtranoous par- 
tides of a whitish and of a yellow Bubstsnoe. 
It* colour is now a deep reddish brown ap- 
proaching to black. It is surrounded on all 
sides by a border oomposed of a substance 
which I took to be a close cement of pitch 
and gravel of a similar, but not quite the 
same, brownish oolour. This bordor serves 
to support its detached pieces ; it is two or 
throe inches in breadth, and risos a littlo 
above the surface of the stone. Both the 
border and tho stono itself are encircled by a 
silver band, broader below than above, and on 
4be two sides, with a considerable swelling 
bolow, as if a part of the stone were hidden 
under it. The lower part of the border is 
studded with silver nails." 

Captain Burton remarks, " The colour ap- 
peared to me black and metallic, and the 
centre of the stone was sunk about two inches 
bolow the motallio cirole. Round the sides 
was a reddish brown cement, almost levol 
*ith the motul, and sloping down to tho 
middle of the stone. Tho band is now a 
massivo arch of gold or silver giH. I found 
the aperture in whioh the stone is, one span 
and three flngors broad." 

According to Ibn * Abbas, Mufeainmad said 

Digitized by 



the black stone came down from Paradise, 
■ltd at the time of its descent it was whiter 
than milk, but that the sins of the children of 
Adam have eaosod it to be black, by their 
tenoning it That on the Day of Resurrec* 
Hon, when it will hare two eyes, by whioh it 
will see and know all those who touched it 
and kissed it, and when it will hare a tongue 
to speak, it will giro evidenoe in favour of 
those wbo touched and kissed it. 

Maxima* Tyrius, who wrote in tho second 
century, says " The Arabians pay homage to I 
know not what god, which they represent by 
s quadrangular stone," alluding to the Ka'bah 
or temple which contains the blaok stone. 
The Ouehars or Ancient Persians, assert 
that the Black Stone was amongst the 
images and relies left by Mahabad and his 
suooeesors in the Ka'bah. and thst it was an 
emblem of Saturn. It is probably an aero- 
lite, and owes its reputation, like many others, 
to its fall from the sky. Its existence as an 
object of adoration in anieonoolastio religious 
system, can only be accounted for by Mn1)am- 
med s attempt to conciliate the idolaters of 

A oomplete hat of the falls of aerolites and 
mstcoric stones through the atmosphere, is 

Suhlished in the Edirdmrqh Pkuosophioal 
r owrnal. from a work by Ohlsdni m Qermen, 
in whioh the subject is ably and fully treated. 



Tan Huaxo "l-aswad. (Bmrtem.) 

IJAJB (v-*e>). A legal term in , 
the Mu^ammadan law of inheiitancs, signify- 
ing the cutting off of an heir from his portion. 

fjL&Jl (<*>t*»), abo t&jj. A person 
who has performed the bajj, or pilgrimage to 
Makkah. It is retained as a title of honour by 
those who haye performed the pilgrimage, co. 
Ha>7 0«ttai,i.a M QasimthePi1grim. H [bajj.] 

tJAJJ (p^). Lit. " setting oat," 
H tending towards." The pilgrimage to Mik- 
kah performed in the month of Z& 1-Qi)jah 9 
or the twolftli month of the Mufeamniadan 
year. It is the fifth pillar of Muljammadan 
practical religion, and an incumbent religious 
duty, founded upon express injunctions in 
the Qor'an. According to Muhammad it is a 
diyine institution, and has the following autho- 
rity in the Qur'an for its due obseryanoc : — 

(It is noticeable that aB the vereee in the 
Qeran with regard to the pilgrimage are in the 
later 8Srahe f when theg are arra ng ed in their 
ohronowgical order*) 

Surah xxii. 28:— 

'* And proclaim to the peoplos a PILGRIM - 
AOE (fiajj). Let them come to thee on foot 
and on eyery fleet oamel, arriying by eyery 
deep defile ; 

" That they may bear witnoss of its bone- 
fits to them, and may make mention of God's 
name on the appointed days (i.e. tho ten first 
days of Z* 1-Qijjah), oyer the brute boasts 
with which He hath supplied them for sus- 
tenance: Thereforo eat thoreof yourselves, 
and feed the needy, the poor; 

M Then let them bring the neglect of their 
persons to a close, and let them pay their 
yows, and circuit the ancient House. 

" This do. And he that respecteth the 
sacred ordinances of God, this will be best 
for him with his Lord." 
Surah ii. 168:— 

44 Verily, as-$afa and al-Msrwah are among 
the signs of God : whoevor thon maketh a pil- 
grimage (bay) to the temple, or visiteth it, 
shall not be to blame if lie go round about 
them both. And as for him who of his own 
accord doeth what is good — God is Grateful, 
Idem, 192:— 

"Aooomplish the pilgrimage (Mj)i and 
the visitation Qumrah) for God : and if ye be 
hemmed in by foes, send whatever sacrifice 
shall be the easiest, and shave not your heads 
until (he offering roach the place of sacrifice. 
But whoever among you is siok or has an 
ailment of the head, must expiate by fasting, 
alms, or an offering. 

" And when vo are set* from Joe$ % he who 
contents hbusolf with the visitation Qumrah) 
until (ho pilgrimage (hay), shall bring what- 
ever offering shall be the easiost. But he 
who Jindeth nothing fe offer, shall fast three 
days in the pilgrimage itself, and seven days 
when ye return: they shall be ten days in 
all This is binding on him whose family 
shall not be present at the sacred Mbsoue (ol- 
Maejidu %bmrem\ And fear God, and know 
that God is terrible in punishing. 

14 Let toe pilgrimage 6c wade in the months 
already known (•'.«. Sbawwal, Zu 1-Qa'dab, 
and Z& 1-$i jjah) : whoever therefore under- 
taketh the pilgrimage therein, let him not 
know a woman, nor transgress, nor wrangle 
in the pilgrimage. The good whioh ye do, 
God knoweth it. And provide for gour 
journey i bnt the best provision is the fear of 
God : fear me, then, O men of understanding I 
" It shall be no crime in yen if ye seek sn 
increase from your Lord (ue» to trade) ; and 
when ye pass swiftly on from 'Arafat, then 
remember God near the holy temple (al-Mas- 
'jidu'l-barim) ; and remember Him, because 
lie hath guided you who before this were of 
those who went astray : 
" Then pass on quickly where the people 

Suickly pass (t.*, from 'Arafat), and «jk par- 
on of God, for God is Forgiving, Merciful. 
"And when ye have finished your holy 
rites, remember God as ye remember your 
own fathers, or with a yet more intense re* 
memhranoe I Some men there are who say, 
' O our Lord ! give us our portion in this 

Digitized by 





(Surah ii 192.) On arriving at an elevated 
place, on deaoending a valley, on mooting any 
one, on entering the city of Makkah or the 
saored temple, the hiji should continually 
repeat the word " Labbaika, Labbaika " ; and 
whenever ho noes the Ka'bah he should recite 
the Takbir> '• God is grout!" and tho 7V/iA 
" There is no deity hut God 1 " 

The pilgrimage known as the ^aji, aa has 
boon already stated, can only bo made on the 
appointed days of the mouth of 2u 1-Qljjah. 
A visit at any other time Is called the 'Umrah. 
['uhbah.] If the pilgrim arrives as lato as 
the ninth day, and is in time to spond that 
day, ho can still perform the pilgrimage legally. 

The pilgrimage cannot be performed by 
proxy by sunni Muslims, but is allowed by 
the Shi'ahs, and it is by both considered a 
meritorious act to pay the oxpenses of one 
who cannot afford to perform" it. But if a 
Mulhammadan on his death-bed bequeath a 
sum of money to he paid to a certain pomon 
to perform the pilgrimage, it is considered to 
satisfy the claims of the Muslim law. If a 
Muslim have the means of performing the 
pilgrimage, and omit to do so, its omission is 
equal to a lcabirah % or mortal sin. 

According to the saving of the Prophet 
(Muhkat, book xi. ch. 1), the merits of a pil- 
grimage to Makkah are very groat : — 

"He who makes a pilgrimago for God's 
take, and does not talk loosely, nor uut 
wickedly, shall return as puro from sin as the 
day on which he was born." " Verily, they 
(the feajj and the 'umrah) put away poverty 
and sin like the tiros of a forgo removes 
droBs. Tho reward of a pilgrimage is para- 
dise." " When you see a pilgrim, salute and 
embrace him, and request him to ask pardon 
of God for you, for his own sins have been 
forgiven and his supplications will be 

For a philological and technical explana- 
tion of the following terms which occur in 
this account of tho hajj, refer to the words 
as they ocour in this dictionary: 'abatah, 


The Muslim who has performed tho pil- 
grimage is called a bftii, which title he retains, 
e.g. if&ji Qasim, the Pilgrim Qasim. 

Only Are Englishmen are known to have 
visited Makkah, and to have witnessod tho 
oeremonies of the pilgrimage .-—Joseph Pitts, 
of Exeter, a.d. 1G78; John Lewis Burok- 
hardt, a.d. 1814 ; Lieutenant Riohard Burton, 
of the Bombay Army, A.D. 1868 ; Mr. H. 
Bioknell, A.i>. 1868; Mr. T. P. Koane, 1880. 
The narratives of eaoh of these " pilgrims " 
have been published. Tho first acoount in 
English of the visit of a European to Makkah, 
Is that of Lodovico Bartema, a gentleman of 
Rome, who viaited Makkah in 1608. His 
narrative waa published in Willes and Eden's 
Decades, ajx 1666. 

Professor Palmer (" Introduction " to the 

Qur'an, p. liii.j says :— *• Tho ceremonies of the 
pilgrimage could not be entirely done away 
with. The universal reverence of the Arab 
for the Kaabah was too favourablo and 
obvious a means for uniting all the tribes 
into one confederation with one common pur- 
pose in view. The traditions of Abraham tho 
father of their race, and tho founder of Mu- 
hammad's own religion, as he always declared 
it to be, no doubt gave the anoient temple a 
peculiar sanctity in the Prophet's eyes, and 
although he first settled upon Jerusalem as 
his qiblaky he afterwards reverted to the 
Kaabah itself. Here, then, Muhammad found 
a shrine, to whioh, as woll as at which, devo- 
tion had been paid from time immemorial; 
it was one thing which the scattered Arabian 
nation had in common— the one thing whioh 
gave them even the shadow of a national 
feeling; and to have dreamed of abolishing 
it, or even of diminishing the honours paid to 
it, would have been madness and ruin to his 
enterprise. He therefore, did the next best 
thing, ho cleared it of idols und dedicated it 
to the servico of God." 

Mr. Stanley Lane Poole (Introduction to 
Lane's £e/ectiotts, p. lxxxiv.) remarks : — 

" This samo pilgrimage is often urged as 
a sign of Mohammad's tendenoy to supersti- 
tion and even idolatry. It is asked how tho 
destroyer of idols could havo rooono led his 
oonsolonoo to tho oirouits of the Ka*bah and 
the vonoration of the black stone covered 
with adoring kisses. The rites of the pil- 
grimage cannot certainly be defended against 
the charge of superstition: but it is easy to 
see why Mohammad enjoined them. Tney 
were hallowed to him by the memories of 
his ancestors, who had been the guardians of 
tho sacred temple, and by the traditional re- 
verence of all his people ; and besides this tie 
of association, which In itself was enough to 
make it impossible for him to do away with 
the rites, Mohammad perceived that the wor- 
ship in tho Ka'bah would prove of real 
value to his religion. He swept away the 
more idolatrous and immoral part of the 
ceremonies, but he retained the pilgrimage 
to Mekka and the old veneration of the 
temple for reasons of whioh it is impossible 
to dispute the wisdom He well know the 
consolidating effect of forming a oontre to 
whioh his followers should gather ; and hence 
he reasserted the sanotity of the blaok stone 
that ' oame down from heaven ' ; he ordained 
that everywhere throughout the world the 
Muslim should pray looking towards the Ka- 
'bah, aud ho enjoined him to make the pil- 
grimage thither. Mekka is to the Muslim 
what Jerusalem is to the Jew. It bears with 
it all the intinenco of centuries of associations 
It carries the Muslim back to the cradle of 
his faith, the childhood of his propbot ; it re- 
minds him ot the struggle between tho old 
faith and tho new, of the overthrow of the 
idols, and tho establishment of tho worship of 
the One God. And, most of all, it bids him 
remember that all his brother Muslims are 
worshipping towards tho same sacred spot, 
that he is one of a great company of he- 

Digitized by 





lievers, united by on* faith, filled with the 
seme hopes, reverenoing the seme thing, wor- 
shiping the seme God. Mbframmad showed 
his knowledge of the religions emotions in 
men when he preserved the sanotity of the 
templo of IslHm," 

Trio Makkan pilgrimege Admits of no othor 
explanation than this, that the Prophet of 
Arabia found it expedient to compromise with 
Arabian idolatry. And hence we find the 
superstition and silly onstoms of the Qajj 
grafted on to a religion which professes to be 
both monotheistio in its principle, and icono- 
clastic in its practices. 

A oarefnl and critical study of Islam will, 
wo think, convince any candid mind that at first 
Muhammad intended to construct his religion 
on the lines of the Old Testament. Abraham, 
the true Muslim, was his prototype, Moses 
his law-giver, and Jerusalem his CiiMrfa. But 
*>ircom*t*noes were ever wont to change not 
•nlytho Prophet's revelations, but also his 
moral standards. Makkah became the Qib- 
leh : and the spectacle of the Muslim world 
bowing in the direction of a btaok slono, 
whilst they worship the one God, marks 
IslAm, with it* Makkan pilgrimage, ss a roli- 
ttion, of compromise. 

A)K>logists of Islam hare endeavoured to 

shlbld Muhammad from the solemn charge of 
having M forged the name of God," but we 
know of nothing which can justify the act of 
giving the stupid and unmeaning ceremonies 
of the pilgrimage all the foroe and solemnity 
of a divino enactment. 

The Wahfeabis, the Puritans of Islam, re- 
gard the olroumambulation of the Prophet's 
tomb as superstitious (a* sAirA, or associating 
something with God, in fact), but how oan 
they justify the foolish ooremoniee of the 
l>ajj ? If reverence for. the Prophet's, tomb is 
ihtrkf what are the runnings at as«$afs add 
al-Marwah, the stoning* ojtthe pillars, and the 
kiBsings of the black stone ? No Muslim ' 
has ever yet attempted to give a spiritual 
explanation of the ceremonies of the Makkan 
pilgrimage, for in attempting to do so he 
would be charged with the heresy of $hirk t 

Mr. W. S. Blunt in his Future of I*lam % 
has given some interesting statistics regard- 
ing the pilgrimage to Makkah in the year 
1880, which he obtained during a residence at 
Cairo, Damasous, and Jiddah. The figures, 
he says, are taken principally from an official 
rocord kept for some years past at Jiddah, and 
checked as far as European subjects are 
eounernod, by referenoe to the consular 
agonts rosiding there. 

Tablk of nin Mroca Pilgrimage or 1880. 

Nationality of Pilgrims. 

Arriving by 

Arriving by 

Total of Mussul- 
man population 

Ottoman subio<:ts including pilgrims from 
Syria and Irak, but not from Egypt or 

Arabia propor 


Mogrebbins ("people of the West"), that 
is to say, Arabic-speaking Mussalmans 
from the Barbery States. Tripoli, Tunis, 
Algiers, and Morocco. These are always 
classed together and aro. not easily distin- 
guishable from each other . 

Arabs from Yemen 

„ „ Oman and Hadiamsut 

„ „ Nejd, Assir, and Hasa, most of 

them Wahbabitee . 
„ „ Hejas, of these perhaps 10.000 
Meccano .... 

Negroes from Soudan ... 

„ „ Zanzibar 

Malabar! from tho Gape of Good Hope . 


Indians (British subjects) .... 
Malays, oniony from Java and Dutch snhjocts 


Mongols from the Khanates, included in tho 

Ottoman Haj 

Lasis, Circassians, Tartars, Ac (llussian 

subjects), included in the Ottoman Hsj 
Independent Afghans and Beluohis, includod 
in the Indian and Persian Hajs . 

Total of pilgrims present at Arafat 
















10,000,000 (?) 





Total Census of Islam 


Digitized by 




HAJJATU 'I^WADA' teW* **>*). 

The lest or farewell pilgrimago performed by 
Muhammad, and which ia taken at the model 
of an orthodox fyajj. It is called the Hajju 
'l-Akbar, or Greater Pilgrimago. in the Qur'an, 
Surah ix. 3. (See Mithkat* book xi. cb. lii., 
aod Muir's Life of Mahomet.) It is supposed 
to have commenced February 23, A.D. 632. 

HAJJ MABBttR o^r* **)• An 

approved or accepted pilgrimage (MisA&at, 
book xi. ch. i. pt. 2). A pilgrimmsgc to 
Makkah performed according to the condi- 
tion^ of Muslim law. 

HAKAM . ((S~). An arbitrator 
appointed by a qasi to settle disputes. It is 
not lawful to appoint either a slavo or an 
unbeliever or a slanderer, or an infant, as an 
arbitrator. (Hidauah, vol. ii. p 088.) 

Aocording to the Qur'su, Suruh I v. 39, 
domestic quarrels should be settled by an 
arbitrator :— " If ye fear a breach between the 
two (Le. husband and wife) then appoint an 
arbitrator from bis people, and an arbitrator 
from her people.' 

Al-Hakam, the Abitrator, is one of the 
ninety -nine attributes of God, although it is 
not so employed in the Qur'sn. 

rjAKIM (^W). "A just ruler." 
The* term Abkamu % l-fiakimin % " the Most Just 
of Rulers, is used for Ood, Qur'an, Surah 
xcv. 8 ; also, Khairu V./YoJhmm, i.e. «• Best of 
Rulers;" SGrah vU. 86. 

HAKIM (<«**), pi. kukamd 9 ; Heb. 
D3P. Lit. " A wise person." (1) A 
philosopher. (2) A doctor of medicine. (3) 
Al-flakim, ''The Wise One." One of the 
ninety-nine attributes of Ood It frequently 
occurs in the Qur'an, e.g. Surah ii. 128 : M Thou 
art tho Mighty and the Witt!" 

HAL (JM- A state, or condition. 

A term used by tho §ufi mystics for those 
thoughts and conditions which come upon the 
heart of man without his intention or desire, 
snch as sorrow, or fear, or pleasure, or desire, 
or lust. If these conditions are stable and in- 
transient, they are called maikah or mnt/dm ; 
but if they are transient and (looting, they 
are callod kdL (Abdu 'r-Razxaq's Dictionary 
of&lT* T*m$.y 

A state of ecstasy induced by continued 
contemplation of God. It is considered a 
divine gift and a sure prognostication of 
spoedily arriving at «« The Truth." 

Professor Palmer says (Oriental Mytti- 
cisrn, p. 66), " This assiduous contemplation 
of startling metaphysical theories is exceed- 
ingly attractive to an Oriontal mind, and not 
unfreqnently produces a state of mental 
excitement akin to tho phenomena observed 
during the recout religious revive In. Such 
ecstatic state is considered a sure prognonti- 
o»1 ion of direct illumination of the heart by 
Ood, and constitutes the fifth stage (in the 
mystic journey) called hat or ecstasy." 

HALlL (JW). Lit. " That which 
is untied or loosed." That which is lawful,. 


as distinguished from hardm, or that whlah is 

al-HALTM 6t*W). "The Clement." 
Ooo of the ninety-nine attributes of God. It 
occurs in the Qur'an, eg. Surah ii. 225 : " Ood 
is forgiving and clement." 

IJAMA'IL (JIW). Lit. "Things 

an upended " An amulet or charm [amolbt] 

HAMALAH (»w-*). Compensa- 
tion for manslaughter or murder, called also 
diyah. [diyah] 

HAMALATU 'L-ARSH ( ! ■ ■ ■■# » 
irV*t). Lit "Those who bear the 
thronp." Certain angels mentioned in the 
Qur'an, Surah xl. 7 : " Thoie who bear the 
throne (i.e. the Hamsiatu M-'Anh) and those 
around it (i.e. the Karubin) oelobrate the 
praise of their Lord, and believe in Him, and 
ask psrdon for those who believe." 

Al-Bagbawi, tho commentator, says they 
are eight angels of the highest rank. They 
are so tall that their feet stand on the lowest 
strata of tho earth and their heads reaoh 
the highest heavens, tho universe does not 
reach up to their navels, and it is a journey 
of seven hundred years from their ears to 
their shoulders I (Al Bayhawi, Bombay 
edition, vol. ii. p. 23.) 

HAMAN (o^^-a). The prime 
ministor of Pharaoh. Mentioned In the 
Qur'an in three different chapters. 

Surah xxviii. 7: "For sinners were Pha- 
raoh and Hsman." 

Surah xxix. 88 ; " Koran (Quran) and Pha- 
raoh and Haman 1 with proofs of his mission 
did Mosos come to them and thoy Donated 
proudly on the earth." 

Surah xL 88 :— 

"And Pharaoh said,<0 Haman, build for 
me a tower that I may roach the avonues. 

"'The* avenues of the heavens, and may 
mount to the Qod of Moses, for I verily deem 
bfari a liar.' " 

Some European critics think that Muham- 
mad has here made Haman the favourite of 
Ahasuerus and the enemy of the Jews, the 
yisier of Pharaoh. The Rabbins make this 
vizier to have been Korah, Jetliro, oi Balaam. 
(Htdr. Julkut on Ev. oh. 1, Sect. 162-168.) 

In tho MUhlcat (book iv. oh. 1. pt. 8\ there 
is a tradition that Muhammad said he who 
neglects prayers will be in hell with Korah, 
Pharaoh, Haman, and Ubaiy ibn l£h*\i (en in- 
fidel whom Muhsmmad slow with his own 
hand at the battle of Uhud\) 

al-HAMD (J*«Jt), the " Praise." 
A title of the first chapter of the Qurun. 
Aocording to Kitabu M-Ta'rifat, "praise' 
(bawd) of God is of thro© kinds :-~ 

(1) Al-bauvlu %Q/ivli % the pre lee of God 
with the tongue, with those attributes with 
which He has made known Himself. (9) At- 
bamduH'Fi'ftttho praise of God with the body 
according to the will of God. (8) Al-bamdu 
H-l/ati, tho praise of God .vith the heart and 

Digitized by 



al-HAMID (J^fJ\). "The Laud- 
able." The One worthy' of praise. One of 
the ninety-nine attribute* of God. It fre- 
quently occurs in the Qur'an, e.g. Surah xi. 
70, " Verily He if to h* probed." 

rjA MTM (,»* U). Soren Surah* 
of tbo Qur'an begin with the letter* £ *» f m » 
and ire called al-fTawamim. They aro the 
xl, xxi, xjjt, xun, xi.rr, xlt, and xxn. 
Various opinions are held by Mulyamniadan 
commentator* as to the meaning of these 
mysterious lotion. Jelalu 'd-din as-Suyutf 
in his /tyvtn, says these letters are simply 
initial lettors, the meaning of which is known 
only to God, but Ibn •Abbia says the 
letters £ &, and * m, stand for m\+*> S\ or- 
Rnhman, « the Merciful,* one of the attributes 
of God. 

Mr. Rodwell, in his Introduction to the 
Koran, says, " Possibly the letters Ha, Mm, 
which are prefixed to numerous tuccessive 
Snraa were private marks, or initial letters, 
attached by their proprietor to the oopies 
furnished to Said when effecting his recension 
of the text under Othman. In the same way, 
the letters prefixed to other Suras may be 
monograms, or abbreviations, or initial letters 
of the names of the persons to whom the 
copies of the respective Suras belonged." 

A Tillage or small town, the scene of one of 
Mohammad's expeditions against the Qur%ish. 
Having reached this spot he kindled five 
hondrnd fires to make the Quraish believe 
thst the pursuing foroe was Tory large, and, 
contenting himself with this demonstration, 
he retorned to al-Madinah, from whioh it was 
about 60 miles. According to Burton, it is 
the modern Wasitah. 

" At Hamra al Asid, Mahomet made pri- 
eoner one of the enemy, the poet Abu Oxsa, 
who had loitered behind the rest He had 
been taken prisoner at Bcdr, and, having fire 
daughters dependent on him* had been freely 
released, on the promise that h* would not 
again bear anna in the war against the 
Prophet. He now sought for meroy: <0 
Mahomet ! ' he prayed, * forgive mc of thy 
mee.' ' Kay, verily,' said the Prophet • a 
believer may not be twice bitten from the 
same hole. Thou shah never return to 
Meooa, stroke thy beard and say, I havo 
again deceived Mahomet. Lead him forth to 
execution I* So saying, he motioned to .» 
bystander, who with his sword struck off the 
captive's head." (MmVs Lift of Mahomtt, 
new ed. p. 276.) 

HAMZAH (*>**)• Muhammad s 
unole, who embraced Islam and became one 
of its bravest champions. He was at the 
battle of Ufeud and slew 'Usmin, one of the 
leaders of the Qnraish, but was soon after- 
wards himself killed by a wild negro named 
WahshI, and his dead body shamefully muti- 
lated. At his death Muhammad is recorded 
to have aaid that Hamxah was * the lion of 
God and of His Apostle." The warlike deeds 



of ^am^ah are recorded in Persian poetry, in 
which he is celebrated as Amir 9amaah. 

rJAMZlYAH (ky^Y A sect of 
Muslims founded by HamBah ibn Adrak, who 
say that the children (Infants) of infidels will 
bo consigned to the fire of Holl, the genoral 
belief of Muhemmadans being that they will 
have a special plaoe in al-A'raf. (Kitabu 't- 
ra«rf/Hr, in loco.) 

HANAFT (J*») t ?ANIF1 (o***-)- 

A member of the sect of Sunnfs founded by 
the Imam Abu 9anifah. [abd hahifae.] 

ijLANBAL. [ibn hanbax.] 

flANBALl ( J^). A member of 
the Eanbali sect of Snnnl Muslims, [in* 


HAND. Arabic yad (Ju*), pi 
ayddL Heb. T- 

S) It is a rule with Muslims to honour the 
w t hand above the left ; to use tho right 
hand for all honourable purposes, and the 
left for notions which, though necessary, are 
unclean. The hands must be washed before 
prayers [UJLimowsJ and before meals. 

(2) The expmrionswn* Wtt, the " hand of 
God," oocurs In the Qur'in :— 

Surah v. 6U . u The Jews say, • God 'a hand 
is fettered' ; thoir hands are fettered, for they 
are cursed." 

Surah xlviii 10 : « God's hand is above 
their hands." 

There is a controversy between the ortho- 
dox Bunnis and the Wanhftbis regarding the 
expression, " God's hand." The former main- 
taining that It is a figurative expression for 
the power of God, the latter holding that it Is 
literal ; but that it is Impossible to say in what 
sense or manner God has a hand ; for as 
the essence of God is not known, how can tho 
manner of His existence be understood t 

of keeping a handkorchlef in the hand, as is 
frequently practised, is said to be abominablo 
(makrvh). Many, however, hold that it is al- 
lowable, if done from motives of necossity, 
This, sajs Abfi Qanifah, is approved ; for tbo 
practice Is abominable only when it is dono 
ostentatiously. (Hidayah, vol. * p. 95.) 

HANlF (i-A*^), jflbmutfd?. Lit. 
"One who is inclined. (1) Anyone sincero 
in his inclination to Islam. (%) One orthodox 
in the faith. (8) One who Is of the religion 
of Abraham. (See Mqjma'u 7-2?t$dr, in loco.) 

The word oocurs ten times in the Qur'an. 

I.— Six timet for the. religion of Abra- 

Sfirah ii. 129: " They say, * Be ye Jews or 
Christians so shall ye be guided I Say : ' Not 
sol' but the faith of Abraham, the ganif, 
he waa not of the idolaters." 

Surah lit 60: "Abraham was not a Jew 
nor yet a Christian, but he was a Hantf re- 
signed, and not of the Idolaters." 

Idem, 89: ".Follow the faith of Abraham, 
a fianj/t who was not of the idolaters. " 


Digitized by 




Surah vi 162: "The faith of Abraham. 
Ms Han\f % be was not of the idolaters." 

Surah xvi. 121 : « Verily Abraham was an 
Imam, a tfamf, and waa not of Uio idolators." 

Sarah vi. 79: (Abraham said) "I have 
turned my face to Him who originated the 
heavon • and tho earth aa a Han\J\ and I am 
not of the idolaters." 

II. — Four times for ono sound in the 

Surah x. 105 :• " Msko steadfast thy face to 
the religion as , o Hani/, and be not an 

Surah xxii. 82: "Avoid apeaking falsely 
being Hamft to God, not aeaooiating aught 
with Him." 

Sarah xcvtti. 4 " Being sincere in religion 
unto Him, aa ffanift^ and to be steadfast in 

Surah xxx. 29: "Set thy face stosdfast: 
towarda the religion as a itdnff* 

III. — The term waa also applied in the 
early stages of Islam, and before Muhauiinad 
claimed the position of an inspired prophet, to 
thote who had endeavoured to search for the 
truth among the mass of conflicting dogmas 
and superstitions of the religions that existed 
in Arabia. Amongst these Hanifs ware Wa- 
reqah, the Pro phot's cousin, and Zaid lbn 
Amr, Murnameu the Knquirer. They were 
known as T.lsuif*, a word which originally 
meant 'Hiiolliilug one's stops toward any- 
thing,* snd therefore signified either a con- 
vert or a pervert. Muhammad appears from 
the above verses (when chronologically 
arranged)! to have 'flrat used It foT the reli- 
gion of Abraham, Unt afterwards for any 
sincere professor of Islam. 

HAQIQAH (kt*>). "Truth •.sin- 
cerity. 1 ' 

(1) The essence of s thing se meaning that 
by poing which a thing is what it is. As 
when we say that a rational animal ia the 
haqU/ah' of a human being. (See Kitubu *t- 

(2) A 'word Or phroar used in its proper 
or original sense, as opposed to that which ia 
figurative. A speech without trope or 

(8) The sixth at age in the mystic journey 
of the §ufi, whou ho its supposed to receive 
a revelation of tho true nature of tho God- 
head, and to ha to arrived at "the Truth." 

al - HAQ1QATU 'L - MUHAM- 
MADIYAH (h^^\ *MeJ\). The 

original eaaence of Muhammad, the Nir-i- 
Muhammmdiuak, or the Light of Muhammad, 
which is beueved'to have been oreated beforo 
all thinga (Kitabu % t-Ta 4 Tifat> in loco.) 

The Wahhabis do not behove in tho pre- 
existence of thmr Prophet, and tho doctrine 
is most probably an invention of tho Sufi 
mystics in the early frtagee of Islam. 

According to the hnum Qaalalani (Mu 
VHihib-i-hduniqa, vol. 1. p. 12), it is related by 
Jabir ibn «Abd f » Mlali ul-Ansiri that the Pro- 
phot said, " The first thing oreated was the 
light of your Prophet, which waa created 


from the light of God. This light of mine 
roamed about wherever God willed, and when 
the Almighty resolved to make the world, he 
divided this light of Muhammad into four 
portions; from the first he oreated tho Pen 
(qalam) ; from the second, the Tablet {lout) ; 
from the third, the highest heaven and tho 
throno of God (*araa): the fourth portion was 
divided into four sections : from the first were 
oreated tho llamalatu V'AnA, or the oight 
an&els who support tho throne of God ; from 
the second, the htni, or lower throne of God ; 
from the third, the angels ; and the. fourth, 
being divided into four subdiviaions, from it 
were created (1) the firmament* or aeven hea- 
vens, (9) *lie earth, ($} the aeven psradises 
and seven hells, (4) and again from a fourth 
section were oreated (1) the light of the 
eyea. (2) the light of the mind, (8) the light 
of the love of the Unity of God, (4) the re- 
maining portion of creation." 

The author of the Havatu 7-Q*&6, a Shl'ab 
book of traditions (See Merrick's translation, 
p. 4), says the tradition* respecting the crea- 
tions from this Light of Muhammad are nume- 
rous and diaeordant, but that the diecrepan 
ciea may poseibly be reconciled by referring 
the diverse dates to different eras in the pro- 
cess of creation. " The holy light of Mu- 
hammad," he says, " dwelt under the empy- 
rean soveuty-throo thousand years, and theu 
resided seventy thousand years in Part- 
dUe. Afterwards it rested another period of 
seventy thousand years under the « celestial 
tree called Stdraiu V-Mvntahd, and, emi- 

Cttfi, from heaven to heaven, arrived at 
h in the lowest of these oeleetial man- 
siona, where it remained until the Moat High 
willed the creation of Adam.** 

(A very curious account of the absurd be- 
lief or the ShPahe on th|s subject will be 
found in Mr. Merrick's edition of the Hiyatu 
V-Qu/fio; Boston, 1860.) 

HAQIQI (oM*). "Literal," as 
opposed to that which is majaui % or figura- 

HAQQ Ly»). "Truth, justioe." 
A term usea in theology for that which ia 
true, e «/. The word of God ; religion. In Jaw 
it implies that which is due. A thine; decreed ; 
a claim. By tho $ufi mystics it is always 
used for the Divhio Essence; God. 

Al-Haoq, " The Trutb." One of the ninety- 
nine attributes of God, 

AL-rjlQQAH (toe*H). Lit. "The 
surely Impending." The title of the Liiath 
Surah of the Qur'in. in which the word 
occurs in the opening verse; "The inevit- 
able! (aJ-Hevqatii!). What is the inevit- 
able*" The word is understood by all com- 
mentators to mean the Dayuf Insurrection 
and Jodgraont It doea not occur in any 
other portion of the Qur'in. 

HAQQU f L-'ABD (o*«n OK). "Tho 
right of the slave (of God). • In law the right 
of an injured individual to demand redress 
and justice. 

Digitized by 



rjAQQU 'LLAlI fJOW OK). "The 

right of God." la law, the retributive obas- 
tiseraent which it is the duty of a magistrate 
to inflict f or crime and offences against mora- 
Htyand religion. In theology it meant 
prayer, alms, fasting* pilgrimage, and other 
religions duties. 

11AQQU 'L-YAQlN (&*t\ &*). 
* A conviction of the troth." A term used 
by the gaff mystics for a stale in which the 
seeker after truth baa in thought and reflec- 
tion a positive evidence of his extinction and 
of his being incorporated in the Essence of 

God [T4QUC.J 

fjfAQQU'N-NASCu-^.o-). "The 
right of men.** A term in law Implying tho 
same as llaqq* V-MM. 

HARAM W), pi. Huram. " That 
which is saored. (1) A.I tfardm, the sacred 
precincts of Makkah or al-Hadineb* (?) 
Honm, the apartments of women in a Mu- 
bnmmadan household. fRAant.] (3) Huram, 

If ARAM ( r y). LU. " prohibited." 
That which is unlawful. The word is used 
m both a good and a bad sense. #.o. Boitu 7- 
hanim, the sacred house; hnd Malu 7-Aarrfm, 
unlawful possessions. Ibnu T-flaro*, an ille- 
gitimate son; Shahm 'I- far dm, a sacred 

A thing is said to he huram when, it ia for- 
bidden, as opposed to that which is (m/dl y or 
lawful. A pilgrim it said to be karim as soon 
as he has put on the pilgrim's garb. 

Hotom* 'Uih U (ifaUM is a form of onth 
that a man will not do a thing. 

fcft**N). The sacred boundary of al- 
Madraah within which certain acts are un- 
lawful which are lawful *fsewhere. The 
Imam Abu Hanifah says that although it is 
respectful to the position of the sacred city, as 
the birth-place of the Prophet, not to bear 
arms, or kill, or cut grass, Ac, still it is not, 
as In the case of Makkah, an incumbent reli- 
gions duty. According to a tradition by • All 
ihn AM Talib (Miskkdt, book xi. oh. xvi.), 
the Hududu %Haram, or saored limits of al- 
Madinah are from Jabal 'Air to Seur. Ac- 
cording to Burton, the diameter of the Haram 
is from ten to twelve miles. (El Aiedinah 
and AfcccqA, vot'L p. 869.) 

HARAMU MAKKAH (&*- rr ). 
The saored boundary of Makkah within wuioh 
certain acts are unlawful which are lawful 
elsewhere. It is not lawful to ca,rry arms, or 
to fight witbin its limits. Its thorns must 
not be broken, nor its game molested, nor 
must anything be taken up which has fallen 
on the ground, unless it is done to restore it 
to He owner. Its fresh grans or even its 
£ry grass must not be cut; except the bog 
rush (tsMkir), because it is used for black- 
smith's fires and for thatching houses. (A, 
tradition by Ibn 'Abbs*, Mi$hkdt % book xi. 



oh. xv. pi. IV 'Abdu '1- If son says that when 
Abraham, "the. friend of (loci, placed tho 
blaok ttone at the time of the building of the 
Ka'bah, its cast, west, north, and south 
quarters became bright with light, and that 
wherever the brightness extended itself be- 
came tho hfududu H-JIarum, or the limits of 
the sacred oily. Those limits 'are- mo rkod by 
mtmin or pillars on all sides, except on the 
Jiddah ami Jair&nHh roads, regarding whioh 
there is some dispute as to tho exact dis- 

HAREEM. [harim.] 

H ABES. Arabic arnab, pi. ardnib. 

Heb. rOTlN. Tbe flesh of the hare 

V V . ~ 

1s lawful, for tho Prophet ate it. and com- 
manded his companions to do so (Hidayah, 
voL Iv. p. 75), A difference of opinion has in 
all ages existed a* to the value of the hare 
as an artiole of food. The Greeks and 
Romans ate it in spite of an opinion that pre- 
vailed that it was not wholesome. In the 
law of Moses, It is spooifled amongst tho un- 
qloan animals (JLov. si. 6 ; Deut xiv. 7). The 
Parsooa do not oat hare's flesh, nor do tho 

HARF (*-^). (1) An extremity, 
▼ergo, or bordor. (*i) A letter of the alpha- 
bet. (3) A psrticle in grammar. (4) A 
dialect of Arabis, or a mode of oxprossion 
peculiar to certain Arabs, The Quran ia 
said to have been revealed in seven dialects 
(taltat ahnt/y [Qum'aw.] (5) A term used by 
the Sufi mystics for the particle of any true 

FIARIM. or HAREEM (m^). A 

word used especially in Turkey, Egypt, and 
Syria, for the female apartments of a Mu- 
hammadan household. In Persia, Afghan- 
istan, and India, the terras haramgah % makall- 
$ardi and xandnnh are used for the same place. 

The seclusion of women being enjoined in 
the Qur'in (8firah xxxill 65V in all Muham- 
madan countries it is the rule for respectable 
women to remain secluded at home, and not 
to travel abroad unveiled, nor to associate 
with men other than their husbands or such 
male relatives as are forbidden in marriage 
by reason of oonsanguinity. In consequence 
of these injunctions, which have all the force 
of a divine enactment, the female portion of 
a Mubammadan family always resides iu 
apartments which are in sn inclosed court- 
yard and excluded from public view. This called the harim t and sometimes 
faraM, or in Persian xatt/irwA, from ana, a . 
m woman "). Mr. Lane In IiIm Modern Eg w* 
tl'aa*, has givon a* full account of tho Kgyptlan 
harim. We sro indebted to Mrs. Meer All 
for the following very graphic and interesting 
description of a Mtihararaadan xatifuiah Of 
b*rim in Luoknow. 

Mrs. Meer AH was an English lady who 
married a Muharamadao gentleman, and re- 
ided amongst the people of Luoknow for 
twelve years. Upon the death of her hus- 
band, she returned to England, and published 

Digitized by 



her Observation on the Mutalmwu of India, 
whioh im dedicated, with permission, to 
Queen Adelaide. 

44 The habitable buildings of a native Mu- 
hammaden home are raited a few itepe from 
the court; a line of pillars forms the front of 
the building, whioh has no upper rooms ; the 
roof is flat, and the aider and back without 
windows, or any aperture through whioh air 
can be received. Tho side* and back are 
merely high walls, forming an enclosure, and 
the only sir is admitted from the fronts of 
the dwelling-place facing the court-yard. The 
apartments are divided into long halls, the 
extreme corners having small rooms or dark 
olosets purposely built for the repository of 
valuables or stores ; doors aro fixed to these 
closets, whioh aro the only places I have seen 
with them in a xananah or mahall (house or 
palace occupied by females) ; the floor is either 
pf beaten earth, bricks, or stones; boarded 
floors are not yet introduced. As they have 
neither doors nor windows to the halls, warmth 
or privacy is secured by means of thick wadded 
ourtains, made to fit eaoh opening between the 
pillars. Some aansnahs have two rows of 
pillars in the halls with wadded ourtains to 
eaoh, thus forming two distinct halls, as 
occasion may serre, or greater warmth be 
required ; this i* a convenient arrangement 
where the establishment of servants, slaves, 
Ao. is extensive. 

44 The wadded curtains are oalled pardahs ; 
these are sometimes mado of woollen cloth, 
but more generally of ooarse oalioo, of two 
colours, in patchwork style, striped, van- 
dyked, or in some other ingeniously contrived 
and ornamented way, according to their indi- 
vidual taste. 

44 Besides the pardahs, tho oponingu between 
the pillars have blinds neatly made of flno 
bamboo strips, woven together with coloured 
eords ; these are called ohiok*. Many of thoni 
are painted green, others aro more gaudy, 
both in colour and variety of patterns. These 
blinds constitute a real comfort to everyone 
m India, as they admit air when let down, 
and at the Bame time shut out flies and other 
annoying insects : besides which, the extreme 
glare is shaded by them — a desirable objeot 
to foreigners in particular. 

44 The floors of the halls are first matted 
with the coarse date-leaf matting of the 
6ountry, over which are sproad shaftranjis 
(thick ootton oarpets, peculiarly the manu- 
facture of the Upper Provinces of India, woven 
in stripes of blue and white, or shades of 
blue) ; a white oalioo carpet Covers the shaft- 
ranjt on which the females take their seat 

44 The bedsteads of tho family areplaoed, 
during the day, in lines at the back of the 
halls, to be moved at ploaauro to any ohosen 
•pot for the night's ropi>se; often into the 
open eourt-yaru, for the bonoflt of the pure 
air. They are all formed on one principle, 
differing only in sise and quality ; they stand 
about half a yard from the floor, the legs 
round and broad at bottom, narrowing as 
the/ rise towards the frame, which is laced 
over with a thick ootton tape, made for the 


purpose, and plaited In ohecquers, and thus 
rendered soft, or rather olnstio, and very 
pleasant to recline upon. Tho legs of those 
bedsteads are in some instances gold and 
silver gilt, or pure silver ; uthors have enamel 
paintings on fine wood; tho inferior grade* 
have them meroly of wood painted plain* and 
varnished. The servants' bedsteads arc of the 
common mango- wood without ornament, the 
laoing of these for tho sucking being of ehtftlic 
string manufactured from tho tlbro of the 

44 Suoh are the bedsteads of every class of 
people. They seldom have mattresses: a 
white quilt is spread on the lacing, over 
whioh a oalioo snoot, tiod at each oortior of 
the bedstoad with cords andtassols; several 
thin flat pillows of beaten ootton fur the 
hoad ; a muslin shoot for warm weather, and 
a well wadded rosai (oovorHd) for winter is 
all these children of Nature deem osHeutinl to 
their comfort in the way of sleeping: Thoy 
have no idea of night-dresses ; the same suit 
that adorns r. lady, is retained both night and 
day, until a change be needed. Tho* single 
artiole exchanged at night is tho fupatftt fa 
small shawl for the head), and that only 
when it happens to be of silver tissue or em- 
broidery, for which a muslin or caliso sheet 
is substituted. 

44 The very highest oiroles have the same 
habits In common with the meanest, but 
those who can afford shawls of Oashmere, 
prefer them for sleeping in, when the cold 
weather renders them bearable Blankets 
are never used except fcy tho poorest pea- 
santry, who *ear them m lieu of better gar- 
ments night and day in the winter season; 
thoy are always blaok, the natural colour of 
tho wool The quilts of the higher orders 
are generally made of silk of the "brightest 
hues, well wadded, and lined with dyed mus- 
lin of assimilating colour; they aro usually 
bound with broad silvor ribands, and some- 
times bordered with gold brocaded trim- 
mings. The middling eiassrs have flne 
ohintx quilts, and the servarU and slaves 
ooarse ones of the samo material ; but all are 
on the same plan, whethor for a queen or the 
meanest of her slaves, differing only in the 
quality of tho material. The mistress of the 
house is easily distinguished by her seat of 
honour in the hall of a xananah, a matnad not 
being allowed to any other person but the 
lady of tho mansion. Tho mavnud carpet is 
spread on tho floor, if possible uc»r to a 
pillar about the oentro of the hall, und is 
made of many varietios of fabric — gold cloth, 
quilted silk, brocaded silk, velvet, flne chintz, 
or whatever may suit the lady's taste, eir 
cumstancca, or convenience. It is about two 
I yards square, and generally bordored or 
fringed, on. which is plaoed the ell-important 
niasnad This artiole may be understood by 
those who have seen a lace-maker's pillow in 
England, excepting only that the maenad is 
about twenty times the sise of that useful 
little artiole in the hands of Our industrious 
villagers. The maenad is oovered with gold 
eloth, silk, velvet, or oalioo, with square pil- 

Digitized by 



lows to correspond, (or the elbows, the 
knees, Ac. This is the soat ol honour, to be 
invited to share whioh, with the lady-owner, 
Is a mark of favour to an equal or inferior s 
when, a superior pays a visit of honour, the 
prided aeat is usually surrendered to her, and 
the lady of the house takes her plaoe most 
humbly on the very edge of hor own carpet. 
Loking-glaasos or ornamental furniture are 
very rarely to be seen in the zananah, even of 
the very richest females. Ohaiis and sofas 
areproduood when English visitors are ex- 
pected; but the ladies of Hindustan prefer 
the usual mode of sitting and lounging on the 
earpet; and as tor tables, I suppose not one 
gentlewoman of tho whole oountry has over 
been seated at one : and very fow, perhaps, 
have any idea of their useful purposes, all 
thoir meals being sorved on the floor, where 
dtutarkhuxtiu (table-oloths we should call 
them) are spread, but neither knives, forks, 
spoons, glasses, nor napkins, so essential to 
the comfortable enjoyment of a meal amongst 
Europeans. But those who never knew such 
comforts have no desire for the indulgence, 
nor taste to appreciate them. 

M On the several occasions, amongst native 
society, of assembling in large parties, as at 
births and marriages, the halls, although ex- 
tensive, would be inadequate to accommodate 
the whole party. They then have awnings of 
white calico, neatly flounced with muslin, 
supported on poles fixed in the oourt-yard, 
and connecting the open space with the great 
hall, by wooden platforms whioh are brought 
to a line with the building, and covered with 
thairanjX and white carpets to correspond 
with the floor-furniture of the hall; and here 
the ladios sit by day and sleep by night very 
comfortably, without feeling any great incon- 
venient from the absence of their bedsteads, 
which could never be arranged for the accom- 
modation of so large an assemblage— nor is it 
ever expected. 

• The usually barren look of these almost 
unfurnished halls, is on such occasions quite 
changed, when the ladies are assembled in 
their various dresses ; the brilliant display 
of jewels, the glittering drapery of their 
arose, the various expressions of oountenanee, 
and different figures, the multitude of female 
attendants and slaves, the children of all 
ages and sises in their variously ornamental 
dresses, are subjects to attract both the eye 
and the mind of an observing visitor ; and tho 
hall, whioh when empty appeared desolate 
and comfortless, thus filled, leaves nothing 
wanting to render the scene attractive. 

"The bun of human voices, the happy 
playfulness of the children, the ohasto sing- 
tog of the efosuif* fill up the animated pic- 
ture. I have sometime h passed an hour or 
two in witnessing their innocent amusements, 
without any feeling of regret for the brief 
sacrifioe of time I had made. I am free to 
confess, however, that I have returned to my 
tranquil home with increased delight after 
having witnessed the bustle of a san&nah 
assembly. At first I pitied the apparont 
mesotony of their live* but this feeUnp has 



worn away by intimacy with the people, who 
are thus precluded from mixing generally 
with the world. They are happy in their 
oonflnement; and never having felt the 
sweets of liberty, would not know how to 
use the boon if it were to be grantod them. 
As the bird from the nest immured in a 'cage 
is both cheerful and contented, so are those 
females. Thoy havo not, it is true, many 
intelleotual resources, but they hnve natu- 
rally good understandings, and having learned 
their duty they strive to fulfil it. So far 
as I have had any opportunity of making 
personal observations on their general cha- 
racter, they appear to me obedient wivos, 
dutiful daughters, affectionate mothers, kind 
mistresses, sincere friends, and liberal bene- 
factresses to the distressed poor. These are 
thoir moral qualifications, and in their reli- 
gious duties, they are sealous in performing 
the several ordinances which thev have been 
instructed by their parents or husbands to 
observe. If thero be any merit in obeying* the 
injunctions of their law-giver, those whom I 
have known most intimately, deserve praise 
sinoe * thev are faithful in that they profess.* 
11 To ladies accustomed from infancy to con- 
finement, this kind of life is by no moans irk- 
some ; they have their employments and their 
amusements, and though these are not exactly 
to our taste, nor suited to our mode of educa- 
tion, they are not the less relished by those 
for whom thev were invented. Thoy perhaps 
wonder equally at some of our modes of dis- 
sipating time, and fancy we might spend it 
more profitably. Be that as it may, the 
Muslim ladies, with whom I have been long 
intimate, appear 'to me always happy, con- 
tented, and satisfied with the seclusion to 
which they were bom ; they dosire no other, 
and I have ceased to regret they cannot be 
mado partakers of that freedom of inter- 
course with the worid we deem so essential 
to our happiness, since their health suffers 
nothing from that oonflnement, by which they 
are preserved from a variety of snares and 
temptations ; besides which, they would deem 
it disgraceful in the highest degree to mix 
indiscriminately with men who are uot rela- 
tions. They are oducated from infancy for 
retirement, and they can have no wish that 
the custom should be changed, whioh keeps 
them apart from the society of men who are 
not very nearly related to them. Female 
society is unlimited, and that they enjoy 
without restraint. 

41 Those females who rank above peasants 
or inferior servants, are disposed from prin- 
ciple to keep thorn selves strictly from obser- 
vation; all who have any regard for the 
charaoter or the honour of their house, se- 
clude themselves from the eyo of strangers, 
oarefully instructing their young daughters 
to a rigid observance of their own prudent 
example. Little girls, when four years old, 
are kept strictly behind the pardah (lit. 
•• oartain *), and when they move abroad it 
is always in covered conveyances, and under 
tho guardianship of a faithful female domestic, 
who is equally tenacious ae the mother to 

Digitized by 





preserve the youne lady's reputation unble- 
mished by concealing her from the gate of 

"The ladies of sananah life are not re- 
stricted from the society of their own sex; 
they are, -as I haTO before remarked, extra- 
vsgantlv fond of company, and equally at 
hospitable when entertained. To be alone is 
a trial to whioh they aro seldom exposed, 
every lady having companions amongst her 
dependants j and aooording to her means tho 
number In hor establishment it regulated. 
Some ladies of rank have from two to ten 
companions, independent of slaves and domes- 
tic* ; and there are some of tho royal family 
at Luck now who entertain in their servioe 
two or three hundred female dependant?, of 
all olasses. A well- tilled zanaaah is a mark 
of gentility ; and even tho poorest lady in the 
eountry. will retain a number of slaves and 
domestics, If she cannot afford companions ; 
besides which they are miserable without 
eooiety, the habit of associating with numbers 
ha ring grown up with infancy to maturity : 
• to be' alone,' is considered, with women thus 
situated, a real calamity. 

« 6n occasions of assembling in large par- 
ties, eaoh lady takes with her a companion 
besides two or three, slaves to sttend upon 
her, no one expecting to be served by tho 
servants of the bouse at which they are 
rimtiug. ThJs swells the numbers to be pro- 
vided for ; and aa the visit is always for three 
days and three nights (except on c /ds, when 
the visit is oondned to one day), some fore- 
thought must bo exercised by the lady of the 
house, that all may be accommodated in 
such a manner aa may secure to her the re- 
putation of hospitality. 

M The kitchen and office* to the xanftnah, 
I have remarked, occupy one side of the quad- 
rangle ; they face the great or centre hall 
appropriated to the assembly. Those kit- 
chens, however, are sufficiently distant to 
prevent any great annoyance from tho smoke 
— I eay smoke, because chimneys hare not 
yet boon introduced into the kitchens of the 

"The fire-places are all on the ground, 
something resembling stoves, each, admitting, 
one saucepan, the Asiatic style of cooking 
requiring no other contrivance. Roast or 
boiled Joints are never seen at the dinner of a 
native; a leg of mutton or sirloin of beef 
would place the hostess under all sorts of 
difficulties! where knives and forks are not 
understood to be amongst the useful appen- 
dages of a meat The varieties of their dishes 
are countless, but stews, and curries are the 
chief ; all the ethers are mere varieties. The 
only thing in the shape of roast meats aro 
small lean cutlets bruised, seasoned and ce- 
mented with pounded poppy seed. Several 
being fastened together on skswors, they 
are grilled or roasted oyer a charcoal Ore 
■pread on the aground, ano* then Called kabub, 
which word implies roast meat. 

" The kitchen of a sananah would be in- 
adequate to the business of cooking for a 
large assembly ; the most choice dishes only 

(for the highly-favoured guests), are oooked 
by the servants of the establishment. The 
needod abundanoe required in entertaining a 
large party is provided by a regular baser 
cook, seversl of whom establish themselves 
in native cities, or wherever there is a Mus- 
lim population. Orders being previously 
glveu, the morning and ovnning dinnors are 
punctually forwarded at the appointed hours 
In novorod trays, each tray having portions of 
tho several good things ordered, so that there 
is no confusion in serving out the f eaat on iU 
arrival at the mansion. The food thus pre- 
pared bv the baaar cuok (nanbai, he u 
called), is plain boiled rice, sweet riee, kM t 
(rioe-milk), mutanjan (rice sweetened with 
the addition of preserved fruits, raisins, eYo., 
ooloured with saffron), so/an* (curries) of 
many varieties, _ some cooked with vege- 
tables, others with unripe fruits with or 
without meat; pulao* of many sorts, kabab$ t 
preserves, pickles, ohatnis, and many other 
things too tedioue to admit of detail. 

" The bread in general uae amungst native* 
is chiefly unleavened: nothing in the likoness 
of English bread is to bo seen at their meals ; 
and many object to its , boing fermented with 
the intoxicating toddy (extracted from a tTee). 
Most of the nalivo bread is baked on iron 
plates Over a charcoal fire. They have many 
varieties, both pliin and rich, and some of 
the latter resembles our pastry, both in 
quality and Aayour. 

" The dinners, I have said, are brought into 
the sananah, ready dished in the native 
earthen ware, - on trays; snd ss they neither 
use spoons hor forks, thore is no groat delay 
in setting out the meal where nothing is re- 
quired for display or effect, beyond the ex- 
cellent quality of the food and its beino well 
cooked. In a large assembly all cannot dine 
at the da*tark£todn of the lady hostess, even 
if privileged by their rank ; they are, there- 
fore, accommodated in groups of ten, fifteen, 
or more, as may be convenient; each lady 
having her companion at the meal, and her 
•laves to brush off the intruding flies with 
s ohauri, to hand water r or to f eteh or carry 
any article of delicacy from or to a neighbour- 
ing group. The slaves and servants dine in 
parties after their ladies have finished, in 
any retired corner of tho oourt-yardr-aJways 
avoiding as muoh as possible tho presence of 
their superiors. 

" Before anyone touches the meal* water is 
oarried round for each lady to wash the hand 
and rinse the mouth. It is deemed unclean 
to eat without this form of ablution, and the 
person neglecting it would be held unholy. 
This done; the lady turns to her meal, saying. 
" Bismillah 1 " (In the name or to the praise 
of Godl), and with the right hand oonveys 
the food to her mouth (the left hand is never 
used at meals); and although they partake 
of every variety of food placed before them 
with no other aid than their fingers, yet tho 
mechsnioal habit is so perfect, that they 
neither drop a grain of rioe, soil the drees, nor 
retain any of the food on their fingers. The 
Custom must always be offensive to a foreign 

Digitized by 





eye, and. the habit none would wish to copy ; 
yet e Tory one who witnesses must admire 
the neat way In which eating is accomplished 
by these really Children of Nature.* 

-"The repast conoluded, the lota (vessel 
with water), and the lapgtxn C to recelvo the 
water in after rinsing the hands and mouth), 
sre passed round. To every person/ who, 
having announced by the ' Ath-Shukru IClidhf * 
(All thanks to God I) that she has finished, 
the sttendaate present first the powdered 
peas, called osson, — whioh answers the pur- 
pose of soap in removing grease, Ac. from the 
fingers— and then the water in due course. 
Soap has not even yot been brought into 
fashion by the natives, except by the washer- 
men ; I hare often been surprisod .that they 
have not found the use of soap a necessary 
article in the nursery, where the only sub- 
stitute I have seen is the powdered pea. 

"Lotas and laggans are articles in use 
with all classes of people ; they must be poor 
indeed who do not boast of one, at least, in 
their family. They sre always of metal, 
either brass, or copper lacquered over, or 
lino; in some cases, as with the nobility, 
silver and even gold sre converted into these 
useful articles of native comfort. 

" China or glass is comparatively but little 
used ; water Is their only beverage, and this 
it preferred, in the absence of metal basins, 
out of the common red earthen katorm (cn\> 
shaped like a vase). 

• China dishes, bowls, and basins, are used 
for serving many of the savoury articles ef 
fopfl m ; but it is as oommon in the privacy 
of the palaoe, as well ss in the huts of the 
nexsantry, to see many choice things Intro- 
dnoed at meals served up in the rude red 
earthen platter, many of (he delicacies of 
Asiatic cookery being esteemed more palat- 
able from the earthen flavour of the new 
vessel in which it is served. 

u (Miin* tea-sets are very rarely found in 
the aaninab, tea being used by the natives 
more as a medicine than a refreshment, ex- 
oept by such gentleman ss have frequent 
intercourse with .the "$*hlb tag" (English 
gentry), among whom they acquire a taste 
for this delightful beverage. The ladies, 
however, must have a severe eold to induce 
them to partake of the beverage eren as a 
remedy, but by no means as a luxury. I 
imagined that the inhabltsnts of a eenansh 
were sadly deficient in solus! comforts, when 
I fonnd, upon my first arrival in India, that 
there were no preparations for breakfast 
going forwsrd ; everyone seemed engaged in 
pita-eating, and smoking the fenqqah, but no 
breakfast after (ho morning namas. I was, 
however, soon satisfied that tbey felt no sort 
of privslion, os the early tnos) so oommon in 
Europe has M79T been introduued in Eastern 
ciroles. Their first mesl is a good suhstsntisl 
dinner, at ten, eleven, or twelve o'clock, af tor 
which follows pan and the huqqah ; to this 
succeeds a sloop of two or three hours, pro- 
viding it does not impede the duty of prayer 
—the pious, I ought to remark, would give up 
every iudulgenco which would prevent the 

discharge of this duty. The second meal 
follows in twelve hours from the first, and 
consists of the same substantial fare; after 
which they usually sleep again until the 
dawn of day is near at hand. 

" The kuqqaJi (pipe) is almost in general use 
with fomales. It is a common practice with 
the lady of the houso to present the l^uaqah 
she is smoking to her favoured guest. This 
mark of attention is always to be duly ap- 
preciated ; but such is the deferenco paid to 
parents, that a son can rarely be persuaded 
by an indulgent father or mother to smoke a 
^uqqah in their revered presence ; this praise- 
worthy feeling originates not in fear, but real 
genuine respect. The parents entertain for 
their son tho most tendor regard ; and the 
father makes him both his companion and 
his friend ; yet tho most familiar ondoarmeots 
do not lessen tho feeling of reverence a good 
son entertains for his father. This is one 
among the many samples of patriarchal life, 
and which 1 can never witness in real life, 
without feeling respect for the persons who 
follow up* the patterns I have been taught 
to venerate in our Holy Soripture. 

* The fenqqah (pipe) as an indulgence or a 
privilege, Is a great deflner of etiquette. In the 
presence of tho king or reigning nawab, no 
subject, however high he may rank in blood 
or royal favour, can presume to smoke. In 
native courts, on slate occasions, huqqah* are 
presented only \o the Governor-General, the 
Oommander-iin-ChJef , or the Resident It his 
court, who sre considered equal in rank, snd 
therefore entitled to the privilege or smoking 
with him ; and they cannot consistently resist 
the intended honour. Should they dislike 
smoking, a hint Is readily understood by tho 
huoqah harder to bring the (tuqqah y chsrgod 
with the materials, without the addition of 
fire. Applications of the munhnal (mouth- 
piece) to tho mouth, Indicates a sense of the 
honour conferred.'' (Obieruations on the Mu- 
mlmanM of India , vol i. p. 804.) 

HARI§ (••V*-). A surname which 
frequently occurs amongst " the Companions." 
In the rocriou '(-TeAtM, there are not fewer 
that' six ty-five persons of this name, of wham 
short biographical notes sre given. 

Varis ibn Nauial ibn al-Haiis ibn 'Abdi % 
MuUelib,. wss a Companion of some conse- 
quence, he lived close to tho house of the 
Prophet, and had frequently to make room 
as the Prophet's liarim extended itself. 

Haris ibn Hishain ibn al-Mughlrah, is 
another Companion, who lived at Makkah. 

U&H*. son of Sun aid ihn fyamit, the poet, 
was executed at (Thud. 

tjARiglYAH (*y». A sect of 
Muslims found*! by Abu 1-Haris, who in 
opposition to the sort Abaziyah, said it was 
not correct t<> say the acts of men wero not 
the acts of God. (Kitdbu 't-Tu'ri/at, in loco.) 

HARtfN (<#». [AARON.] 

HABCT WA MAJBtJT (, **>d u 
<*>j;U). Two angola mentioned in 

Digitized by 




the Qur an. They are said to be two angels 
who, in Consequence of their compassion for 
the frailties of mankind, were sont down to 
earth to be temptod. They both sinned, and 
being permitted to choose whether they wonld 
be punished now or hereafter, ohose the 
former, and are still suspended by the feet 
at Babel in a rooky pit, where they are great 
teachers of magio. 

The account of these two angols in tho 
Qur'an, is given in Surah ii 96 :— 

"They (the Jews) followed what the devils 
tanght in the reign of Solomon: not that Solo- 
mon was unbelieving, bat the devils were un- 
believing, Soroery did they teach to men, 
and what had been revealed to the two 
angels, Harut and M&rut, at Babel Tet no 
man did these two teach until they had said, 
• We are only a temptation. Be not then an 
unbeliever.' From tbeso two did men learn 
how to oauso division between man and wife : 
but unless by leave of God, no man did they 
harm thereby. They learned, indeod, what 
would harm and- not profit them ; and yet 
they know that he who bought that art should 
have no part in the life to come ! And vile 
the price for which they have sold themselves, 
—if they had but known it ! " 

HASAD (.*—>). "Envy, malevo- 
lence, malioe." It occurs twice in the Qur'an. 

Surah ii 108 : " Many of the people of the 
Book (i.e. Jews and Christiana) desire to 
bring you back to unbelief after ye have be- 
lieved, out of selfish envy, even after the truth 
hath boeu clearly shewn them." 

Surah oxiii. 5 : " I seek refuge .... from 
the eni*y of the envious when he envies." 

al-HASAN ( o ■■■ m > \). The fifth 
Sballfah. The eldest ton of Fatfmah, the 
daughter of Muhammad, by her husband the 
Ehalifah «Ali. Born A.H. 8. Diod a.h. 49. 
Ho succeeded his father 'Ali as Ehalifah 
a.h. 41, and reigned about six months. He 
resigned the Caliphate in favour of Mu'a- 
wiyah, and was eventually poisoned by his 
wifo Ja'dah, who was subotned to commit 
the deed by Yasid, the eon of Mu'iwiyah, by 
a promise of marrying her, which promise he 
did not keep. Al-flasan had twenty children, 
fifteen eons and five daughters, from whom 
are descended one section of the great family 
of Saiyids, or Lords, the descendants of the 
Prophet. Thehistory of al-Qasan, together with 
the tragical death of his brother al-^usain, 
form the plot of the miracle play of the Mu- 
barram. (susaur, buiuabbam, saiyid.] 

HlSHIM U-M-a). The great 
grandfather of Muhammad. Born, according 
to M. 0. de Perceval, a.ix 464. Snrenger 
places his birth in a.d. 442. Ho married Sal- 
man, by whom ho had a son, 'Abdu 1-Mufcts- 
lib. the father of 'Abdu llah, who was tho 
father of Muhammad. The author of tho 
Qim&t says Hashim's original name was 
•Amr, but he was surnamed Hishim on 
aooount of his hospitality in distributing 
bread (hashm, to break bread) to the pilgrims 
at Makkah. 


H ASHB (j**). Lit. " Going forth 
from ono place, and assembling in another." 
Honoe the word is used in the Qur'an in two 
senses, viz. an emigration and an assembly, 
e.g. Sarah lix. 2 : "It was He who drove forth 
from their homes those people of the book 
(•'.«. Jews) who misbelieved, at the first eati- 
graHon.* (Hence al-Qashr is the title of the 
uxth Surah of the Qur'an ^ Surah xxvii. 
17 : " And his hosts of the jinn and men and 
birds were assembled for Solomon." 

The term Yaurnu 'l-Hushr is therefore 
used for the Day of Resurrection, or the day 
when the dead shall migrate from thoix 
graves and assemble for judgment. It ooeurs 
in this souse in the Qur'an, Surah 1. 42 :-— 

" Verily we cause to live, and we cause to 
die. To us shall all return. 

" On the day when the earth shall swiftly 
cleave asunder ovor the dead, will this gather- 
ing be easy to Us. 

al-HASIB (V t . «B »). "The 
Reckoner," in the Day of Judgment Ono oi 
the ninety-nine attributes of God. The title 
ooours in the Qur'an three times. 

Sfirah iv. 7: "God sufficeth for taking 

Idem, 88? f'God of all things takes an 

Surah xxxiii. 39 : " God is good enough at 
reckoning up." 

rJASSAN (y\ *). The sod of 

Sabit A celebrated poet in the time of Mu- 
jammed, who embraced Islam. He is said 
to have lived 120 years, 60 of which were 
passed in idolatry and GO in Islam. 
It is rolated in* tho Traditions that tho Pro- 
phet on the day of battle with the Buna 
Quraizah, oriod out, "0 Hassan ibn Sabit, 
abuse tho infidels In your verse, for verily 
Gabriel helps you I " (Mishkat, book xxiL 
oh. ix. pt. 1.) Oobtby.J 

HlTIB IBN 'AMB (j^a ^ s^W). 
An early convert to Islam, and one of the 
most trusted of Muhammad's followers, 'lie 
distinguished himself at the taking of Makkah: 

" A complete year." A term used in Muham- 

mad an law for the period property must be in 
possession before zakdt is required of it 
lHiddyah t y ol i. p. 2.) 

HAU?U 'L-KAU§AB (/•*» <+ r ). 
A pond or river in Paradise. According to 
Muhammad's ssyings in the Traditions 
(Mistical, book xxiii oh. xiL), it is more than 
a month's journey in oircumforenee,its waters 
are whiter than snow and sweeter than honey 
mixed with milk, and those who drink of it 
shall never thirst. Tho word hausfir occurs 
onoo in the Quran, namely in Sarah ovlii.. 
which dcrivos therefrom its title, and whore 
its translation and meaning is doubtful 
"Verily, we have given thee al-Kauiar." Al- 
Baisawi, the commentator, aays it either 
means that which is good or abundant; or 
the pond al-Kausfir which is mentioned In the 

Digitized by 



HAWA (U-*)« "Desire, love; 
hankering alter * A term need by the $ufi 
inystfes for lost, or unholy desire. Hawa-i- 
NaflM, « the last of the flesh " ; Ahl-i-Hawa, 
u a sceptic, an unbeliever. *' 

HAWA JIM (^^Jb). Lit. 

"Assaults, shocks." A term used by the 
Son mystics for those thoughts of the heart 
which enter it without desire or intention. 
OAbdu Y-Razsiq's Diet, of Sufi Terwu.) 

HAWAJIS (0~>V). "Thoughts." 
A term used by the Buff mystics for the 
worldly thoughts of the heart. ('Abdu V- 
Rassiq's Dict.of$ufi Termt.) 

IJAWALAH (AW). A legal term 
signifying the removal or transfer of a debt 
hy way of security or corroboration from that 
of the original debtor to that person to whom 
it is transferred. (Hidayah, vol ii p. 606.) 

rJAWAMlM (jn'V). A title given 
to the seven chapters of the Qur'an which 
begin with the letters £ £i f Mim, namely, 
XL, SOratu 1-Mu'mln ; xu, SOratu Fussilat ; 
xui, Sttratu 'sh-Shflr xxni, Suratu I-Zujji- 
rnf; xuv, 8ttratu d O.Uian; xlv, Suratu 
I-Jislyfth; xlyi, SOratu 1-Ahqlf. 

For an explanation of the letters H M at 
the commencement of these Surahs, see 
nx MIM. 

It is related in the Traditions that a man 
said to the Prophet, u I am old, and my 
memory is imperfect, and my tongue is stiff ;" 
and the Prophet replied, " Then repeat three 
ef the SOrahs beginning with Ha Mim." 
(Mishkat, book viii. ch. i. pi a) 

9AWARl(ottV). The word used 

in the Qur'an (gfirahs UL 45 ; IxL 14) 
for the Apostles of Jesus. Al-Bais&wi, the 
Mubammadan oommentator, says it is derived 
from hawar, " to be white," and was given to 
the disciples of Jesus, either on account of 
their purity of life and sincerity ; or because 
they were respectable men and wore white 
garments. In the Traditions (AfiriJbdf, book J. 
oh. vi. nt. n ft is used for the followers of 
all the Prophets. The word may be derived 
from the ABthiopio hawryra, "to go, to be 


(ft-istfuetsejt). [FITB BJBN8E8.] 

HAWAZIN (enVO. A great and 
warlike tribe of Arabia in the days of Mo- 
hammad, who dwelt between Makkah and 
afc-Xa'lf. Muhammad defeated thorn at the 
battle of #unain, a.h. 8, a victory which in 
the Qur'an, Surah ix. 26, is ascribed to an- 
gelic aid. (See Mulr's Life of Mahomet, new 

HAWJYAH <fyU). A division of 
helL The bottomless pit for the hypocrites. 
Qur'an, Sarah ci. 6, " But as for him whoso 
balance is light, his dwelling shall be 


HAWK, The. Arabic bc?% (;W), faqr 
(/*). It is lawful to hunt with 
hawks provided they are trained. A hawk is 
held to be trained when she obeys the voice 
of her master, [hunting.] 

H AYA* (»W). " Shame, pudency, 
modesty. 1 * The word does not occur in the • 
Qur'an, but in the Traditions it is said, "AUahu 
hayiyun? i.e. u God acts with modesty." By 
which is understood that God hates that which 
is immodest or shameless. Muhammad is re- 
lated to have said, " Modesty (bay?) brings 
nothing bnt good.** (Mi Mat, bobk xxii. 
oh. xix.) 

flAYAT (*>>). "Life." The 
word frequently occurs in the Qur'an, e.g. 
Sarah xviii. 44, " Wealth and children are an 
adornment of tho life of this world." Surah 
it 25, " For you in retaliation is there life, O 
ye possessors of mind ! * 

Al-Havatu 'd-dunya, " the worldly life," is a 
term used in the Qur'an for those things in 
this world which prevent from attaining to 
the eternal life of the next world. 

Surah ii. 80 : " Those who have bought 
this worldly life with tho future, the torment 
shall not be lightened from them nor shall 
they he helped." 

HAYtTLA (J*-*-*). "Matter." 

The first principle of everything material. 
It does not occur in either the Qur'an or the 

HAY? (<>-»-»). Mense*. [Mm- 


HAZAR 0***-). According to 
Arabic loxicons, the word means vigilanco or 
a cautious fear, but it only occurs twice in 
the Quran, and in both instanoes it implies 

SOrah ii. 18: "They put their fingers in 
their ears at the thunder-clap for fear of 
death." (ITaiara V-Jtfimf.) Idem, 244: 
" Dost thou not look at those who left their 
homes by thousands for fear of death." 

(j«*atH *a>yi»fttt). According to the 
Utah* H-TctrifiU al-hnzaritu l-ghamtu 7- 
IlaAiyaA, or " the five divine existences," is a 
term used by the Sufi mystics for the follow- 
ing :.- 

1. HazraUt H-ghaibi 'l-mnflaq, That ex- 
istence whioh is shsolutely unknown, t>. 

& Hafi attt'fih+hahadati 'f-inutlaqah, Thorn* 
celostiel *(q/rww) and terrestrial (ajeam) o»- 
istenoes which ere evident to tho senses. 

8. Ilaxrattt 'alami I arwah That existence 
which consists of the spiritual world of angels 
and spirits 

4. /iuzratu l ahmi V.mi#oJ, That cjdstonco, 
which is the unseen world, where there is tho 
true likenos* of everything whioh oxists on 
the earth. 

6. Hatratu H-jantirah % The collective exis- 
tence of tho four already mentioned. 


Digitized by 




Hi?IE £iMINl (^U ,*W). 
Bail for the person, which, according to the 
Imam Aha Qanlfah, is lawful Bail for pro- 
perty is called mat sdWlit. 

HA?RAH (•>>)• LU. " Presence." 
This title of respeot has no equivalent in 
English, as it is employed in a variety of ac- 
ceptation*. Applied to an officer of rank, it 
would mean "your honour M ; to a clergyman, 
"your reverence" *, to a king, " your m<\jt$ty." 
When applied to the names of prophets, 
apostles, or saints, it expresses the sacrodness 
of his office and eharaoter, i.e. our Saviour is 
called ffatratu «/*a, and the Virgin Mary, 
Hafratu Maryam. The word is much used 
in Persian theological works. It is seldom 
used in this sense in Arabic books. Ha?ratu 
9 iiak t " the presence of God," is sn Arabic 
term in prayer. 

HEAD. Arabicn*V<w (yJj). Heb. 

Ofrn, The author of the Baddu f U 
Mutter, voL L p. 670, says : " It is abominable 
(maiaruh) to say the prayers with the head 
uncovered, if it be done from laainess, but it 
is of no consequence if a Muslim say his 
prayers with his head unoovered from * sense 
of humility and un worthiness. But still it is 
better not to uncover the head, for humility 
is a matter connected with the heart." 

Amongst Muhammadana it is oonsidered a 
sign of disrespect to receive a visitor with 
the bead unoovered; consequently on the 
approach of a visitor the turban or oap is 
immediately placed on the head. 

There Is no general oustom as to shaving 
the head or otherwise. In Afghanistan, Mu- 
hammadana generally shave the head, but the 
Baluohfs and many other Muslim tribes wear 
long jhair. 

The Egyptians shave all the rest of the 
hair, or leave only a small tuft (called 
shuihak) upon the crown of the head. Mr. 
Lane saya: This lasteuatom (which is almost 
universal among them) is said to have ori- 
ginated in the fear that if the Muslim should 
fall into the handa of an infidel, and be slain, 
the latter might cut off tho head of his 
victim, and finding no hair by which to hold 
it, put his impure hand into tho mouth, in 
order to carry it, for the heard might not be 
sufficiently long; butswas probably adopted 
from the Turks, for it is generally negleoted 
by the Badfcwia, and 'the oustom of shaving 
the head is of late origin among the Arabs in 
general, and practised for the aake of cleanli- 

HEAVEN. Arabic Sam* 9 (.W-) ; 
Persian Annan (t)U-\) • Heb. D?QttJ> 
whioh expresses the firmament aa distin- 
guished from Pirttaus, or Paradise, the abodes 
of bliss, [p ama diss.] In tyie Qur*an it is 
stated that there are seven paths, or stages, 
in heaven. Surah xxiii. 17.: " And we have 
created above you seven paths, nor are we 
heedless of the oreation." By whioh the com- 
mentator! understand that the/ are paths of 
the angels and of the celestial bodies; The 


creation of the heaven is declared to bo for 
God's glory and not for His pastime. Surah 
xxi. 10 : " We created not the heaven and the 
earth, and that whioh is between them> by 
way of eport." * 

It is the general belief that at the last day 
the heavens will fall, but that they are now 
upheld by God's power. Surah xxii. 64 : " He 
holds up the heaven from falling on the earth 
save at His bidding." 

According to the traditions (Mishkit, book 
xxiv. oh. vii.), Muhammad during the mi'raj, 
or night journey, passed through these seven 
heavens, and they are stated to be as fol- 
lows : (1) That which is of pure virgin eilver 
and whioh is Adam's reeidenoe ; (2) of pure 
gold, which ie John the Baptist's and Jesus'; 
(3) of pearls, which is Joseph's; (4) of 
white gold, which is Enoch's; (5) of silver 
which is Aaron's; (6) of ruby and garnet, 
whioh is Moses'; (7) whioh is Abraham's. 
These accounts are, however, most oonfused ; 
for in some books and according to popular 
tradition, the fourth and not the second 
heaven is assigned to Jesus. 

This view is in harmony with the aeven 
spheres of Ptolemy, the first of whioh is that 
of the moon, the second Mercury, the third 
Venus, the fourth the Sun, the fifth Mars, the 
sixth Jupiter, the seventh Saturn ; eeob of 
whioh orbs was supposed by the ancients to 
revolve round tho earth in its -proper sphere. 
Muhammad said the distance between each 
heavenly region is five hundred. years' Journey. 
(Miihkat, book xxiv. ch. L pi. 8). 

The Rabbis spoke of two heavens («/. 
Dent, x. 14), " The heaven and the heaven of 
|iea vena," or seven (eWa oitparov? ofcearev 
AptOfAowri icar' twavaffatriv, Chm. AUx. 
Strom., iv. 7, 686). "Reooh Lakieeh dixit 
aeptem esse ooslos, quorum nomlna sunt, 
1. velum ; 2. expaneum ; 8. nubea ; 4. hahita- 
cujum ; ft habitatio ; 6. sedeaflxa ; 7. Araboth. 
(See Wctatein, ad. 2 Oor. xii. 2). St Paul's 
expression, " fa* rptrov oypavov" 2 Cor. 
xii. 2, has led to some discussion, for Grotius 
says the Jews divided the heaven into three 
parte, (1) Nubiferum, the atmosphere; (2) 
A$trifmm, tho firmament; and (8) Ewtpy- 
rem*, the abode of God. But the statement, 
however, doea not seem to be supported by 
any known Rabbinio authority. 

HEBEB. [hud]. 

HEGIBA. [hijbah.] 

HEIBS. Arabic v>dri* (*»;1*), pi. 
tPoraaoA [uhbbixamob,] 

HELL. The place of torment is 
most frequently spoken of in the Qur'an and * 
Tradition! aS <m*Nar t " the fire," but the 
word JaAaJWwsi occurs about thirty times. It 
is said to have seven portals or divisions. 
Surah xv. 44 : « Verily, hell (Jakmnam) is 
promised to ail together (who follow Satan). 
It haa aeven portale, and at every door there is 
a separate party of them." 

The Persian word used for hell in books of 
theology is do*o&. 

Digitized by 



The seven divisions of hell are given by 
Muslim commentators at followa: — 



1. Jahannam (****-), yiim, the purga- 
torial hall for all M a^ammadani. Por accord- 
ing to the Qur'in, all Muslims will pass 
thraqgh the regions of hall. &ftrah xix. 72 : 
a There is not one of yon who will not go 
down to it (hell), that is settled and decided 
bj thj Lord." 

a Lasa(^). Sflrah xcvli. 6: "For load, 
dragging by the scalp, shall claim hjra who 
tnrned hit back and went away, and amassed 
and hoarded." 

8. Aldufamah (**VaJ\). Surah civ. 4.— 

"Nay I for verily he ahall be flnng into 
aU Hut amah ; ' 

"And who ahall teeth thee what al-guta- 

" It is God's kindled fire. 

" Which shall mount above the hearts of 
He damned; 

"It shall verily rise over them like a 

" On ontstretehad oolnmns.** 

4 &tir (jt*wj, 8erab iv. 11 : « Those who 
devour the property of orphans unjustly, ouly 
devour into their bellies fire, and they broil in 
sa*ir. n 

(The word occurs in fourteen other placet.) 

6. Saaar (yU). SOrah llv\ 47: "The 
Sinnere are in error and excitement. Ou the 
day when thev shall be dragged into the fire 
on their facet f Taste ye the touch of saqar I " 

Surah lxxiv. 44: "What drove you into 

fi. Al-Jotim M). Sflrah ii. 118: 
" Thou ahalt not oe questioned as to the fel- 
lows of aiJabbn " (Afhdbu 'Wajwa). 

(The word occurs in twenty other plaoot). 

7. Hawigah (kj+). Surah ei. 8: "As 
for him whose balance is light, his dwelling 
shall be HawiyaXr 

The Mu^ammadan commentators, with that 
utter recklessness which so characterises 
their writings, distribute these seven stations 
at follows (see al»Bagh<xwi, ahBaisawL and 
others): (1) Jahamam, the purgatorial hell 
for Muslims. (9) Laid, a blazing fire for 
Christians. (8) Al-Hutamak t an intense fire 
for the Jews. ?4) So'ir, a flaming fire for the 
Sabians. (6) Saqar t a scorching fire for the 
Magi. (6) Al-Jokim, a huge hot fire for ido- 
laters. (7) Hawiyah, bottomless nit for the 
hypooritet. A reference to the Qur'in will 
prove that there it not the least reason for 
assigning these regions to their respective 
tent nts beyond the sentence already quoted : 
" At each portal a separate party." 

The teaching of the Qur'an (which is ehieflv 
confined to these Surahs which, chronologi- 
cally arranged, are the earliest), is as fol- 

Sflrah Jxxiv. 26-84 (generally held to be the 
second Sflrah composed by Muhammad, and 
relating to al- Walid ibn al-Mugbirah, » person 
of note amongst the unbelieving Makkaus) : — 

w We will surely cast him into Saqar. 

" And who shall teach thee what Saqar is ? 

" It leaveth nought, it spmreth nought, 

" Blackening the okin. 

" Over it are nineteen angels, 

" None but angels nave we made guardians 
of tho fire {ashaou fe-no>) : nor have we made 
this to be their number but to perplex the 
unbelievers, and that they who possess the 
Scriptures may be certain of the Truth, and 
that they who believe may increase their 

"And that they to whom the Scriptures 
have been given, and the believers, may not 

"And that the infirm of heart and the 
unbelievers may say, What tneaneth Qod by 
thie parable ? 

" Thus God misleadeth whom He will, and 
whom He will He doth guide aright: and none 
knoweth the armies of thy Lord but Himself: 
and this if no other than a warning to man- 
kind." ^ 

SOrah lxxxviii. 1-7:— 

" Hath the tidings of the day that ahall 
overshadow reaohod thee ? 

" Downcast on that day shall be the coun- 
tenances of some, 

" Travailing and worn, 

* Burnt at the scorching fire, 

" Made to drink from a fountain fiercely 

"No food shall they have but the fruit of 
fari* (a bitter thorn), 

" Which shall not fatten nor appease their 

Surah lxxviii. 31-30:— 

* Hell {Johanna*) truly shall be a place 
of snares, 

" The home of transgressors, 
" To abide therein ages ; 

* No coolness shall they taste therein nor 
any drink, 

" 8a ve boiling water and running sores ; 

* Meet recompenoe I 

"For they looked not forward to their 

"And they gave the lie to our signs, 
oharging them with falsehood ; 

" But we noted and wrote down all : 

ttc Taste this then: and we will give you 
increase of nought but torment."* 

The above are all Madinah Surahs com- 
posed in the earlier etage of Muhammad's 
mission. The allusions to hell in theMak- 
ken Surahs are brief and are in every oase 
directed against unbeUeoers in the Prophet's 
mission, and not against sin; «.©;. Sflrah ix. 
69, "God halh promised to the hypocrites 
{i.e. dissemblers a* far as Islam was concerned), 
men and women, and unto the unbelievers, 
hell-fire to dwell therein for ever.** 

The teaekittg of Muhammad in the Tradi- 
tion* is much moro speciflo, but it is Impos- 
sible to assign a date for these traditions, 
even assuming them to be authentic. They 
are given on the authority of at-BuU&rl sod 
Muslim (Mishkat, book xxiii. oh. xv.):— 

•"The fire of the world is one part of 
seventy parts of noil fire.* It was said, * O 
Prophet of God I verily the flro of the world 
would be sufficient for punishing.' The Pro- 

Digitized by 





phet replied, * Hell-fire has been made more 
than the fire of the world by sixty-nine parts, 
every part of which is like the fire of the 

" Verily, the easiest of the infernals in 
punishment, is he who shall have both his 
•hoes and thongs of them of fire, by which 
the brains of his head boil, like the boiling 
of a oopper furnace ; and he will not suppose 
that anyone is more severely punished than 
himself; whilst verily, ho is tho least so." 

"On the Day of Resurrection, the most 
luxurious of the world will be brought, and 
dipped onoe into the fire; after that it 
wul be said, <0 child of Adam, did you 
ever see any good, or did comfort e?er pass 
by you in the world ? ' He will say, * I swear 
by God I never saw any good, nor did com- 
fort ever oome near me.' And a man of the 
severest distresses and troubles in the world 
will be brought into paradise ; and it will be 
Maid to him, * son of Adam, did you ever 
see any trouble, and did distress ever come to 
you in the world ? ' And he will say, * I swear 
by God, O my Lord, I never suffered troubles 
in the world, nor did I ever see hardship.' " 

" Thore are some of the infernals that will 
be taken by the fire up to their ankles, and 
some up to their knees, and some up to their 
waist, and some up to their necks." 

" Hell- Are burnt a thousand years so that 
it became red, and burnt another thousand 
years till it became white ; after that it burnt 
a thousand years till it became black ; then 
hell fire is black and dark, and never has any 

"Verily, hot water will be pourod upon 
the heads of the infernals, and will poue- 
trato into their bellies, and will cut to pioces 
everything within them; so that they will 
come out at their feet ; and this is the mean- 
ing of the word of God, ' Boiling water shall 
bo noured on their beads, and everything in 
their bellies shall be dissolved thereby,' after 
that, they will be made as they were." 

"The infernals shfll be drenched with 
yellow water, draught after draught, and it 
will be brought to their mouths and they will 
be disgusted at it ; and when very near, it 
will scorch their faces, and when they drink 
it it will tear their entrails to pieces. God 
says, ' They who must dwell for ever in hell- 
fire, will have the boiling water given them 
to drink which shall burst their bowels '; and 
God will say, 'If the infidels complain of 
thirst, they shall be assisted with water like 
molten copper, which will fry their faces ; it 
will be a shocking beverage.''* 

For most of these circumstances relating to 
hell and the state of the damned, Muhammad 
was in-all probability indebted to the Jews and, 
in part, to the Magians, both of whom agree 
in making sevon distinct apartments in hell. 
(Nitkmat Aayim, f. 82/ (Scmxr. Arubin, 
I. 19 ; Zohar. ad. Exod. xxvi. 9, Ac. and 
Hyde de JUi, Vet Pert., p. 245), though they 
vary in other particulars. 

The former place an angel as a guard 
over each of these infernal apartments, and 
suppose he will intercede for the miserable 

wretohee there imprisoned, who will openly 
acknowledge the justice of God in their con - 
damnation. (Midi ash, Yalkut Shemuni, pt 11. 
f. 116.) They also teaoh that the wicked 
will suffer a diversity of punishments, and 
that by intolerabl cold (Zohar. ad Exod 
fix.) as well as heat, and that their faces 
shall become black (Yalkut Shemuni, ubt 
tuv. f. 80); and behove those of their own 
religion shall also be punished in hell here- 
after according to their orimos (for they hold 
that few or none will be found exactly righ- 
teous as to deserve no punishment at all,) 
but will soon be delivered thence, when they 
shall be sufficiently purged from their sins 
by their father Abraham, or at the interces- 
sion of him or some other of the prophots 
(Nitkmat hayim, f. 82 ; Gemot. Arubin, f. 19.) 

The Magians allow but one angel to pro- 
side over all tho seven hells, who is named 
by them Vanand Yozad, and, as thoy toaoh, 
assigns punishments proportionate to each 
person's crimes, restraining also the tyranny 
and excesaive cruelty of tho devil, who would, 
if left to himself, torment tho damned be- 
yond their sentence. (Hyd* y de JUL Vet. 
P*rt. p. 182.^ Those of this religion do also 
mention and describe various kinds of tor- 
ments wherewith the wioked will bo punished 
in the next life ; among which, though they 
reckon extreme eold to be one, yet they do 
uot admit fire, out of respect, as it seems, to 
that element, which they take to be the re- 
presentation of the divine nature, and there- 
fore they rather choose to describe the 
d.iinnod souls as suffering by other kinds of 
punishment, such as an intolerable stink, the 
stinging and biting of serpents and wild 
beasts, the cutting and tearing of the flesh 
by the devils, excessive hunger and thirst, 
and the like. (See Eundem, ibid., p. 899 ; 
Sale's Pie. Bit.) 

The author of tho Shurku %Muwiqif t 
p. 686, also says : •• It is agreed amongst all 
orthodox Muslims that all unbelievers, with- 
out exoeption, will b« eonaigned to the fire for 
ever, and that they will never be free from 
torment." " But," he adds, " there are cer- 
tain heretios, who call themselves Muslims, 
who deny the eternity of the toruients of the 
fire. For, they say, it is an essential property 
of all things fleshly that they oome to an end. 
And, moreover, it is not possible for a thing 
to exist which goes on burning for ever. But 
to this we reply that God Is all powerful 
and can do as He likes." 

Tho sect oallod as-Samumiysb, founded by 
Samomah ibn Ashras an-Numairi, say : " The 
Jews, and Christians, and Majusi, and Zana- 
diqah, will, after the Day of Judgment, 
return to dust, just as the animals and the 
little children of unbeliever* do.* (Skttrb* 7- 
J/iifoayi/, ]>. 088.) 

Tho same writer says (p. <»b7) : '* Besides 
those who are unbelievers, all those (Muslims) 
who are sinners and have committed great 
sins (Labd'irY will go to hell ; but they will 
uot remain there always, for it has been said 
in the Qur'an (Sflrah xcix. 7), " He who does 
an atom of good shall see its reward.* 

Digitized by 



With reference to the vorso in the Qnr'an, 
which distinctly statos that all Muslims 
shall enter hell (Surah xiz. 78, " There is 
not one of yon that shall 'not go down to it "), 
al-Kamalan, the commentators, say, that ac- 
cording to extant traditions, all Muslims will 
enter hell, bnt H will be cool and pleasant to 
those who hare not committed great sins: 
or, aooording to some writers, they will 
simply pnss along the bridge $ira(, which is 
oyer tho infernal regions. 

HELPERS, The. [ajtsab.] 

HERACLIUS. Arabic Hiraql 
( Jit*). The Roman Emperor to whom 
Muhammad sent an embassy with a letter In- 
viting him to Islam, A.H. 7, a.d. 628 

•• In the autumn of this yosr (a.d. 028), Hc- 
raclius fulfilled his tow of thanksgiving for the 
wonderful success which had crowned his arms 
(in Persia) ; he performed on foot the pilgri- 
mage from Edessa to Jerusalem, whore the 
' troo cross,* recovered from tho Persians, was 
with solemnity and pomp restored to tho 
Holy Sepulchre. While props ring for this 
Journoy, or during the journey itself, an un- 
couth despatch in tho Arsbic character was 
laid before Heraclius. It was forwarded by 
the Governor of Bostra, into whose hands it 
had been delivered bv an Arab cbiof. The 
epistle was addressed to the Emperor him- 
self, from ' Mahomet the Apostle of Ui>d, the 
rude impression of whose seal could be de- 
ciphered at the foot. In strange and simple 
accents like those of the Prophets of old, it 
summoned Heraolius to acknowledge the mis- 
sion of Mahomot, to cast aside the idolatrous 
worship of Jesus and his Mother, and to ro- 
turn to the Catholic faith of tho one only 
God. The letter was probably cast aside, or 
preserved, it may be, as a strange curiosity, 
tho effnsion of soma harmless fanatic." 
(Muir's Life of Mahomet, now ed. p. 888.) 

Tradition, of course, has another story. 
••Now the Emperor was at this time at 
Hims, performing a pedestrian. journey, in 
fulfilment of the vow which ho hud made, 
that, if the Romans overcame the Persians, he 
would travel on foot from Constantinople to 
Aolia (Jerusalem}. So having read the 
letter, he commanded his chief men to meet 
him in the royal camp at Hims. And thus 
he addressed them : — * Ye chiefs of Rome ! 
Do you desiro safety and guidsnoe, so that 
your kingdom shall be firmly established, 
and that ye may follow the commands of 
Jesus, Son of Mary ? * • And what, O King 1 
shall secure us this ? ' « Even that ye follow 
Itto Arabian Prophet/ said Heraclius. Whore • 
upon they all started aside like wild asses of 
the desert, each raising his cross and waving 
it aloft in the air. Whereupon Heraolius. 
despairing of their conversion, and unwilling 
to lose his kingdom, desisted, saying that he 
had only wished to test their constancy and 
faith, and that he was now satisfied by this 
display of firmness and devotion. The cour- 
tiers bowed their heads, and so the Prophet's 
despatch was rejected." (Katibu'l-Wagidi* 



p. 60, quoted by Muir, in a note to the above 

The lotter written by Muhammad to Hera- 
clius is, according to a tradition by Ibn 
* Abbas, as follows : — 

"In the name of God the Merciful, the 
Compassionate. This letter is from Muham- 
mad the Messenger of God, to Hiraql. chief of 
ar-Rum. Peace be upon whosoever has gone 
on the straight road! After this, I say, 
verily I oall thee to Islam. Embrace Islam 
that ye may obtain peace. Embrace Islam 
and God will give thee a double reward If 
ye reiect Islam, then on thee shall rest the 
sins of thy subjects and followers. O ye 
peoplo of the Book (i.e. Christiana) come 
to a creed which is laid down plainly between 
us and von, that we will not serve other 
than God, nor associate aught with Him, nor 
take each other, for lords rather than God. 
But if they turn back, then ear, < Bear wit- 
ness that we are Muslims.' " (Qur>an, iii 57.) 
(See #!#*!• Muslim , p. 9a) 

The Shi'ah traditions give the above letter 
almost verbatim, (See Merrick's ffay&fu 7- 
<£'/v6, p. 89.) 

41 Not long after, another despatch, bearing 
the same seal, and oouohod In similar terms, 
reached the court of Heraolius. It was ad- 
dressed to Harith VII., Prince of the Ban! 
Ghassan, who forwarded it to the Emperor, 
with .an address from himself, soliciting per- 
mission to chastise the audaolous impostor. 
But Heraolius regarding the ominous voice 
from Arabia beneath his notice, forbade tho 
expedition, and desired that Harith should 
be in attendance at Jerusalem, to swell the 
imperial train at the approaching ' visitation 
of the temple. Little did the Emperor 
imagine that the kingdom which, unperceived. 
by the world, this obscure Pretender was 
founding in Arabia, would in a few short 
years wrest from his grasp that Holy City 
and the fair provinces whioh, with so muoh- 
toil and so much glory, he had just recovered 
from the Persians ! " (Muir's Life of Make 
met,j>. 884.) 

(For the Shi'ah account of the embassy to 
Heraclius, see Merrick's flny&lu U-Quttb, 
p. 88.) 

Khmta) is a person who Is possessed of 
the organs of generation of both man and 
woman, and for whose spiritual existence the 
Mnbammadan law legislates (vide Hid&yak, 
voL iv. p. 569). For example, it is a rule, 
with respect to equivocal hermaphrodites, 
that they are required to observe all the 
more comprehensive points of the spiritusl 
law, but not thoso concerning the propriety 
of which, in regard to thorn, any doubt exists 
In public prayer they must toko their station 
between the men and the women, but in other 
respects observe the customs of women. 
(/Jem, p. 661.) 

HIBAH (*>). A legal term in 
Muhammadan law, which signifies a deed of 
gift, a transfer of property, made immediately 
and without any exchange, [gifts] 

Digitized by 


174 HIDAD 

HIDlD (a\ju^). "Mourning." 

The state of a widow who abstains from 
scents, ornament*, Ac, on account of the 
death of her hutband. Hidad most be ob- 
served for a period of four monthi and ton 
days. (Hidayak, vol. i. p. 870.) 

HIDiYAH (h\**). Lit "Guid- 
ance." The title of a well known book on 
Sunni law, and frequently quoted in the pre- 
sent work. There are many Muhammadan 
works entitled al-Uidayah, but this is celled 
Uidayah J'Vl-fur*, or " a guidance in parti- 
cular points. n It was composed by the 
Shaikh Burhanu 'd-din •All, who was bom at 
Marghinan in Transoxania about a.h. 680 
(▲.d, 1185}, and died a.h. 598. 

There is an English translation of the 
Hidayak (omitting the chapters on Prayer 
and Purification), by Charles Hamilton, four 
vols., London, a.u. 1791. 

HIFZU »L-«AHD (J*aN k*w). Lit 
"The guarding of the covenant." A term 
used by the $ufi mystics for remaining firm 
in that state in which God has brought them. 
('Abdu r-Raeeiq/s Dicf. of $ufi Terms.) 

q*V» 'Morij (vjuJJt y*i). Persian 
raktant. Highway robbery is a very heinous 
offonoe aooording to Muhammadan law, the 
punishment of which has boon flxod by the 
Qur'an (Surah v. 87) : •* The reoompense of 
those who war against God and His apostle, 
and go about to enact violence on the earth, 
is that they be slain or crucified, or have 
their alternate hands and feet oat off, or be 
banished the land." Aooording to the Hida- 
jfaA, highway robbers are of four kinds, via. 
m Those who are seised before they have 
robbed or murdered any person, or put any 

Krson in fear. These are to be imprisoned 
„ the magistrate until their repentance is 
evident. (2) Those who have robbed but have* 
not murdered. These are to have their right 
hand and left foot struck off. (8) Those who 
have committed murder but have not robbed. 
These are punished with death. (4) Those 
who have committed both robbery and mur- 
der. Theee are punished according to the 
option of the niagisirste. If he ploeso, ho 
can first out off a hand and foot, and then, 
put them to death by the sword, or by cruci- 
fixion ; or he may kill them at once without 
inflicting amputation. If any one among a 
band of robbers be guilty of murder, the 
punishment of death must be inflicted upon 
the whole band. 

H1JAB (s*W*). A partition or 
curtain. Veiling or concealing. 

(1) A term used for the seclusion of women 
enjoined in the Qur'an, Surah xxxiii. 58 : 
"And when ye ask them (the Prophet's 
wives) for an article, ask thorn from behind 
s curtain ; that is purer for your hoarts and 
for theirs.** 

(2) A term used by the $ufl mystics for 
that which obscures the light of God in the 
soul of man. ('Abdu V-Kaxsaqs Diet, of 
SufiTernu.) J 


HUAZfjle^). JW.« A barrier or 
anything similar by which two things are sepa- 
rated." The name al-$ijaz is given to that traot 
of country whioh separstee Naid from Taha- 
mah, and is an irregular parallelogram about 
250 miles long and 150 miles wide. It may be 
considered the holy land of the Mnlmmma- 
dsns, for within its limits are the ssored cities 
of al-Madinah and Makkah, and most of its 
pieces are someway connected with the his- 
tory of Muhammad. It is a barren district 
consisting of sandy plains towards the shore 
and rocky hills in the interior; and so desti- 
tute of provisions as to depend, even for the 
noeessaries of life, on the supplies of other 
countries. Among its fertile spots is Wadi 
Fafcimab . which is well watered, and produces 
grain and vegetables. Sajrah abounds in date 
trees. A jhTVif i eeventy-two miles from Mak- 
kah, is celebrated for its gardens, and the 
neighbourhood of al-Madinah has cultivated 
fields. The towns on the coast areJlddah 
and Yambu', the former being considered the 
port of Makkah, from whioh it is distant 
about fifty-five miles, and the Utter ihat of 
al-Madinah. Al-^ijis is hounded eastward by 
a lofty range of mountains! whleh, near at-ft'if . 
take the name of Jabalu 1-Qura. The scenery 
there is occasionally beautiful and pictu- 
resque; the small mulct* that desoond from 
the rooks afford nourishment to the plains 
below, whioh are olothed with verdure and 
shady tree* The vicinity of Makkah is bleak 
and bare; for several milee it is surroundsd 
with thousands of hills all nearly of one 
height ; their dark and naked peaks rise one 
bonind another, appearing at a distance like 
cocks of hay. The most celebrated of theee 
are as-$afa, 'Arafah and al-Marwah, which 
have always been connected with the religious 
rites of the Muhammadan pilgrimage 

HUB ( f^O- I Q it* primitive sense 
means interdiction or prevention. 

(1) In the language of the law it signifies 
an interdiction of action with respect to a 
particular person, who is either an infant, an 
idiot, or a slave. (Hiddyah, vol. iii. p. 468.) 

(2) Al-Uijr is a territory in the province of 
al-tyijax between al-Madinah and Syria, where 
the tribe of gamud ilwolt. It is the title of 
tho xvth Surah of the Qur'an, in the 80th 
verse of which the word occurs : " The inha- 
bitants of al-ljijr likewise accused the mes- 
senger of God of imposture." 

„ HURAH (A>*). Lit "migration." 
(I) The departure of Muhammad from Mak- 
kah. (2) The Muslim era. (8) The act of 
a Muslim leaving a country under infidel 
rule. (4) Fleeing from sin. 

The date of Mufeammad's flight from Mak- 
kah was the fourth day of tho first month of 
Rabi*, which by tho calculation of M. Cans- 
sin dm Percevsl was Juno 20th, a.d. 6tf& 
The Hijrah, or the era of the •• Hogira," was 
instituted seventeen years lstor by the Kh slifah 
( Umar, which dstta from the first day of the 
flr»t lunar month of the year, via, Mu^arram, 
which day in tho year when the era was esta- 
blished fell on Thursday the 16th of July 

Digitized by 



a.d. 622. Bat although -Ulnar instituted the 
official era, aeoording to aft-Tabari, the cue- 
tom of referring to eyenta as happening 
before or after the Hijrah originated with 
Muhammad hlmaolf. 

Profeasor H. H. Wilson in his Glossary of 
Tsrtns gives the following method of ascer- 
taining the Mubammaden and Christian 
jears : — 

Multiply the Hijrah Tear by 2,977, the diffe- 
rence between 100 solar and as many lnnar 
Mohammedan years ; divide the product by 
100, and deduct the quotient from the Hijrah 
▼ear; add to the rosult 621,569 (the decimal 
being the equivalent of the 15th July, plus 
12 days for the change of the Kalendar); and 
the quotient will be the Christian year from 
the date at which the Muhammadan year 
begins; thus, Hi). 1269x2*977 -8777-8, which 
divided by 100-d7-778 and 1269-87-778- 
1281-222; this + 621-569 - 1852-791, the 
decimals corresponding to 9 months and 
16 days, i.e. the 15th of October, which 
is tho commencement of the Hij. year 1269. 
The reverse formula for finding the corre- 
sponding Hijrah year to a given Christian 
year, is thus laid down: Subtract 622 from 
the current year; multiply the result by 
1-0807 *, out off two decimals and add -46 ; 
the sum will be the year, which, when it has 
a surplus decimal, requires the additidn of 
1: thus, 1852-622-1280; 1280 x 1-0807 » 
1267-761; 1267*76 + -46 -1268-22; add there- 
fore 1, and we have the equivalont Hijrah year 

The Persian era of Yesdegird oommenoed 
on June 16th, a.p. 682, or ten years later 
than the Qijrah. 

IjKKMAH (* •■< »■). AUlikmak, 
M the wisdom," is a term used by the 9ufl 
mystics to express a knowledge of the 
eeeence, attributes, specialities, and results 
of things as they coast and are seen, with the 
study of their oauae, effects, and uses. This 
Is said to be the wisdom montloned in the 
Qur'In, Surah. 11. 872: "He (God) bringeth 
the wisdom (Mtimak) unto whom He wil- 

The gflfls say there are four kinds of 
wisdom expressed in the term al-hikmah : — 

(1) Al-hkmat* 'LMantigak, "spoken wis- 
dom," which is made known in the Qur*an, 
or in the Tariqak, " the Path " (i.e. the $ufi 

(2) Al-bOcmatu H*mask*tah, "unspoken 
wisdom." Such as understood only by $ufi 
mystics, and not by the natural man. 

(8) Al-hikmatu 'Imajkiitah, " unknown wis- 
dom," or those acts of the Creator the wisdom 
of which is unknown to the creature, such as 
the infliction of pain upon the creatures of 
God, the death of infants*, or the eternal fire 
of hell. Things which we believe, but which 
we do not understand. 

(4) Ai-hikmatu %jdmi l ah, " collective wis- 
dom," or the knowledge of the truth (haqq) 9 
and acting upon it, and the perception of 
error (b&lil) and tho rejection of it (*Abdu 
r-Rataiq's Diet of SK/f Term*.), 

HIRE 175 

HILAL (JU). The new moon. 
A term used for the first three days of the 

HILF (UJL.V An oath , a vow. 
An affidavit. Hitf namah, a written solemn 
declaration. Iiitif, one who. takes an oath. 

HILFU 'L-FU?tTL (J**e)t uU)> 

A confederacy formed by the descendants of 
Haahim, Zuhrah, and Taim, in the houso of 
♦Abdu Hah ibn Jud-en at Makkah, for the 
suppression of violence 'and injustice at the 
restoration of peaco after the Sacrilegious 
war. Muhammad was then a youth, and Sir 
William Muir says this confederacy •• aroused 
an enthusiasm in the mind of Mahomet, 
which the oxploits of tho sacrilegious war 
failed to kindle." 

rJILM (f^). Being mild, gentle, 
clement. Restraining oneself at a time when 

the spirit is roused to anger. Delaying in 

in* a tyrant (Kttabu 7- 
Hence al-ffallm, the Clement, ia o 


Delaying in 
one of tho 

attribute*! of God. 

rJIMA (ij**). Lit. " guarded, for- 
bidden." A portion of land reserved by the 
ruler of a country aa a grazing ground. (See 
Minkkat, book xii. ch. i. pt. i.) " Know ye 
that every prince has a grazing ground which 
i* forbidden to the people, and know ye the 
grazing place (Atnia) ia the thing forbidden 
by Him to men.* 

HIMMAH (*♦*). "Resolution, 
strength, ability." A term used by the g&fi 
mystios for a determination of the heart to 
incline itself entirely te God. (-Abdu V- 
Raseaq's Diet of$ufl Terms.) 

HINNA' (oW). The Lawsonia 
inermis, or Eastern privet, used for dyeing 
the hands and feet on festive occasions. 
[MiUBiAon.] Muhammad enjoined the uae 
ef hinna?, and approved of women staining 
their hands and feet with it. He also dyed 
his own beard with it, and recommended its 
use for this purpose (Mishkat, book xx. o. 4.) 
It has therofore become a religious custom, 
and is surmah. 

I1IQQAH (**v). A female camel 
turned three years. The proger age for a 
camel to be given in xaUdt, or legal alma, for 
camels from forty-six to sixty in number. 

qiRA* (Af>). The name of 
ountain near Makkah, aaid to have b 

mountain near 'Makkah, aaid to have been 
the acene of the first revelation given to 
Muhammad, [muhammad.] 

HIRAQL (J*y*). Heraelius the 
Roman Emperor, to whom Muhammad aent 
an embassy, a.h. 7, a.d. 628. [hbxaoltus,] 

HIRE. The Arabic term ijdrah 
(l;W^), which means the use and en- 
joyment of property for a timo, includes hire, 

Digitized by 




rental, and lease. The hirer is termed ajir, 
or mujir. The pen on who receives the rent 
Is the musta'jir. 

The following are some of the chief points 
in the Bnnni lew with regard to (/draA, end 
for further particulars the reader must refer 
in English to Hamilton's Hidayah, vol. Iii. 
p 312, or in Arabic to snoh works as the 
Durru 'l-Mukfrtdr, Fatdwd-i-'Alamgiri, and the 
Raddu 'l-Mubtar, in which works it is treated 
in tho Bdbu 7-7/aroi. 

A contract of hire, or rental, or lease, is 
not valid unless both the usufruct and the 
hire be particularly known and specified, 
because there is a traditional saying of the 
Prophet, " If a person hire another let him 
first inform him of the wages he is to 

A workman is not entitled to anything 
until his work is finished, but the article 
wrought upon may be detained until the 
workman be paid his full wages, and the 
workman is not responsible for any loss or 
damage in the article during such detention. 
If a person hire another to carry u letter to 
al-Basrah and bring back an answor, and ho 
accordingly go to al-Basrah and thore find 
the person dead to whom the letter was sd- 
dressed, and come back, and return the 
letter, he is not entitled to any wages what- 
ever I This strange ruling is according to 
Abu llauifah and two of his disciples, but 
the Imam Muhammad says the messenger 
blight to be paid. 

It is )*wful to hire a hownt or shop for the 
purpose of residence, although no mention bo 
made of the business to be followed in it, and 
the lessee is at liberty to carry on any busi- 
ness he pleases, unless it be injurious to the 
building. For exsmple, a blacksmith or a 
fuller most not reside in the house, unless it 
is previously so agreed, since the exercise of 
those trades would shake the building. 

It is lawful to hire or tease land for tbe 
purposes of cultivation, and in this case the 
hirer is entitled to tho us of tho road lead- 
ing to the land, and likewise the water (i.e. 
his turn of water) although no mention of 
these be made in the contract 

A lease of land is not valid unless mention 
is made of the articlo to be raised on it, not 
only with a view to cultivation, but also for 
other purposes, such as building, and so 
forth. Or the lessor of tbe land may make 
declaration to the effect :— " I let the land on 
this ocoasion, that the lessee shall raise on . 
it whatever he pleases." 

If a person hire unoccupied land for the 

Curposee of building or planting, it is lawful, 
ut on the term of tho lease 01 pi ring it is 
inoumbont on the lessee to remove bis build- 
ings and trees, and to restore the land to the 
lessor in such a state as may leave him no 
claim upon it, because houses or tree* have 
no apecifio limit of existence, and if they were 
left on the land it might be injurious to the 
proprietor. But it in otherwise when the 
land is hired or leased for tbe purpose of 
tillage, and the term of the lease expiree at 
a time when the grain is yet unripe. In this 


case, the grain must be suffered to remain 
upon the ground at a proportionate rent, 
until it is fit for reaping. 

The hire of an animal Is lawful, either for 
carriage, or for riding, or for any use to 
which animals are applied. And if a person 
hiro an animal to carry a burden, and the 
person who" lets it to hire specify the nature 
and quantity of the article with whioh the 
hirer is to load the animal, the hirer is at 
liberty to load the animal with an equal 
quantity of auy article not more troublesome 
or prejudicial in the carriage than wheat, 
such as barley, Ac. The hirer is not at 
liberty to load the animal with a more pre- 
judicial article than wheat (unless stipulated 
beforehand), auch as salt or iron. For a 
hired animal perishing from ill-usage, the 
hiror is responsible. 

( For the laying* of Muhammad on the sub- 
ject of hire and leases t refer to the Mishkdt, 
Bdbu 'l-Ijarah.) 

HIR§ (u*H- "Avarice, greed, 
oagemoas." Derivatives of the word occur 
three times in the Qur'an. Surah ii. 90: 
" Thou wilt find them (the Jews) the greediest 
of men for life." Surah iv. 128 : M And ye may 
not havo it at all in your power to treat your 
wives with equal justice, even though you be 
anxious to do so." Surah xii. 104 : u And yet 
most ineu, though Mom ardently desire it, will 
not bolievo." 

HISS (cr~). " Understanding, 
sense." Hiss bat in, internal sense ; hiss foAtr, 
oxternal sense ; hiss mushtariL' t common 1 

HIZANAH (&U*). Al-hifdnah 10 
the right of a mother to the custody of her 
children. " The mother is of all persons the 
best entitled to the custody of her infant 
children during the connubial relationship as 
well as after its dissolution." (Fatuwd-i-'Alam- 
^iri, vol i. p. 728.) 

When tho children are no longer dependeut 
on the mother's care, the father has a right 
to educate and take charge of them, and is 
entitled to the guardianship of their person in 
preference to the mother. Among the IJa- 
nafis, the mother is entitled to the custody of 
her daughtor notil she arrives at puberty; 
but according to the other three Sunni sects, 
the custody continues until she is married. 

There is difference of opinion as to the 
extent of the period of the mother's oustody 
over her male children. The Panaris limit it 
to the child's seventh year, but the Shifi'ia 
and Malakis allow the boy the option of re- 
maining under his mother's guardianship 
until he has arrived at puberty. Among the 
Shi'ahs, the mother is entitled to the oustody 
of her children until they are weaned, a 
period limited to two years. After the child 
is weaned, its custody, if a male, devolves on 
the father, if a female, on the mother. The 
mother's custody of the girl continues to the 
seventh year. 

The rigb&of hifdnah is lost by the mother 
if she is married to a stranger, or if she mis- 

Digitized by 



aotiAunUi horsojf, or If she changes her dninl 
nlle no m In prey mil tit* father or tutor from 
eierojslng Umi necessary supervision orer the 

Apostssy In a ho s bar to Din exercise nf 
Iho right nf hifAnnh, A woman, consequently, 
who spnststises from MAm, whether before 
or after the right Touts in her, la disentitled 
frnm cxorolslng or claiming tbo right of 
hi%anah In rospoot to ft Muslim child. 

The custody nf Illegitimate children ap- 
pertains excluslvoly to tbo mother and hor 
rotation*. (Pentomu* Law of Mmbammidan*. 
by Synd Amir All, p. 914.) [oiJAJtMAJr- 


HOLY SPIRIT. Arabic Eu^u 'L 
Qud* ( tH^t Cm). The Holy Spirit if 
mentioned throe times in the Qnr'&n. Tn the 
Suiatu VNahl (xvrth, 104), as the inspiring 
agent of the Quran : *• Say, The Holy Spirit 
brought it down from thy Lord in truth." 
And twico in tbo Sftratu 1-Baqarah (und. 
81 and 854), an the dMuo power whioh aided 
tbo Lord Jeans : M and We strengthened him by 
the Holy Spirit " (in both verses). 

The Jalalan, al-Baisawi, and the Muslim 
oomraentators in general, say this Holy Spirit 
was the angel Gabriel wbo sanctified Jesus, and 
constantly aided Him, and who also brought 
the Quran down from beavon and revealed 
it to Muhammad. 

For a further consideration of the subject, 
see sent it. 

HOMICIDE, [mubdiji.] 
HONEY. Arabic 'tual (J-*). In 

the Qur'an it is specially mentioned a* the 
gift of Qod. Surah xvi. 70: •« Thy Lord In- 
spired the bee. ' Take to houses in tho moun • 
tains, and in the troos, and in tho hires they 
build. Then oat from every fruit and wulk 
in the beaten paths of thy Lord.' There 
cometh forth from her body a draught 
▼arying in hue, in which is a cure for 

HORSES. Arabic fara$ (y-/), 
khail (vV), pi. khuyul. Mubamirad'B 
affection for horses wii vory groat, as was 
natural to an Arabian. Anas setys there was 
nothing the Prophet was so fond of ss women 
and horses. Aba Qatadah relates that Mu- 
hammad said: "The best horses are black 
with white foreheads and having a white 
upper lip." But Abu Wahhah says the Pro- 
phet considered a bay horse with white fore- 
head, white fore and hind legs the best. An 
instance of the way in which the traditionists 
ftometimes contradict escb other ! (Mi*hhot % 
book xvii. p. ii.^ 

In the Hidaynh (Arabic edition, vol. 'ii. 
p. 432) it is said that horses are of four 
kinds : (1) Birgaun. Bur {in. n heavy draught 
horse brought from foreign countries. (2} 
*Atiq % a first blood homo of Arabia, (ft) 
Mafia, a half-bred heme whoso mother is en 
Arsb and father* foreigner. (4) A half-bred 



bore* whoso f other Is an Arsb and whoao 
mother Is 4 foreigner. 

In taking m shorn of plunder, a bnrNnumn 
Is entitled tn a double shorn, but ho ts not 
untitled tn «nr mom if lie keep more horses 
than one. 

HOSPITALITY. Arabic tly,\fah 
(l>\**). It is related that Muhammad 
said : — 

" Whoever holievos in God and In the Day 
of Resurrection must respect his guest." 

•« If a Muslim he the guest of a people and , 
he spends the whole night without being en- 
tertained, it shall be lawful for every Muslim 
present to take money and grain necessary 
for the entertainment of the man." 

M It is according to my practice that tho 
hoot shall come out with his guest to the 
door ol his house.* (Mishkit, book xix. 
oh. Ji.) 

Hospitality is onjoined in tho Qur'an. 
Surah iv. 40: "Show kindness to your 
perenjts, and to your kindred, end to orphans, 
and to the poor, and to your neighbour who 
is akin and to your neigh hour who is a 
stranger, and tho companion who is strange, 
and to fee son of the ronH. n 

HOUR, The. Arabic a+S&'dh 
fXcLJ\V A term frequently used in 
the Quran for the Day of Judgment. 

Sflrah vi. 81: "When the hour comes and* 
denly upon them.'* 

Sflrah vii. 10*6; * They will ask you about 
the hour for what, time it is faced.* 

Surah xvj85i •• Verily the hour is enrols 

Sflrah x*i. 79 : " Nor Is the matter of tkt 
hour aught but as the twinkling of an eye, or 
nigher still." 

Surah axil. 1 : *' Verltv the earthquake of 
the hour is a mighty thing." 

Hurah liv. 40: " Nav the hour is their pro- 
mised time ' and the hour is most severe and 


terms " Honrs of Prayer" and "Canonical 
Hours ," being used in the OhriMtisn Church 
(see Johnson's Engl. Canon* and Canon* of 
Uuthbert, ch. 15), we shall considet under 
this title the stated periods of Mohammedan 
prsyer. [prays*.] They are five: (1) Fajr 
( j%*X daybreak j (2) #k*V f %e>), when tne 
sun begins to decline at midday ; (8) *A$r 
(j**), midway between *uhr and magkrib; 
f41 Maghrib (w>/*), evening; (5) *l*hi 
(M*), when the night has closed in. Ac- 
cording to the Traditions (Afiehkit, book 
xxiv. ch. vii. Vi. 1), Muhammad professed to 
have received his instructions to say prayer 
Ave times s day during the Mi'rej, or the 
celebrated night journey to heaven. He said, 
God first ordered him to pray fifty times a 
day, but that 'Moses advised him to get the 
Almighty to reduce the number of canonical 
hours tn five, be himself- having tried fifty 


Digitized by 





times for his own peoplo with very Ul 

It 4s remarkable that there is bat one 
passage in the Qur'an, in which the etated 
hour* of prayer are enjoined, and that it 
mention* only four and not five periods. 
SStratu 'r-Rim, xxx. 16, 17 : " Glorify God when 
it ia evening (masaT), and at morning («*o£), - 
and to Him be praise in the heavens and in 
the earth, —and at afternoon ('asAi), and at 
noontide (*uhr). n But al-Jalslan, the com- 
mentators say all are agreed that the term, 
"when it is hhuS" (evening or night), in- 
cludes both sunset and after sunset, and 
therefore both the magkrib and 'ithd* prayers 
are included. 

Three hours of prayer wore observed by 
the Jews. David says, "Evening, morning, 
and at noon will I pray." (Ps. iv. 17.) 
Daniel " kneeled upon his knees three 
times a day." These threo hours of the 
Jews soem to have been continued by the 
Apostles (see Acts iil 1), and were transmitted 
to the early churoh in succeeding ages, for 
Tertullian speaks of "those coinmdu hours 
whloh mark the divisions of the day, the 
third, sixth, and ninth, which we observe 

in scripture to be more solemn than the 
rest." (Dt Ora/., c. 25.) And Clement of 
Alexandria says, " If some fix stated hours 
of prayer, as the third, sixth, and ninth, the 
man of knowledge prays to God throughout 
his whole life." (Stom. L viL c. 7, sect 40.) 
Jerome says, " There are three times in which 
the knees are bent to God. Tradition assigns 
tho third, the sixth, and the ninth hour." 
(Com. m.Doa., c. vl 10.) 

In the third century there seems to have 
been five stated periods of prayer, for Basil 
of Gappadooia sneaks of live hours as suit- 
able for monks, nsmely, the morning, the 
third hour, the sixth, the ninth, and the 
evening.* (Regula fusius Tract. Resp. ad Qu., 
37, sections 8-6.) 

It is therefore probable that Muhammad 
obtained his idea of five stated periods of 
prayer during his two Journeys to Syria. 
But he changed the timo, as will be seen 
from the table annexed, which was drawn up 
bv Mr. Lane at Cairo, and shows the times of 
Muhnmmadan prayer with the apparent 
European time of sunset, in or near the lati- 
tude of Cairo at the commencement of eaoh 
zodiacal month :' — 





l Aft 























June 21 


7 4 P.M. 

1 84 

8 8 

4 66 

8 13 

July 2* 

May 21 
Apt 20 
Mar. 20 

6 58 „ 

1 80 

8 80 

5 7 

8 48 

Aug. 28 


S 81 „ 

1 22 

9 24 

6 28 

9 4 

Sept. 28 

6 4 „ 

1 18 

10 24 

5 56 

9 24 

Oct. 23 

Feb. 18 

fi 37 „ 

1 18 

11 18 

6 28 

9 86 

Nov. 22 

Jan. 20 

fc 3 

5 15 „ 

1 22 

11 59 

6 45 

9 41 

Dee. 21 


5 4 „ 

1 24 

12 16 

6 56 

9 48 

N.B. — The time of noon, according to Muhammadan reckoning, on any particular day, sub- 
tracted from twelve, gives the apparent time of sunset on that day aooording to European 

HOUSES. Arabic bait (ts~«t), pi. 
. buyut; ddr (,W), pi. diydr, dur ; Heb. 

WJ3« In the time of Muhammad 
the houses of the Arabs were made of 
a framework of jarid, or palm-sticks, co- 
vered over with a cloth of camel's hair, or 
a curtain of a similar stuff, forming the door. 
Thoee of the better class were made of walls 
of unbaked bricks, and date-leaf roofs plas- 
tered over with mud and clay. Of this de- 
scription were the abodes of Muhsnimsti's 
family. (Burton, voL i. p. 438.) 

Sir William Mtdr, translating from the 
account given by the secretary of al-Wiqtdi 
{Lift of Mahomet, new ed., p. 646), says : — 

"Abdallah ibn Yazid relates, that he saw 
the house in which the wives of the Prophet 
dwelt at the time when Omar ibn OAbd) al- 
Actt, than governor of Medina (shout aM. 

100). demolished them. They were built of 
unburnt bricks, and had separate apartments 
made of palm branches, daubed (or built up) 
with mud; he counted nine houses, each 
having separste apartments in the space from 
the house of Ayeena, and the gate of Mahomet 
to the house of Asms, daughter of H^ueln. 
Observing the dwelling-place of Omm Salma, 
he Questioned her grandson concerning it; 
and he told him that when the Prophet was 
sbsent on the expedition to Duma, Omm 
Salma built up sn addition to her house with 
a wall of unburnt brioks. Whsn Mahomet 
returned, ho went in to her, and asked what 
new building this was. She replied, ' 1 pur- 
posed, O Prophot, to shut out the glsnces of 
men thereby I ' Mahomet answered, * O Omm 
Salma ! verily the most unprofitable thing 
that eateth up the wealth of a believer is 
building/ A citizen of Medina present at 

Digitized by 




the time, confirmed this account, and added 
that the curtain* f Anglo-Indiee, puniat) of 
the doore were of black 'hair-doth. He waa 
reaent, he said, when the despatch of the 
Jaliph Abd al Malik (a.b. 86-«8) was read 
aloud, commanding thai these house* should 
bo brought within the are* of the Mosque, 
and he never witnetted sorer weeping than 
there waa amongst the people that day. One 
exclaimed, 4 I wish, by the Lord 1 that the? 
would leave these houses alone thus as they 
are; then would those that spring up here- 
after in Medina, and strangers from the ends 
of the earth, come and see what kind of 
building sufficed for the Prophet's own abode, 
and the sight thereof would deter men from 
extravagance and pride. 

" There were four houses of unburnt brioks, 
the apartments being of palm-branches ; and 








* oun 

















ran usual flah or ax ohdihaxt nousn nr 
onnniAL aha. 

five houses made of palm-branohes built up 
with mud and without any separate apart- 
ments. Eaoh was three Arabian yards in 
length. 8ome say tbst they had leather cur- 
tains for the doors. One could roach the roof 
with the hand. The house of Hlritha was 
next to that of Msbomet. Now, whenever 
Mahomet took to himself a new wife, he 
added another house to the row, and Haritha 
was obliged successively to remove his house 
and build on the space beyond. M lest this 
was repeated so often, that the Prophet said 
to those about him, * Verily, it shameth me 
to turn Haritha over and over again out of 
his house. 1 * 

The houses of the rural poor in all parts of 
Islam, in Turkey, Egypt, Syria, Arabin. 
Persia, Afghanistan, and India, are usually 
bulit either of mud or of unburnt bricki. Ih 
mountainous parts of Agbanist&n they arc 
built of stones (oollectod from the beds of 
rivers) and mnd. They are generslly one 
storey high, and of one apaotmimt in which 
the cattle are also housed* The roofs 
are flat and are formed of mud and straw 
laid upon branches of trees and rafters. Tho 
windows are small apertures, high up in the 
walls, and sometimes grated with wood. 

a muvamxadah bouse in pnsHAwun. 

There are no chimneys, but in the centre of 
the roof there is an opening to emit the smoke, 
the fire being lighted on the ground in the 
centre of the room. In front of the house 
there is an inolosure, either of thorns or a 
mnd wall, which secures privacy to the 
dwelling. A separate building, called in Aeia 
a hHJraki or guest chamber, is provided for 
male visitors or guosts ; this chamber being 
common property of the section of tho vil- 
lage, except In tho oaso of chiefs or wealthy 
land-owners, who keep feujrah* of their own. 
In towns the houses of the inferior kind do 
not differ muoh from those In the villages, 
except that there is sometimes an upper- 
storey. In some parts of Afghanistan and 
Persia, it becomes neoeesary for eaoh house* 
bolder to protect his dwelling, in which cane 
a watch tower, of mud, Is erected close to th* 

Digitized by 



Digitized by 



nltnre of an Eastern duelling, chairs being 
a modern invention. The roofs of these rooms 
are flat, and as the ton is fenced in with a 
barrier some four feet high, the female mem- 
bers of the household sleep on the top of the 
house in the hot weather, [hajum.1 

lit no point do Oriental habits differ more 
from European than in the nse of the roof. 
Its flat surface, in fine weather the usual 
place of resort, is made useful for various 
household purposes, as drying corn, hanging 
up linen, and drying fruit. 

In the centre of the inner court or Jparim, 
there Is usually a well, so that the female do- 
mestics are not obliged to leave the seclusion of 
the b*rim for water-carrying. In a large oourt, 
of a wealthy person, there is usually a raised 
dais of either stone or wood, on which car- 
pets are spread, and on which the ladies sit 
or recline. In the better class of dwellings, 
there are numerous courtyards', and. special 
ones are devoted to winter and summer uses. 
In Peshawar, most respectable houses hare 
an underground room, called a tab k&Snah, 
where the inmates in the hot weather sleep at 
mid-day. These rooms are exceedingly cool 
and pleassnt on hot sultry flays. 

0? er the entrance door of a MuJjammadan 
dwelling it is usual to put an inscription, 
cither of the Kalhnah, or Oreed, or of some 
« erne of the Qur'an. 

We here only attempted to describe, 
briefly, the ordinary dwelling-houses of Mu- 
hammadans, which are common to all parts 
of tbe Eastern world ; but in large wealthy 
cities, such as Damasous, Oairo, Delhi, and 
Luoknow, there are very handsomo honses, 
which would require a longer description 
than our space admits of. For Mrs. Meer 
All's account of a Mu^ammadan harim or 
saninah, see haxjh 

HOUSES, Permission to enter. 
Arabic istCzdn (m\&3*~\). To enter 
suddenly or abruptly into any person's 
house or apartments, is reckoned a great 
inclTility in the East, and the law on this sub- 
ject is Yery distinctly laid down in both the 
Qur'an and the Traditions. 

Surah xxiv. 27-29:— 

" ye who belioTe! enter not into other 
houses than your own, until ye hare asked 
leave, and hare saluted its inmates. This 
will be best for you : haply ye will bear this 
in mind. 

41 And if re find no one therein, then enter 
it not till, leave be given you; and if it be 
said to you, « Go ye back/ then go ye back. 
This will be more blameless in you, and God 
knoweth what ye do. 

•• There shall be no harm in Your entering 
houses in which no one dwelleth, for the 
supply of your needs: and God knoweth 
what ye do openly and what ye hide." 

The traditionists record numerous injunc- 
tions of Muhammad on tho subject A man 
asked the Prophet, "Must I ask leave to 
go in to see my mother ?** He said," Yes." 
Then the man said, " But I stay in the same 



house with her ! ** The Prophet said : " But 
you must ask permission even if you stay in 
the same house.'* Then the man said, •* But 
I wait upon her ! *\ The Prophet said : " What I 
would you like to see her naked ? Ton must 
ssk permission.** 

The Kfealifah 'Umar said it was according 
to the teaching of .the Prophet that if yon 
salam three times and get no reply, yon must 
then go away from the house. 

Abu Hurairah says that the Prophet said : 
"When anyone sends to call yOu then you 
can return with the messenger and enter the 
house without permission.* 7 (Mukkat , book 
xxii. ch. ii. pt 8.) 

HU, HUWA (y>). The pewonal 
pronoun of the third porson, singular, mas- 
culine, HE, i.e. God, or He is. It occurs in 
the Qur'an in this sense, e.g. Surah iii. 1, t%\ 
y» » 4ft J AUaku Id ilaha iM Huwa, "God, 
there is no god but HE,** which sentence is 
called the nafy wa i$bdt (or that which is re- 
jected, " there is no god,* and that which is 
affirmed, " but He.** The word is often used 
by fjufl mystics in this form : y* \* y» \| y» \| 
J* H *• U aW J jr« Afi, yd Am, y« man Id 
yttamu mi hi M Aat, " He (who is). Ho 
(who \n\ He whom no ono knows what He 
Himself is but Himself. * Somo commentators 
hare supposed the word HA to stand for the 
exalted name of God, the Itmu '/-tr^cim, which 
Muslim doctors say is only known to God. 


HUBAL or HOBAL (J**). The 
great imago which stood over the well or 
hollow within the Ka*bah. In the oavity be- 
neath were preserved tho offerings and other 
treasures of tbe temple. (At-fabarx, p. 6, 
quoted by Muir.) The idol was destroyed by 
Mubammad at his final' conquest of Makkah, 
a.h. 8, a j). 630. " Mounted on (his camel) A1 
Oaswa, he proceeded to the Kaabah, reve- 
rently saluted with his staff the saorod stone 
and mado the soYon circuits of the temple. 
Then pointing with the staff ono by one to the 
numorons idols placed around, he commanded 
that tboy should be hewn down. The great 
image of Hobal, reared as tho tutelary deity 
of Mecca, in front of the Kaabah, shared tho 
common fate. * Truth hath come,* exclaimed 
Mahomet, in words of the Oorin, as it fcD 
with a crash to the ground, « and falsehood 
hath vanished ; for falsehood is evanescent.*" 
(Surah xtii. 88). 8oe Muir, Life of Mahomet, 
new ed. p. 422. It is remarkable that there 
is no distinct allusion to the idol in the whole 
of the Qur'an 

rJUBS (cr***). Any bequest for 
pious purposes. A term used in Shi'ah law 
for waq f. Anything devoted to the service 

of Go< 
p. 827.) 

(See Baillie's Imdmeea Code, 


HtTD (*y*). 4 prophet 8aid to 
re been sent to the tribe of *Ad. Al- 

Digitized by 




Baisewi says he was, according to some, the 
son of 'Abdu Hah, the son of Rabah, the son 
of Efcalud, the son of «Ad v the son of 'Aus 
the son of Irani, the son of Sam, son of Noah, 
or, according to others, Hud was the son of 
Shalah, son of Arfafchshad, son of Sam, son 
of Noah. D*Herbelot thinks he mast be the 
JUeber of the Bible (Judges iv. 1.) 

The following are the accounts given of 
nim ia me Qur'an, Surah vii 6a~70 :— 

" And to 'Ad we sent their brother Hod. 
• O iny* people, said he, worship God : ye hare 
no other God than Hun: will ye not then 
fear Him ? ' Said the uubeUoving chiefs among 
his people, ' We certainly perceive that thou 
art unsound of mind, and verily we deem 
thee an impostor.* He replied, ' my people ! 
there is no unsoundness of mind in me, but I 
am an apostle from the Lord of the worlds. 
The messages of my Lord do I announce to 
you, and I am your faithful counsellor. Mar- 
vel ye that a warning hath come to you from 
your Lord, through one of yourselves that 
He may warn you? But remember when He 
made you. the successors of the people of 
Noah, -and increase 1 you in tallness ofjrtature. 
Remember then *ne favours of God ; happily 
it shall be well with you.* They said, < Art 
thou come to us in order that we may wor- 
ship one. God only, and desert what our 
fathers worshipped ? Then bring that upon 
ua with which', thou threatenest us, if thou be 
a man of truth.* He replied, 'Vengeance 
and wrath shall suddenly light on you from 
your Lord. Do ye dispute with me about 
names that you and your fathers have given 
those idols, <and for which God hsth sent you 
down no warranty ? Wait ye then, and I too 
will wait with you.* And We delivered 
him and those who were on his side by our 
mercy, and we cut off to the last man those 
who had treated our signs as lies and who 
wero not believers." 

SOTah XL 62-68:— 

*' And unto 'Ad We sent their brother Hud. 
He said, 'O my people, worship God. Ye 
have no God beside Him. Lo, ye are pnly 
devisers of a lie, O my people I I ask of 
ybu no recompense for this ; verily my recom- 
pense is with Hiui only who hath made mo. 
Will ye not then nntlerstand? And my 
people f ask pardon of your Lord; then 
turn unto Him with penitence I He will send 
down the heavens upon you with copious 
rains. And with strength fax addition to your 
strength will He increase you ; but turn not 
back with deeds of evil* They replied, • O 
Hud, thou hast not brought us proofs of thy 
mission, and we are not the persons to aban- 
don our gods at thy word, and we believe 
thee not. We can only say that some of our 
gods have smitten thee with evil. 1 He said, 
' Now take I God to witness, and do ye also 
witness, that I am innocent of that which ye 
associate (in worship with God) bettide him- 
self. Conspire then against mo altogether 
and delay me not; Lo, I trust in God, my 
Lord and yours No moving creature is there 
which He holdeth not by its forelock. Right, 


truly, is the way in which my Lord goeth. So 
if ye turn back, then I have already declared 
to you that wherewith I was sent to you, and 
my Lord will put another people in your 
$lace, nor shall ye at all injure Him -, verily, 
my Lord koepeth watch over all things.* 
And when our doom same to be inflicted/Wo 
rescued Hud and those who had like faith 
with him, by our special mercy ; and We 
rescued them from the rigorous chastise- 
ment. And these men of *Ad gainsaid the 
signs of their Lord, and rebelled against Hi* 
messengers and followed the bidding of every 
proud oontumacioua person ; follow od there- 
fore were they in this world by a curse ; and 
in the dr.y of the Resurrection it shall be said 
to them, ' Did not, verily, the people of «Ad 
disbelieve their Lord?* Was it not said, 
' A wAy with « Ad, the people of Hud ? * ** 

Surah xxvi. 123-189 : 

•• The people of 'Ad treated the Sent Ones 
as liars. When their brother Hud said to 
them, 'Will ye not fear God? I truly am 
your apostle, worthy of all credit ; fear God 
then and obey me. I ask of you no reward 
for this, for my reward is of the Lord of the 
worlds alone. Build ye a landmark on every 
height, in pastime ? And raise ye structures 
to be your lasting abodos ? And when. ye puto 
forth your powor, do ye put it forth with 
harshness ? Fear yo God, then, and obey me j 
and fear ye Him who hath plenteously be- 
stowed on you, ye well know what ? Plen- 
teously bestowed on you flocks and children, 
and gardens and fountains. Indeed, I fear 
for you the punishment of a great day.' They 
said, ' It is the same to us whether thou warn 
or warn ut not; verily this is but a creation 
|UleJ of the anoiente, and we are not they 
who shall be punished.* So they charged 
Mm with imposture and Wo destroyed them. 
Verily in this was a sign : yet most of them 
bolievod not." 

£udaibiyah, a well on an open space on the 
verpe of the flaram or sacred territory, which 
encireles Makkah. Celebrated as the scene of 
a truce between Muhammad and tho Quraish 
known as the truce oful-IlrnhMyuk, when the 
Prophot sgreed not to outer Makkah that 
year, but to defor hi* tisit until the next, 
when they should not enter it with any wea- 
pons save those of the traveller, namely, to 

!?Sr- ft .i , ?* l,l6d 8WonL C Mttir » from &**** 
i- tYaqiai.) 

The treaty is referred to in the Qur'an as 
'! tr Ti ? tory ' , m tho ^▼Mrta Surah. 1st verse : 

We have given thee an obvious victory." A 
chapter which is said to have been revealed 
on this occasion and to have foretold the 
Anal taking of Makkah, which happened two 

yU , J * J i? <**"*>• "An argument; 

a proof.** The word ocours in the Qur'an. 

•n^Wx 4 ^ " Tum 7°** **<»* towards it 
(tiio Ka'bah) that men may have no argummit 

Digitized by 



•gainst you, savo only those of them who. are 

Surah vi 84: "These are our argument* 
which we gavo to Abraham against his 

Sarah tI. 150: "God's is the porfeot argu- 
ment (hujjatu H-baligAah), 

SEALQ ( % j^\ Je j*H V-). Inf. 

" The demonstration of troth upon the crea- 
ture." A term need by the $ufi mystics for 
the (nsanu U-kdmil, or the " perfect man," 
as Adam was when he proceeded from the hand 
of his Maker, and when he became a demon- 
stration of God's wisdom and power before 
the angels of heaven. As is stated in tho 
Quran, Sarah it. 29: " Thy Lord said I am 
about to plaoe a vicegerent (k&atifaM) in the 
earth. (*Abdn 'r-Rasxiq's Diet, of $ufl 

HXJJRAH (^). The "chamber" 
in which Muhammad died and was buried, 
which wee originally the apartment allotted 
to-'Ayishah, the Prophet's favourite wife. It 
is situated behind the Masjidu 'n-Nabi, or 
Prophet's mosque, at al-Madinah, and is an 
irregular square of fifty -five feet, separated 
from the mosque by a passage of about 
26 feet. Inside the Hujrah are supposed to 
be the three tombs of Muhammad, Abu Bakr, 
and 'TJmar, facing the south, surrounded by 
stone walls, without any aperture, or, as 
others say, by strong planking. Whatever 
this material may be, it is hung outside with 
a curtain, somewhat like a four-post bed. 
The outer railing is separated by a darker 
passage from the Inner, and is of iron filagree, 
painted green and gold. This fence, which 
connects the columns, forbids passage to all 
men. It has four gates, the Babu 1-Muwa- 
jihah (the Front Gate), the Babu Paftimah 
(the Gate of Fa*imah), the Babu 'sh-Sham 
(the Syrian Gate), and the Babu 't-Taubah 
(the Gate of Repentance). The Syrian Gate 
is the only one which is not kept closed, and 
in the passage which admits the officers in 
charge of the piece. On the southern side of 
the fenoe there are three ■mall windows 
about a foot square, which sre said to be 
about three cubits from the head of tho Pro- 
phet's tomb. Above the IJujrah is the green 
dome, surmounted by a large gilt crescent, 
npringing from a series of globes. Within 
the building are the toinbn of Muhammad, 
Abu Bakr, and 'Umar, with a space reserved 
for tho grave of our Lord Jesus Christ, whom 
Muslims say will again visit the earth, end 
die and be buried at al-Madinah. The grave 
of Patimah, the Prophet's daughter, is sup- 
posed to be in a separate part of the build- 
ing, although some say she was buried in 
Baqi<. The Prophet's body is said to be 
stretched full length on the right side, with 
the right palm supporting the right eheek, 
the faoe fronting Makkeh. Close behind him 
is placed Abu Bakr, whose face fronts Mu- 
hamtnad's shoulder, and then 'Umar, who 



occupies the same position with respect to 
his predecessor. ' Amongst Christian his- 
torians there was a popular story to the 
effect that Mohammedans believed the oofBn 
of their Prophet to be suspended in the air, 
which hss no foundation whatever in Muslim 
literature, and Niebuhr think* tho story must 
have arisen from the rude pictures sold to 
strangers. Captain Burton gives the an- 
nexed plan of the building. 










+-A — t- 

1. Muhammad. 

2. Abu Bnkr. 

3. 'Umar. 

4. The space for the tomb of Jesus 

5. Fnfcimah. 

It is related that Muhammad prayed that 
God would toot allow his followers to make 
his tomb an object of idolatrous adoration, 
and consequently the adoration paid to the 
tomb at al-Madinah has been condemned by 
the Wahhabis and other Muslim reformers. 

In A.D. 1804, when al-Madinah was taken 
by the Wahhabis, their ohiof, Sa'Qd, "tripped 
the tomb of all its valuables, and proclaimed 
that all prayers and oxclamations sddresnod 
to it were idolatrous. (Seo Burton's Pilgri- 
mage, vol it; Burckhardt's Arabia and 

The garden annexed to the tomb Is called 
or-/fau*aA, whioh is a title also given by 
some writers to tho tomb itself. 

Abu Da'ud relates that al-Qasim the grand- 
son of Abu Bakr came to 'Ayishah and said, 
"0 Mother, lift up the curtain of the Pro- 
phet's tomb and of his two* friends, Abu Bakr 
and 'TJmar, and she uncovered the graves, 
which were neither high nor low, but about 
one span in height, and were oovered with 
red gravel. (Mtihk&t, book 'v. eh. vL pt. 2.) 

JLL-HU JURAT (mA } » «, \\). 
M Chambers." The title of the xuxth 8ttrah 
of the Qar'an, in whioh the word occurs. 

HUKM (***»), pi. ahkam. " Order ; 
command ; rule ; sentence ; Judgment, of 
God, or of tho prophets, or of a ruler or 
judge." It occurs in different senses in the 
Qur'an, eg. :— 

Surah lii. 78 : " It beseemeth not a man, 
that God should give him the Scriptures and 
the Judgment and the Prophecy, nnd that 

Digitized by 





then he should say to h£s followers, ' Be ye 
worshippers of nie, at well as of God ' ; bat 
rather, ' Be ye perfect in thing* pertaining to 
God, since ye know tho Scripture* and have 
etddied deep/" 

(Both Sale and Rod well translate the word 
al-kukm t " the wisdom ," but Palmer renders 
it more correctly, " the judgment.") 

Surah aii. 40: "Judgment is God's alone: 
Ho bids you worship only Him." 

Surah xxi. 7t> : " To oach (David and Solo- 
mon) wo g&vo judgment and knowledge.* 1 

At-haJcmu 'th-Sfiar'i, " the injunction of the 
law," is a term used for a command of God, 
which relates to the life and couduct of an 
adult Muslim. (Kitabu '/-7Vri/«f, in loco.) 

HULtJL (JyW). Lit. " descend- 
ing , alighting j transmigration." A $Gfi 
term for tho indwelling light in the soul of 

Is no trace in the Qur'an or Traditions of the 
Immolation of human beings to the Deity as a 
religious rite. But M. C. de Poicival (vol. ii. 
p. 101) mentions a Ghaaaftnide prince who waa 
sacrificed to Venus by Muusjr, Ring of Hira*. 
Infanticide was common in ancient Arabia, 
but it seems to have been done either, as 
amongst the Rajputs of India, from a feeling 
of disappointment at tho birth of fomalo 
children, or to avoid the expense and 
trouble of rearing them. The latter seems 
to hate been the ordinary reason; for we 
read in the Qur'an, Surah xvii. 38: "Kill 
not your children for fear of poverty." 


al-HUMAZAH (*Wt). "The 

slanderer." The title of the uivth Surah of 
the Qur'an, so called because it commences 
with the words : " Woe unto every slanderer* 
The passage Is said to hare been revealed 
against al- Afc anas ibn Shariq, who had been 
guilty of slandering the Prophet 

HUNAIN (<***»»). The name of a 
Valley about three miles to the north-east of 
Makkah, where in the eighth year of the 
IJiJrab a battle took placo between Muham- 
mad and the Banu Hawaxin, when the Utter 
were defeated. In the Qur'an, the victory of 
IJunain is ascribed to angelic assistance. 

Surah is. 25: "Verilv God hath aaaiated 
•you in many battle-fields and on the day of 

HUNTING. Arabic faid (***); 

Heb. "p$« There are ipecial rules 

laid down n Muslim law with regard to hunt- 
ing. (Seo Hamilton's liiddyah. voL Iv. p. 17Q.) 

It is lawful to hunt with a trained dog, or a 
panther (Arabic /aAd, Peraian yiz, which is 
an animal of the lynx species, hooded and 
trained like a hawk), or a hawk, or a 

The sign of a dog being trained is his 
catching game three times without eating it. 

A. hawk is trained when she attends to the 
cull of her master. If the dog or panther 
oat any part of the game it is unlawful, but 
if u Imwk eat of it, it is lawful ; but 
ii the doi< merely em the blood and not the 
flesh, it is lawful. If a hunter take game 
alive which his dog has wounded, he must 
slay it according to tho law of £<i6A, namely, 
by cutting ita throat, with the head turned 
Makkab-wards, and reviling, •* In the name of 
the Great God I* The law is the same with 
respect to game shot by an arrow. 

If a sportsman let fly an arrow (or fire a 
gun) at game, he must ropeat the invocation, 
" In the name of the Greet God 1 " 

And theu the flonh becomes lawful if tho 
game is killed by the shot. But if only 
wounded, the animal must bo slain with the 
invocation. Game hit by an arrow which has 
not a sharp point is unlawful, and ho is that 
killed by throwing pebbles. 

Game killed by a Magisn, or an apostate, 
or n worshipper of imagaM is not lawful, 
because thoy are not allowed to perform 
labb. But that slain by a Christian or a Jew 
is lawful 

Hunting is not allowed on the pilgrimage 
nor within the limits of the sacred cities of 
Makkah and<al-Madinah. 

'Adi ibn f.Iatim (A/f </<jUf, book xviii. ch. i.) 
give* the following tradition on tho subject of 
hunting : — 

«• The Prophet said to me, • When yon send 
your dog in pursuit of game, repeat the name 
of God, as at slaying an animal ; then if your 
dog holds the game for you, and yon find it 
alivo, then slay it ; but if you find your 
dog has killed it, and not eaten of h, then eat 
it ; but if the dog has oaten any of it, do not 
vou est it, for then tho dog has kept it for 
himself. Then if yon find another dog along 
wjth yours, and the game is killed, do not 
eat of it ; for verily you oanuot know which 
of the dogs killed it-; and if the other dog 
killed it, it might so be that whoa he was let 
louse after the game, tho name of God might 
not have been repeated. And when yon 
shoot an arrow at game, repeat the name of 
• God, the same as in slaying an animal ; then 
if you lose sight of the game, and on finding 
it perceive nothing but the impression of 
your own arrow, then eat it if you wish ; but 
if you find the game drowned, do not eat of 
it, although the mark of your arrow should 
be in it.'" 

HUR (;;•»), the plural of haura. 
The women of Paradise described in the 
Qur'an, e.g. Surah lv. 66-78:— 

" Therein shall be the damsels with retiring 
glances, whom nor uiau nor djinn hath 
touched before tkem : 

" Which then of the bounties of your I*ord 
will ye twain deny? 

•• Like jacynths and pearls : 

"Which. Ac. 

" Shall the reward of good be aught but 

♦•Which, Ac. 

Digitized by 



"And beside these shall be two other 


"Of a dark green: 

"Which, Ac. 

" With gashing fountains in each : 

M Which, Ac. 

11 In each fruits and the palm and the 

" Which, Ac. 

" In each, the fair, the beauteous ones i 

"Which, Ac 

M With large dark eyeballs, kept olose In 
their pavilions : 

M Which, Ac 

** Whom man hath neyer touched, nor any 

•• Which, Ac. 

" Their spou99$ on soft green cushions and 
on beautiful carpets shall recline : 

" Which, Ac. 

« Blessed be the name of thy Lord, foil of 
majesty and glory." 

▲L-tjUSAIN (<£t~*tt). The second 
son of Faftimah, the daughter of Mnhammad, 
by her husband «AH, the fourth J&allfah. 
A brother to al-Qasan, the fifth KfcaUfah. 
According to the 8hi'ehs, he was the third 
KhaHfah. He was born A.& 4, and died at 
Karbala A.B. 61, being .cruelly slain in his 
conflict with Taiid, the seventh g^aHfeh, 
according to the Sunnis. 

Thejn ariyrdom of al-Husain is celebrated 
by |hc ShPahs every year during the first ten 
days of the Mu^arram [snmaamAM]; an 
account of his tragic death is therefore 
necessary for understanding the intensity of 
feeling with which the scenes and incidents 
of the last days of the." Imam Qusain" are 
enacted in the " Miracle Play " a translation 
of which has been given in fcnglish by Sir 
Lewis Polly. The following account Is 
taken from the Preface to this work, p. xi 

''Shortly after the aocession of Yesid 
(Yesid), Qfasam received at Mecca secret 
i from the people of Oufa (al-Kttfah), 



i (al-B*srah),who by his rapid- measures 
ncerted the plans of the conspirators, and 

entreating him to place himself at the head 
of the army of the faithful in Babylonia. 
Yesid, however, had full intimation of the 
intended revolt, and long before tyusaln could' 
reach Oufa, the too easy governor of that 
city had been replaced by Obaidallah (•Ubai- 
du Hah Ibn Ziyld), the resolute ru>r of Bus- 
sorah ' " "V 

drove them to a 'premature outbreak, and the 
surrender of their leader Muslim. The Utter 
foresaw the ruin whieh he had brought on 
QussJn, and shed bitter tears on that account 
when captured. His head was struck off and 
sent to Yesid. On gnsain arriving at the 
oonftnes of Babylonia, he was met bv Harro 
al-Jjfarr), who had been sent out by Obaldal- 
ah with a body of horsemen to intercept 
bis approach. $usaln, addressing them, as- 
serted his title to the Oalifate, and incited 
them to submit to him. Harro replied, • We 
are commanded as soon as, we meet you to 


bring you directly to Oufa into the _ 
of ObaidsUah, the son of ZiyabV " Husain 
answered, * I would sooner die than submit 
to that,' and g*ve the word to his men to 
ride on ; but Harro wheeled about and inter- 
cepted them. At the same time, Harro said, 
* I have no commission to flght with you, but 
I am commanded not to part with you until 
I hare conducted you into Oufa'; but he 
bade Qnsain to choose any road into that 
city * that did not ffo directly back to Mecca,' 
and Mo, you,' said he, 'write to Yesid or 
Obaidallah, and I will write to Obaidallah, 
and poihape it may please God I may meet 
with something that may bring me off with- 
out my being f oroed to an extremity on vour 
account.' Then he retreated his force a fittle 
.to allow Qusain to lead the way towards ' 
Oufa, and husain took the road that leads by 
Adib and Oadisia. This was on Thursday 
the 1st of Mohurrum (Mn^arram), ▲.■. 61 
(jlD. 680). When night came on, he still eon* 
tinned his maroh all through the night. As 
he rode on he nodded a little, and waking 
again, said, •Men travel by night, and the 
destinies travel toward them; this I know 
to be a message of death.' 

" In the morning, after prayers were ever, 
he mended his pace, and as he rode on there 
came up a horseman, who took no notice of 
him, but saluted Harro, and delivered te 
him a letter, giving orders from Obaidal- 
lah to lead Efusain and his men into a place 
where was neither 'own nor fortifications, 
and there leave them till the Syrian forces 
should surround them. 

" This was en Friday the 2nd of Mohurrum. 
The day after, Amer («Umar ibn 8a<fd) came 
upon them with four thousand men, w